Reinforcement - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Reinforcement PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 761c77-ZDVmN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Reinforcement

Description:

Reinforcement Consequences that strengthen responses Timing Reinforcement should be immediate to have the greatest effect Delayed reinforcement slows the process of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:35
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 16
Provided by: nscsd
Learn more at: http://www.nscsd.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Reinforcement


1
Reinforcement
  • Consequences that strengthen responses

2
Timing
  • Reinforcement should be immediate to have the
    greatest effect
  • Delayed reinforcement slows the process of
    conditioning

3
Primary vs. Secondary
  • Primary reinforcers are events that are
    inherently reinforcing because they satisfy
    biological needs
  • Examples?
  • Secondary or conditioned reinforcers are events
    that become reinforcing because they are
    associated with primary reinforcers. They are
    also called conditioned reinforcers.
  • Examples?

4
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • In real life, organisms (people and animals) are
    seldom reinforced for every correct response
    continuous reinforcement. Rather, reinforcement
    is usually intermittent or partial.

5
types of schedules
  • ratio based schedule of reinforcement the
    organism is reinforced based on the number of
    responses it makes
  • interval based schedule of reinforcement the
    organism is reinforced based on the amount of
    time that has passed.

6
Fixed vs Variable
  • Either type of schedule (ratio or interval) can
    be described as fixed or as variable.
  • In a fixed schedule, the number of responses
    (ratio) or the amount of time passed (interval)
    between reinforcement remains constant.
  • In a variable schedule, the number of responses
    (ratio) or the amount of time passed (interval)
    between reinforcement changes or varies.

7
Practice time!
  • Now I am going to divide you into groups and ask
    you to generate a list of real life
    reinforcements that occur on one of the four
    types of schedules
  • Fixed ratio
  • Variable ratio
  • Fixed interval
  • Variable interval

8
Concurrent schedules of reinforcement
  • In real life organisms have to choose between
    responses that involve different reinforcement
    schedules
  • Ex. On a given night to I spend my time grading
    papers, or doing laundry, or going to the movies?

9
  • Matching law under concurrent schedules of
    reinforcement, organisms relative rate of
    responding to each alternative tends to match
    each alternatives relative rate of reinforcement
  • If the size of the reinforcement is changed, the
    organism will adjust its responding to match that
    change

10
  • Optimal foraging theory the food-seeking
    behaviors of many animals maximize the nutrition
    gained in relation to the energy expended to
    locate, secure and consume various foods.

11
Escape learning
  • Escape learning involves an organism acquiring a
    response that decreases or ends some unpleasant
    stimulation (negative reinforcement)

12
Avoidance learning
  • In avoidance learning the organism acquires a
    response that keeps the aversive stimulation from
    happening
  • But. Shouldnt the response eventually become
    extinct because the aversive stimulus is never
    deliveredthe reinforcement doesnt really happen

13
Two-process theory of avoidance

14
(No Transcript)
15
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com