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History of Anatomy

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History of Anatomy Early Greeks Greeks ... Against church doctrine to dissect a human. Claudius Galen (120 to 200) Roman physician, ... medical schools began to open. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Anatomy


1
History of Anatomy
2
Early Greeks
  • Greeks explained illness in terms of the 4 body
    humors (fluids).
  • Thought the humors were governed by air, water,
    fire, and earth
  • Healthy person had all four humors in balance.

3
  • Bloodletting was a way of getting rid of excess
    humors.

4
  • Physicians had to know the proper prayers and
    charms wherewith to approach "Apollo the Healer,"
    who would tell them what kind of herb poultice to
    put on a wound.

5
  • Many doctors practiced by trial and error. If
    they made a lot of errors, people quit going to
    them.
  • Socles, a physician, treated a hunchback by
    piling three solid stones, each four feet square,
    on his spine. He was crushed and died, but he
    became straighter.

6
Hippocrates (460 to 379 BC)
  • Early Greek physician
  • Believed that illness had a physical cause
  • Rejected superstitions
  • Based medical treatments on observations

7
Role of Religion
  • Many religions influenced the study of the body.
  • Against church doctrine to dissect a human.

8
Claudius Galen (120 to 200)
  • Roman physician, team doctor for the
    gladiators.
  • Kept them alive so they could fight again.

9
  • Did not dissect humans, but did extensive work on
    pigs and monkeys.
  • His mistake was to assume that humans and animals
    were identical internally.
  • His writings were taken as law for hundred of
    years.

10
Early anatomical drawing based on misinformation.
11
Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 to 1519)
  • Artists in Renaissance period interested in human
    form, so studied anatomy.
  • Da Vinci made hundreds of anatomically correct
    drawings.
  • He dissected bodies in secret.

12
Andreas Vesalius (1514 to 1564)
  • Barber surgeon (combination barber, dentist,
    doctor).
  • Got special permission from the Pope to dissect
    criminals.
  • First scientist to understand human anatomy.
  • Wrote the first accurate book on human anatomy
    Fabrica.

13
Shortage of cadavers
  • In England and Scotland, medical schools began to
    open.
  • No one donated bodies to science churchgoers
    believed in literal rising from grave, so
    dissection spoiled chances of resurrection.
  • Became a tradition to rely on executed prisoners,
    even up to 18th and 19th centuries.

14
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15
Serious Crimes
  • The added punishment of being dissected after
    death was considered another deterrent from
    crime.
  • Ex. Steal a pig you were hung
  • Kill a person you were hung and
    dissected
  • Anatomists were often associated with
    executioners.

16
  • Because they needed body parts, anatomists at
    medical school bought odd things.
  • A man could sell the leg of his son if it had to
    be amputated

17
William Harvey (English) Circa 1590
  • Father of Anatomy studied circulatory system
  • Harvey dissected his own freshly dead family
    members (his father and sister) before burial.

18
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19
Grave Robbing
  • Some medical students raided grave yards some
    professors did also.
  • In certain Scottish schools in 1700s, you could
    trade a corpse for your tuition.

20
Resurrectionists
  • By 1828 in London, body snatchers (or
    resurrectionists) provided the medical schools
    with corpses.
  • Not a crime a dead body could not be owned or
    stolen.
  • (Anatomy studies were only conducted from October
    to May to avoid stench of decomposition.)

21
  • Wealthy people chose to be buried in iron cages,
    some covered in concrete. Also churches built
    dead houses which were locked and guarded.

22
William Burke and William Hare Circa 1828
  • 2 resurrectionists
  • Hare owned a boarding house he occasionally
    killed a border who was late on rent. (Killed 15
    of them)
  • Did it by pressing pillow to mans face while
    Burke lay his body weight on top of victim.
    Became known as Burking.
  • Bones made into skeletons for medical school.
    Skin used to make wallets.

23
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24
  • Anatomy Act of 1832 bodies of poor who were not
    claimed for burial could be used by anatomists.
  • Operated under this same concept until recently.
  • Donations are on the rise.
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