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Introduction to work with children and young people


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Title: Introduction to work with children and young people

Put your logo here
  • Introduction to work with children and young
  • By the end of the training you should be able to
  • Recognise how your role supports children and
    young people
  • Understand how your organisation fits into the
    Every Child Matters framework
  • Know what your legal responsibilities are in
    relation to keeping children and young people
  • Describe the actions you need to take if you have
    concerns about a child or young person
  • Suggest some ways of including and promoting
    positive outcomes for the children and young
    people with whom you work

To make the session go well.
  • Keep to time
  • Listen to others
  • Be constructive
  • Switch phones off
  • or set them to silent
  • Enjoy
  • Take care of yourself

Put your logo here
  • Introduction to work with children and young
  • Every Child Matters

Every Child Matters
The support and protection of children cannot be
achieved by a single agency. Every service has
to play its part. All staff must have placed upon
them the clear expectation that their primary
responsibility is to the child and his or her
family. Lord Laming in the Victoria Climbié
Inquiry Report, January 2003.
Every Child Matters - 5 outcomes
The ambition is to improve these outcomes for all
children and young people and to narrow the gap
between those who do well and those who do not.

Be Healthy
Stay Safe
Enjoy and achieve
Make a positive contribution
Achieve economic well-being
Integrated Working - Processes and tools
Legislation, policies and initiatives
  • For more information go to
  • The Every Child Matters website
  • The Childrens Workforce Development Council

Put your logo here
  • Introduction to work with children and young
  • Safeguarding and protecting children and young

Safeguarding a legal definition (Children Acts
1989 and 2004)
  • Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of
    children means
  • Protecting children from maltreatment
  • Preventing impairment of childrens health or
  • Ensuring that children are growing up in
    circumstances consistent with the provision of
    safe and effective care and
  • Undertaking that role so as to enable those
    children to have optimum life chances and to
    enter adulthood successfully

Safeguarding - a continuum.......................
  • Preventative work
  • Proactively seeking to involve the whole
    community in keeping children safe and promoting
    their welfare.

Child protection Protecting individual children
identified as either suffering or at risk of
suffering significant harm as a result of abuse
or neglect.
CAF common assessment framework for early
Initial assessment (social care) Child in need -
not at risk of significant harm but intervention
is needed
Core assessment (social care) where initial
assessment suggests there is risk of imminent harm
  • Do the quiz in teams
  • You are playing for prizes!

Definition of bullying
  • Behaviour by an individual or group, usually
    repeated over time, that intentionally hurts
    another individual or group either physically or
  • (DCSF 2007)
  • Key issues
  • Cyber bullying the use of information and
    communication to deliberately hurt or upset
    someone or get them into trouble
  • Prejudice-driven bullying bullying that is
    motivated by racism, disablism, sex/gender or

Bullying schools duties
  • Duty of care preventing foreseeable harm
  • Duty to have an anti-bullying policy, stating how
    you will work to prevent and respond to bullying.
    This should include reference to cyber bullying,
    prejudice-driven bullying, bullying outside
    school and bullying of staff
  • Duty to promote equality and tackle prejudice
    driven bullying
  • Duty to safeguard and protect children, including
    from bullying
  • Duty to promote community cohesion
  • Duty to support children in achieving the ECM

Bullying schools powers
  • Power to regulate behaviour off school site to
    such an extent as is reasonable
  • Power to search and confiscate mobile phones
  • The option to use these powers must be written
    into their anti-bullying policy

If it is felt that a concern about bullying is
not handled appropriately, the schools complaint
process should be followed
Supporting a child being bullied
  • Listen to them and try not to judge any actions
    they have taken/not taken so far. They have done
    the best they could. Provide emotional support.
  • Discuss next steps what do they want to happen?
    Follow them if you can.
  • Agree when/how to review
  • Contact the police about suspicion of illegal
    content (cyber bullying)
  • Involve schools/parents/carers/other
    support/agencies as required

Responding to bullying
help build resilience and problem solving skills
Responding to bullying
Examples of possible actions
  • Things that they can do
  • Running away
  • Making a lot of noise
  • Ignoring
  • Fogging
  • Blocking (texts, websites etc)
  • Fighting back
  • Staying with groups
  • Asking friends for support
  • Things that adults can do
  • Direct action challenging
  • those who are bullying
  • Indirect action
  • assemblies, group work
  • Give help to identify and
  • access other sources of
  • support

Children who bully
  • Talk with them about what they have done and help
    them to think about why they have done it
  • Make it clear that bullying is not acceptable
  • Try to identify other issues in their lives which
    may be affecting their behaviour
  • Work with the school to help develop positive
  • Talk with the school about other help and support
    they may need

Forms of abuse and effects of abuse
  • Forms of abuse include
  • Physical abuse
  • Sexual abuse
  • Emotional abuse
  • Neglect
  • Faltering growth
  • Domestic abuse
  • Institutional abuse
  • Bullying and harassment
  • Self-harming
  • Abuse via the internet
  • Sexual exploitation
  • Abuse is likely to have a deep and long lasting
    impact on
  • Self-image
  • Self-esteem
  • Health
  • Development
  • Well-being

Signs of abuse activity
  • In your groups, list the signs you might see in a
    child or young person affected by the issue/s you
    have been given
  • List your thoughts onto flipchart and be ready to
    feedback to the whole group

Signs of abuse
  • The following non-specific signs may indicate
    something is wrong
  • Sudden withdrawal from others
  • Suspicious bruises
  • Fear of strangers
  • Extreme anger or sadness
  • Aggressive and attention-seeking behaviour
  • Lack of self-esteem
  • Self-injury
  • Depression
  • Age inappropriate sexual behaviour

All workers should
  • Consider safety and well-being issues in all
    aspects of their work
  • Know who to speak to if they have any concerns or
    questions about a childs or young persons
    safety or well-being
  • Be willing to work with others, where necessary,
    to make sure children and young people are safe
    and their well-being is promoted. Where
    appropriate, this will involve sharing
  • Remember that an allegation of child abuse or
    neglect may lead to a criminal investigation,
    dont do anything that might put a police
    investigation at risk (e.g. asking a child
    leading questions or attempting to investigate
    the allegations of abuse)
  • Record in writing all concerns, discussions about
    the child, decisions made, and the reasons for
    those decisions.

If you have concerns about a child..
  • Discuss concerns with your manager or designated
    member of staff. Make a record of this and any
    decision made
  • In most cases, try to talk with the child or
    young person, as appropriate to their age and
    understanding, and with their parents, and seek
    their agreement to making a referral, unless such
    a discussion would place the child at an
    increased risk of significant harm.
  • If appropriate, make a referral using agreed
    local procedures.

If a child or young person discloses abuse
  • React calmly
  • Reassure them that they were right to tell and
    that they are not to blame - take what they say
  • Check your understanding but keep questions to a
    minimum. Dont try to investigate or ask about
    explicit details
  • Reassure them but do not promise confidentiality
  • Tell them what you will do next
  • Make a full and written record of what has been
    said/heard as soon as possible and dont delay in
    passing on the information to the named person
    and/or your line manager.

Safeguarding legislation and national guidance
  • Children Act 2004 and 1989
  • Children Act 1989
  • Education Act 2002
  • Working together to safeguard children (2006)
  • What to do if youre worried a child is being
    abused (2006)
  • Safeguarding children in education (2004)
  • The childrens plan (2007)
  • The staying safe action plan (2007)
  • For more information go to
  • The Every Child Matters website
  • The Childrens Workforce Development Council

Put your logo here
  • Introduction to work with children and young
  • Health and Safety

Health and safety legislation and policy
  • Legislation
  • Health and Safety at Work Act 1974
  • The Management of Health and Safety at work
    regulations 1999
  • Policy
  • The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) enforces
    health and safety legislation.
  • Work environments individual health and safety

Both employers and employees have
responsibilities regarding health and safety
  • Employers must
  • Have regard for all relevant legislation and
  • Have a health and safety policy relevant to their
  • Undertake and act upon risk assessments
  • Support their staff in understanding and
    implementing legislation and policy
  • Employees must
  • Take reasonable care of their own and others
    health and safety
  • Co-operate with their employers
  • Carry out activities in line with training and
  • Inform the employer of any serious risks.

Guidance on premises, policies and procedures
  • General guidance on premises
  • Organised in a way that meets the needs of
  • Adequate space
  • Access suitable for those with disabilities
  • Insured
  • Clean
  • Adequately ventilated
  • At a suitable temperature
  • Well lit, preferable with daylight
  • Practitioners need to be able to
  • Identify security measures
  • Promote fire safety
  • Work safely when visiting other places

Personal safety and security key issues
  • Practitioners should think about and work with
    their managers to
  • Identify risks to their personal safety
  • Assess the risks involved in situations involving
    conflict or challenge
  • Identify ways of working that minimise dangers
  • Identify what action need to be taken to stay

Risk assessments
  • Need to be carried out in relation to places and
    activities (and sometimes people)
  • Dynamic risk assessment carried out at the time
    e.g. during an activity
  • Complete if there is genuine risk
  • Keep it fit for purpose
  • Act on it

Conducting a risk assessment
Guidance on safe working practices
  • Documents giving guidance on safe practices when
    working with children and young people include

  • In your groups, list the particular health and
    safety issues you think we need to consider in
    our work with the following age groups
  • 5 11
  • 11 14
  • 15 19

Cycles of Development An Overview
Developmental Stage Examples of key tasks
Being (0-6mths) To call for care To learn to trust caring adults
Doing (6mths-18mths) To use all senses to explore To get help in times of distress
Thinking (18mths-3yrs) To push against boundaries and other people To express anger and other feelings
Identity Power (3-6yrs) To acquire info about the world, self, body and gender role To learn extent of personal power
Skills Structure (6-12yrs) To practice thinking and doing To develop the capacity to cooperate
Integration (Adolescence) To emerge as a separate independent person with own identity and values To be competent and responsible for own needs, feelings and behaviours
Put your logo here
  • Introduction to work with children and young
  • Equality and diversity

Equality and diversity
Equality does not mean everyone has to be treated
the same
Equality is the chance to take part on an equal
All practitioners have a part to play in
supporting people to live in the way they value
and choose, to be themselves and to be different
if they wish
Diversity is about the differences in values,
attitudes, cultural perspective, beliefs, skills,
knowledge and life experience of each individual
in any group of people.
Relevant legislation
  • The Disability Discrimination Act 2005
  • The Special Educational Needs and Disability Act
  • The Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN, 1989)
  • The Human Rights Act 1998
  • The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (as amended)
  • The Equality Act (2006)
  • Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation)
    Regulations 2003

  • We have made progress but....
  • Women still earn, on average, 22.6 less per hour
    than men
  • Less academically able, but better off children,
    overtake more able, poorer children at school by
    the age of six
  • Disabled people are still more than twice as
    likely to be out of work than non-disabled people
  • If you are from an ethnic minority, you are 13
    less likely to find work than a white person
  • One in five older people are unsuccessful in
    getting quotes for motor insurance, travel
    insurance and car hire
  • 6 out of 10 lesbian and gay young people
    experience homophobic bullying at school and many
    contemplate suicide

  • Single Equalities Bill
  • Race
  • Gender
  • Disability
  • Sexual orientation
  • Age
  • Religion and belief
  • What you need to know......
  • Duty to promote equality
  • Direct and indirect discrimination are illegal
  • Includes by association or perception

Models of disability 1 the medical model
  • The person is in a tragic situation
  • Disability is part of the individual - belonging
    to her/him
  • The disabled person's decision-making functions
    are inevitably impaired
  • Successful rehabilitation is the number of tasks
    that can be done without help, rather than the
    number of tasks which can be organised and
    directed with help

Disability centred
Models of disability 2 the social model
  • Disability is not part of the individual - it is
    a result of society's structures and organisation
  • The disabled person can make her/his decisions,
    or can be supported in her/his own
    decision-making process
  • Independence is seen as the ability to organise
    and direct support to accomplish tasks
  • Society can change to be more accommodating

Person centred
Person-centred practice
  • Person-centred practice
  • Is holistic
  • Focuses on their priorities, desires, needs,
    wishes, rights, choices and decisions
  • Focuses on strengths and capabilities and using
    these to meet needs
  • Is empowering and competency-enhancing
  • Gives choice and the right to make decisions
  • Involves a partnership approach to working,
  • active participation
  • power sharing
  • agreeing aims
  • mutual trust
  • respect
  • Requires clear, open, honest, communication,
  • Is respectful and sensitive to family, cultural,
    ethnic and socio-economic diversity

  • In your groups, discuss the statements you have
    been given and decide whether you agree or
    disagree with them.
  • Place them on the paper in the appropriate
    place, 0 being disagree, 5 being agree.

Prejudice and discrimination
Prejudice - unfavourable opinion or feeling
formed beforehand without knowledge, thought or
reason. It involves feelings or attitudes
(positive or negative) towards individuals or
groups based on prior assumptions.
leads to
Discrimination - - treating a person less
favourably than others in the same or similar
Anti-discriminatory practice
  • Fundamental - examination of ones own values,
    beliefs, attitudes and expectations, updating,
    challenging and changing them when necessary
  • Proactive efforts to give all children and young
    people equality of opportunity at all times.
  • Knowledge of-
  • equal opportunities legislation, responsibilities
    under that legislation and putting them into
  • organisations equal opportunities policy and
    codes of practice and practitioner
  • Use of language and resources in the work setting
    which promote equal opportunities
  • Respect for all people

  • Focus upon ensuring that everyone has opportunity
    to be engaged and involved in mainstream
    community life whether it be education,
    employment or community involvement
  • Putting values concerned with equity,
    participation, respect for diversity, community,
    rights, compassion, and sustainability into
  • Valuing all equally and enabling participation

Put your logo here
  • Introduction to work with children and young
  • Understanding behaviour

The behaviour iceberg
Building resilience Grotberg (1995)
  • I have
  • Trusting relationships
  • Structure and rules at home
  • Role models
  • Encouragement to be autonomous
  • Access to health, education, welfare, and
    security services
  • .
  • I am
  • Lovable and my temperament is appealing
  • Loving, empathic, and altruistic
  • Proud of myself
  • Autonomous and responsible
  • I can
  • Communicate
  • Problem solve
  • Manage my feelings and impulses
  • Gauge the temperament of myself and others
  • Seek trusting relationships

Building resilience Henderson and Milstein (2003)
Working to change challenging behaviour
  • Storyboarding
  • Miracle question
  • Exploring consequences
  • Cost/benefit analysis
  • Self monitoring
  • Modelling
  • Celebrating success

Putting it into practice...
  • In your groups, discuss the scenario you have
    been given. Thinking about what you have learned
    today, answer the following questions
  • What would you do immediately?
  • What would you do in the longer term?
  • Who else might need to be involved?
  • Write your thoughts onto flipchart and be ready
    to feedback to the group