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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From Myers, Psychology 8e Worth Publishers Chapter 15: Personality 1. A psychotherapist instructs David to relax ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.


1
Step Up To Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • From Myers,
  • Psychology 8e
  • Worth Publishers

2
Chapter 15 Personality
Whats your sign?
I Think I Can
Culture Shapes
Analyze This!
So, who are you?
3
Analyze This!
500
400
300
200
100
4
I think I can.
500
400
300
200
100
5
Whats your sign?
500
400
300
200
100
6
Culture Shapes
500
400
300
200
100
7
So, who are you?
500
400
300
200
100
8
1. A psychotherapist instructs David to relax,
close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts
come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd.
The therapist is using a technique known as
  • A) fixation.
  • B) free association.
  • C) reaction formation.
  • D) projection.

9
2. According to psychoanalytic theory, the part
of the personality that strives for immediate
gratification of basic drives is the
  • A) id.
  • B) ego.
  • C) superego.
  • D) collective unconscious.

10
3. Mrs. Hall was asked by her psychotherapist to
look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a
story about each. She was likely taking the
  • A) TAT.
  • B) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
  • C) MMPI-2.
  • D) Rorschach test.

11
4. Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the
influence of the collective unconscious in
personality development?
  • A) Adler
  • B) Horney
  • C) Jung
  • D) Maslow

12
5. Parents who disguise hostility toward their
children by becoming overly protective of them
are very likely using the defense mechanism of
  • A) projection.
  • B) regression.
  • C) rationalization.
  • D) reaction formation.

13
6. Carl Rogers suggested that the ____ is a
central feature of personality.
  • A) collective unconscious.
  • B) self-concept.
  • C) inferiority complex.
  • D) Oedipus complex.

14
7. The humanistic perspective emphasized the
importance of
  • A) free association.
  • B) self-determination.
  • C) personality inventories.
  • D) projective tests.

15
8. Humanistic theorists have been criticized for
  • A) overestimating the impact of childhood
    experiences on adult personality.
  • B) underestimating the inconsistency of behavior
    from one situation to another.
  • C) overestimating the degree of similarity among
    people.
  • D) underestimating the inherent human capacity
    for destructive and evil behaviors.

16
9. Self-actualized people, as described by
Maslow, are least likely to be highly
  • A) compassionate.
  • B) religious.
  • C) conforming.
  • D) self-accepting.

17
10. In order to assess a clients personal
growth, Carl Rogers measured the correspondence
between _____ and _____.
  • A) locus of control self-actualization
  • B) ideal self actual self
  • C) the clients values the therapists values
  • D) self-esteem locus of control

18
11. Characteristic patterns of behavior and
motivation are called
  • A) aptitudes.
  • B) fixations.
  • C) projections.
  • D) traits.

19
12. Trait theorists are more concerned with ____
personality and ____ it.
  • A) predicting assessing
  • B) describing explaining
  • C) changing analyzing
  • D) interpreting observing

20
13. Personality inventories typically gather
information by means of
  • A) projection.
  • B) factor analysis.
  • C) free association.
  • D) self-reports.

21
14. Sasha believes that the questions on college
tests are so unrelated to course work that
studying is useless. Sashas belief most clearly
illustrates
  • A) reciprocal determinism.
  • B) reaction formation.
  • C) an external locus of control.
  • D) displacement.

22
15. Which of the following Big Five trait
dimensions is most closely related to ones level
of creativity?
  • A) extraversion
  • B) emotional stability
  • C) openness
  • D) agreeableness

23
16. Which perspective on human personality
emphasizes reciprocal determinism?
  • A) social-cognitive
  • B) psychoanalytic
  • C) trait
  • D) humanistic

24
17. The perception that one can strongly
influence the outcome and destiny of ones own
life exemplifies
  • A) the reality principle.
  • B) the spotlight effect.
  • C) the pleasure principle.
  • D) an internal locus of control.

25
18. Martin Seligman advocates a positive
psychology, which focuses on topics such as
  • A) projection.
  • B) the Barnum effect.
  • C) external locus of control.
  • D) optimism.

26
19. According to Jennifer Crocker and Brenda
Major (1989), members of stigmatized groups
maintain their self-esteem by
  • A) valuing the things at which they excel.
  • B) attributing problems to prejudice.
  • C) comparing themselves to those in their own
    group.
  • D) all of the above.

27
20. Jody failed her last history midterm. Which
of the following conclusions would be most
representative of a self-serving bias on Jodys
part?
  • A) I really didnt prepare well enough for that
    test.
  • B) I think the test questions were ambiguous and
    confusing.
  • C) I lack ability in history.
  • D) I wasnt concentrating very hard during the
    test.

28
21. Dogs strapped into a harness and given
repeated and unavoidable shocks develop
  • A) a fixation.
  • B) a reaction formation.
  • C) learned helplessness.
  • D) unrealistic optimism.

29
22. Linda was impressed by the palm readers
insight into her personality. This
illustrates
  • A) unconditional positive regard.
  • B) reciprocal determinism.
  • C) attributional style.
  • D) the Barnum effect.

30
23. Randys substandard academic performance is
both a result and a cause of his feelings of
academic inferiority. This best illustrates the
importance of
  • A) reciprocal determinism.
  • B) the Barnum effect.
  • C) reaction formation.
  • D) self-serving bias.

31
24. The factor of the Big Five that measures
emotional stability vs. instability is
  • A) Agreeableness.
  • B) Neuroticism.
  • C) Openness.
  • D) Extraversion.

32
25. Trait theorists have been criticized for
  • A) underestimating the potential influence of
    biological factors.
  • B) underestimating the extent to which people
    differ from one another.
  • C) overestimating the consistency of behavior
    from one situation to another.
  • D) overestimating the importance of childhood
    experiences on adult personality traits.

33
Congratulations!
34
Answers
Stop here, or continue as a review
35
1. A psychotherapist instructs David to relax,
close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts
come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd.
The therapist is using a technique known as
  • A) fixation.
  • B) free association.
  • C) reaction formation.
  • D) projection.

597
36
2. According to psychoanalytic theory, the part
of the personality that strives for immediate
gratification of basic drives is the
  • A) id.
  • B) ego.
  • C) superego.
  • D) collective unconscious.

598
37
3. Mrs. Hall was asked by her psychotherapist to
look at some ambiguous pictures and make up a
story about each. She was likely taking the
  • A) TAT.
  • B) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
  • C) MMPI-2.
  • D) Rorschach test.

602
38
4. Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the
influence of the collective unconscious in
personality development?
  • A) Adler
  • B) Horney
  • C) Jung
  • D) Maslow

601
39
5. Parents who disguise hostility toward their
children by becoming overly protective of them
are very likely using the defense mechanism of
  • A) projection.
  • B) regression.
  • C) rationalization.
  • D) reaction formation.

600
40
6. Carl Rogers suggested that the ____ is a
central feature of personality.
  • A) collective unconscious.
  • B) self-concept.
  • C) inferiority complex.
  • D) Oedipus complex.

610
41
7. The humanistic perspective emphasized the
importance of
  • A) free association.
  • B) self-determination.
  • C) personality inventories.
  • D) projective tests.

609
42
8. Humanistic theorists have been criticized for
  • A) overestimating the impact of childhood
    experiences on adult personality.
  • B) underestimating the inconsistency of behavior
    from one situation to another.
  • C) overestimating the degree of similarity among
    people.
  • D) underestimating the inherent human capacity
    for destructive and evil behaviors.

612
43
9. Self-actualized people, as described by
Maslow, are least likely to be highly
  • A) compassionate.
  • B) religious.
  • C) conforming.
  • D) self-accepting.

610
44
10. In order to assess a clients personal
growth, Carl Rogers measured the correspondence
between _____ and _____.
  • A) locus of control self-actualization
  • B) ideal self actual self
  • C) the clients values the therapists values
  • D) self-esteem locus of control

610
45
11. Characteristic patterns of behavior and
motivation are called
  • A) aptitudes.
  • B) fixations.
  • C) projections.
  • D) traits.

613
46
12. Trait theorists are more concerned with ____
personality and ____ it.
  • A) predicting assessing
  • B) describing explaining
  • C) changing analyzing
  • D) interpreting observing

613
47
13. Personality inventories typically gather
information by means of
  • A) projection.
  • B) factor analysis.
  • C) free association.
  • D) self-reports.

615
48
14. Sasha believes that the questions on college
tests are so unrelated to course work that
studying is useless. Sashas belief most clearly
illustrates
  • A) reciprocal determinism.
  • B) reaction formation.
  • C) an external locus of control.
  • D) displacement.

625
49
15. Which of the following Big Five trait
dimensions is most closely related to ones level
of creativity?
  • A) extraversion
  • B) emotional stability
  • C) openness
  • D) agreeableness

618
50
16. Which perspective on human personality
emphasizes reciprocal determinism?
  • A) social-cognitive
  • B) psychoanalytic
  • C) trait
  • D) humanistic

623
51
17. The perception that one can strongly
influence the outcome and destiny of ones own
life exemplifies
  • A) the reality principle.
  • B) the spotlight effect.
  • C) the pleasure principle.
  • D) an internal locus of control.

625
52
18. Martin Seligman advocates a positive
psychology, which focuses on topics such as
  • A) projection.
  • B) the Barnum effect.
  • C) external locus of control.
  • D) optimism.

627
53
19. According to Jennifer Crocker and Brenda
Major (1989), members of stigmatized groups
maintain their self-esteem by
  • A) valuing the things at which they excel.
  • B) attributing problems to prejudice.
  • C) comparing themselves to those in their own
    group.
  • D) all of the above.

633
54
20. Jody failed her last history midterm. Which
of the following conclusions would be most
representative of a self-serving bias on Jodys
part?
  • A) I really didnt prepare well enough for that
    test.
  • B) I think the test questions were ambiguous and
    confusing.
  • C) I lack ability in history.
  • D) I wasnt concentrating very hard during the
    test.

634
55
21. Dogs strapped into a harness and given
repeated and unavoidable shocks develop
  • A) a fixation.
  • B) a reaction formation.
  • C) learned helplessness.
  • D) unrealistic optimism.

625
56
22. Linda was impressed by the palm readers
insight into her personality. This
illustrates
  • A) unconditional positive regard.
  • B) reciprocal determinism.
  • C) attributional style.
  • D) the Barnum effect.

616
57
23. Randys substandard academic performance is
both a result and a cause of his feelings of
academic inferiority. This best illustrates the
importance of
  • A) reciprocal determinism.
  • B) the Barnum effect.
  • C) reaction formation.
  • D) self-serving bias.

623
58
24. The factor of the Big Five that measures
emotional stability vs. instability is
  • A) Agreeableness.
  • B) Neuroticism.
  • C) Openness.
  • D) Extraversion.

618
59
25. Trait theorists have been criticized for
  • A) underestimating the potential influence of
    biological factors.
  • B) underestimating the extent to which people
    differ from one another.
  • C) overestimating the consistency of behavior
    from one situation to another.
  • D) overestimating the importance of childhood
    experiences on adult personality traits.

620
60
Acknowledgements
  • Step Up Created by
  • John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Based on Psychology, Eighth Edition by
  • David Myers
  • Published by
  • Worth Publishers, 2006

61
Answers
1. B
2. A
3. A
4. C
5. D
6. B
7. B
8. D
9. C
10. B
11. D
12. B
13. D
14. C
15. C
16. A
17. D
18. D
19. D
20. B
21. C
22. D
23. A
24. B
25. C
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