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Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Richard Clements Last modified by: Brian Kaestner Created Date: 6/13/2001 1:21:45 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach


1
Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity The
Ecosystem Approach
Brian Kaestner Saint Marys Hall
Thanks to Miller and Clements
2
Land Use in the World
3
Land Use in the United States
4
(No Transcript)
5
Types of US Public Lands
  • Multiple-use lands National Forests National
    Resource Lands
  • Moderately-restricted use lands National
    Wildlife Refuges
  • Restricted-use lands National Park System
    National Wilderness Preservation System

6
US Public Lands
7
Moderate mineral deposits
Rich mineral deposits
Federal land
8
National Forests
9
Moderate mineral deposits
Rich mineral deposits
Federal land
10
NPS in Texas
11
Managing and Sustaining Forests
Ecological Importance of Forests
  • Food webs and energy flow
  • Water regulation
  • Local and regional climate
  • Numerous habitats and niches
  • Air purification

12
Managing and Sustaining Forests
Economic Importance of Forests
  • Fuelwood (50 of global forest use)
  • Industrial timber and lumber
  • Pulp and paper
  • Medicines
  • Mineral extraction and recreation

13
Types of Forests
  • Old-growth (frontier) forests
  • Second-growth forests
  • Tree farms/plantation

Fig. 23.13b, p. 600
14
Logging Roads
  • Increased erosion and runoff
  • Habitat fragmentation
  • Pathways for exotic species
  • Accessibility to humans

15
Harvesting Trees
  • Selective cutting
  • High-grading

Cut 2
Cut 1
Selective Cutting
Shelterwood Cutting
  • Shelterwood cutting
  • Seed-tree cutting

Seed-Tee Cutting
Clear-Cutting
  • Clearcutting
  • Strip cutting

Uncut
Cut
Cut
Cut
Uncut
1 year ago
35 years ago
610 years ago
Strip Cutting
16
Clearcutting
17
Clear Cuts
18
Management Strategies
19
Clear cuts over time
20
Selection Cutting
21
Shelterwood Clearing
22
Drought Map
23
Fire
  • Surface fires
  • Crown fires

24
Tree Fire
25
Forest Fire
26
(No Transcript)
27
Forest Resources and Management in the United
States
  • Habitat for threatened and endangered species
  • Water purification services
  • Recreation
  • 3 of timber harvest
  • Sustainable yield and multiple use
  • Substitues for tree products

28
Degradation of Tropical Forests
29
Tropical Deforestation
  • Rapid and increasing
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Cultural extinction
  • Unsustainable agriculture and ranching
  • Clearing for cash crop plantations
  • Commercial logging
  • Fuelwood

30
Annual Deforestation Rates
More than 1 loss
0.51 loss
00.5 loss
Stable or increased forest
No data
31
Reducing Tropical Deforestation
  • Identification of critical ecosystems
  • Reducing poverty and population growth
  • Sustainable tropical agriculture
  • Encourage protection of large tracts
  • Debt-for-nature swaps
  • Less destructive harvesting methods

32
MADAGASCAR
INDIAN OCEAN
Existing rain forest
Former rain forest
Southern spiny desert
Western tropical deciduous forest
33
Establishing, Designing, and Managing Nature
Reserves
  • Include some moderate disturbance
  • Sustain natural ecological processes
  • Protect most important areas
  • Buffer zones
  • Wilderness areas

34
Biosphere Reserve
Core area
Buffer zone 1
Buffer zone 2
Fig. 23.27, p. 620
35
Production forest 1.6 million acres
Watershed protection area 540,000 acres
Savanna buffer zone 312,000 acres
Biological reserve 330,000 acres
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