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LBJ, Vietnam, and the Great Society

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LBJ, Vietnam, and the Great Society Lyndon Johnson (LBJ) President Nov. 1963; elected 1964 Democrat continued JFK s New Frontier Domestic policy: The ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LBJ, Vietnam, and the Great Society


1
LBJ, Vietnam, and the Great Society
2
Lyndon Johnson (LBJ)
  • President Nov. 1963 elected 1964
  • Democrat continued JFKs New Frontier
  • Domestic policy The Great Society
  • Medicare health care for elderly
  • Medicaid health care for the poor
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • War on Poverty goal to eliminate poverty
  • Economic Opportunity Act (1964) federal
    antipoverty programs

3
The Great Society
  • Job Corps
  • VISTA (modeled on Peace Corps) volunteers help
    Americans
  • Education Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    and Higher Education Act federal funding of
    public schools
  • Head Start program scholarships to kids in
    poverty

4
The Great Society
  • Arts and Culture
  • Public Broadcasting
  • National Endowment for the Arts
  • National Endowment for the Humanities

5
Vietnam
  • French colony of Indochina
  • Ho Chi Minh leads rebel movement after WWII
  • French leave, 1954
  • Vietnam divided at 17th parallel
  • South Vietnam requests help from U.S. to fight
    rebel movement the Viet Cong Eisenhower and
    JFK send advisers

6
Vietnam
  • Johnson fears fall of government the domino
    effect
  • Incident in the Tonkin Gulf
  • Tonkin Gulf Resolution authorizes president to
    use all necessary measures
  • Sends U.S. troops in 1964 steady escalation to
    1968
  • Guerilla warfare
  • Tet Offensive, 1968 Americans realize that the
    war will last for a long time

7
Vietnam
  • Anti-war protests on college campuses and in
    cities
  • Draft evasion draft dodging

8
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9
Political Polarization
  • Hawks those favoring the war
  • Pledge of help to Vietnam
  • U.S. commitment to region at stake
  • Fear of the Domino effect in Southeast Asia
  • Doves those opposed to war
  • North Vietnam was fighting for nationalist
    reasons
  • Vietnam not vital for U.S. interests or security
  • War is unjust

10
Election of 1968
  • LBJ does not run very unusual
  • Nixon vs. Hubert Humphrey
  • George Wallace third party
  • Nixon considered the hawk
  • Nixon promises law and order and continuation
    of Great Society

11
Election of 1968 realigning election
  • Post Civil War Republican Presidency to 1932
  • 1932-1968 Democratic Presidency
  • (7 out of 9 times except Eisenhower)
  • 1968-2008 Republican Presidency (7 out of 10
    times except Carter and Clinton)

12
Party Realignment
  • Democratic party lost white Southerners in the
    1960-1990s
  • Reaction to Civil Rights, Vietnam War, and the
    culture wars
  • Todays Democratic Party urban, minorities,
    liberal, union workers
  • Todays Republican Party rural, conservative
    voters

13
Presidents Nixon, Ford, and Carter
14
Richard Nixon
  • Re-elected 1972
  • Gradually draws troops out of Vietnam
    Vietnamization of the war
  • Détente period in US-USSR relations, a
    de-escalation of tension (SALT I)
  • Recognizes communist China makes first visit to
    that country
  • Disgraced and resigns as a result of Watergate -
    not impeached

15
Richard Nixon
  • First Oil Crisis, 1973
  • OPEC embargos sale of oil to America for its
    support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War
  • Leads to rationing, shortages of fuel oil and
    gasoline

16
Gerald Ford
  • Speaker of the House, becomes president after
    Nixons resignation
  • 1974-1976
  • 1975 Democrats in Congress pressure Ford to
    withdraw from Vietnam
  • Saigon falls, Vietnam under control of communists

17
Jimmy Carter (1976-1980)
  • Iranian Revolution Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Hostage Crisis Americans held in Tehran embassy
    for gt 400 days
  • Second Oil Crisis long lines, rationing (panic
    as a result of

18
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19
Jimmy Carter (1976-1980)
  • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  • Middle East Camp David Accords
  • Peace between Egypt and Israel
  • US takes lead as mediator in Mid East
  • Economy stagflation slow growth, high
    interest rates and inflation

20
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
  • USSR invades Afghanistan, 1979
  • WHY? Influence in Persian Gulf Region
  • American CIA supplies arms and intelligence to
    the resistance
  • USSR installs puppet government
  • Afghan people resist Soviets withdraw in 1989
    Taliban gain control rule until 2002

21
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