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Presenting Data in Tables and Charts

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Title: Chap. 2: Methods for Describing Sets of Data Subject: Keywords: chap. 2, qualitative data ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Presenting Data in Tables and Charts


1
??????????
  • Chapter 2 ???
  • Presenting Data in Tables and Charts
  • ????????


2
????
  • 1. ??????????
  • 2. ????????????
  • 3. ????????????
  • 4. ????????????????

3
??????
  • ?????????????????

?????????
4
????????
5
?????Describing Data
6
?????Describing Data
Data
7
?????Describing Data
Data
Qualitative
Data
8
?????Describing Data
Data
Quantitative
Qualitative
Data
Data
9
?????Describing Data
Data
Quantitative
Qualitative
Data
Data
Graphical
Graphical
Methods
Methods
10
?????Describing Data
Data
Quantitative
Qualitative
Data
Data
Graphical
Graphical
Numerical
Numerical
Methods
Methods
Methods
Methods
11
?????Describing Data
Data
Quantitative
Qualitative
Data
Data
Graphical
Graphical
Numerical
Numerical
Methods
Methods
Methods
Methods
Pie
Bar
Chart
Graph
12
?????Describing Data
Data
Quantitative
Qualitative
Data
Data
Graphical
Graphical
Numerical
Numerical
Methods
Methods
Methods
Methods
Pie
Bar
Summary
Chart
Graph
Table
13
?????
??
??
????
????
????
????
????
????
???
??
???
??
???
???
14
Describing Qualitative Data
???????
15
Describing Data
???
16
Summary Table???
  • 1. ????????????????.
  • 2. ????(tally)????????
  • 3. ?????,??????????

17
?????????
?? ?? ??? ?? ?? ?? ???
Acct. 130 65 130 65
Econ. 20 10 150 75
Mgmt. 50 25 200 100
?? 200 100
18
Describing Data????
??
19
Bar Graph??
  • ???????????????????????,???????????????????(???)??
    ??????????????(???)??????????????????????

20
???????
?? ?? ?? ???
Acct. 130 130 65
Econ. 20 150 10
Mgmt. 50 200 25
?? 200 100
21
Bar Graph??
??
??????????
Frequency
Bar length shows frequency or
Equal bar widths
???????
Major
??
Zero point
??1/2?1????
1/2 to 1 bar width
22
Bar Graph??
23
Bar Graph??
Frequency
150
100
50
0
Major
Acct.
Econ.
Mgmt.
24
Bar Graph??
Frequency
150
100
50
0
Major
Acct.
Econ.
Mgmt.
Zero point
25
Bar Graph??
Frequency
Bar length shows frequency or
150
100
50
0
Major
Acct.
Econ.
Mgmt.
Zero point
26
Bar Graph??
Frequency
Bar length shows frequency or
150
100
50
0
Major
Acct.
Econ.
Mgmt.
Zero point
27
Bar Graph??
Frequency
Bar length shows frequency or
150
100
50
0
Major
Acct.
Econ.
Mgmt.
Zero point
1/2 to 1 bar width
28
Bar Graph??
Frequency
Bar length shows frequency or
150
Equal bar widths
100
50
0
Major
Acct.
Econ.
Mgmt.
Zero point
1/2 to 1 bar width
29
Bar Graph??
??
??????????
Frequency
Bar length shows frequency or
Equal bar widths
???????
Major
??
Zero point
??1/2?1????
1/2 to 1 bar width
30
Describing Data????
???
31
Pie Chart???
  • ???(?????)???????????????????????,????????????????
    ???????????,???????????????????????

32
Pie Chart???
Majors
??
  • 1. ?????????????????????????
  • 2. ?????????
  • 3. ???????????
  • ((360?) (????,????))

Econ.
10
36
Acct.
65 234o
(360 (10) 36o
33
??????
  • ???????????1998?????????Office????.
    ?????????????,????????????????
  • ?? ???? ()
  • Excel 15
  • Word 60
  • PowerPoint 10
  • Others 15

34
???
???? ()
??
35
???
???
Others
15
PowerPoint
10
Excel
15
Word
60
36
??????(for an Investors Portfolio)
Investment Category Amount?? Percentage
???? ??(in thousands )
??? ??Stocks 46.5 42.27 ??Bonds
32 29.09 ??CD 15.5
14.09 ??Savings 16 14.55 Total
110 100
Variables are Categorical
37
???Bar Chart(for an Investors Portfolio)
38
???Pie Chart (for an Investors Portfolio)
Amount Invested in K
Savings 15
Stocks 42
CD 14
Percentages are rounded to the nearest percent.
Bonds 29
39
Pareto Diagram?????????????
  • ????????(???)?????(???)??????????
  • ???????????????
  • ?????????????
  • ????????????????

40
Pareto Diagram?????????????
???????????Axis for bar chart shows invested in
each category
???????????Axis for line graph shows cumulative
invested
41
Contingency Table-????????????
?????????????????????????????????,????????????????
?
(??????????????,????????,?????????)
42
??????????????
????????????????????
???????????????
43
???????????Side by Side Bar Graph
44
?????????Tabulating Bivariate Categorical Data
  • Contingency tables(???) investment in thousands
    of dollars ???????

Investment Investor A Investor B
Investor C Total Category Stocks
46.5 55 27.5 129 Bonds 32
44 19 95 CD 15.5
20 13.5
49 Savings 16 28
7 51 Total
110 147 67 324
45
???????????Graphing Bivariate Categorical Data
  • Side by side Bar Charts

46
Describing Quantitative Data
???????
47
Describing Data????
??
48
Dot Plot??
  • 1. ???????????????????,???????????????
  • 2. ????????????????
  • 3. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41

20
25
30
35
40
45
49
Dot Plot??
  • 1.???????????????????,???????????????
  • 2. ????????????????
  • 3. Data

20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Dot Plot??
  • 1.???????????????????,???????????????
  • 2. ????????????????
  • 3. Data 21

20
25
30
35
40
45
51
Dot Plot??
  • 1.???????????????????,???????????????
  • 2. ????????????????
  • 3. Data 21, 24

20
25
30
35
40
45
52
Dot Plot??
  • 1.???????????????????,???????????????
  • 2. ????????????????
  • 3. Data 21, 24, 24

20
25
30
35
40
45
53
Dot Plot??
  • 1.???????????????????,???????????????
  • 2. ????????????????
  • 3. Data 21, 24, 24, 26

20
25
30
35
40
45
54
Dot Plot??
  • 1.???????????????????,???????????????
  • 2. ????????????????3. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27

20
25
30
35
40
45
55
Dot Plot??
  • 1.???????????????????,???????????????
  • 2. ????????????????
  • 3. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27

20
25
30
35
40
45
56
Dot Plot??
  • 1.???????????????????,???????????????
  • 2. ????????????????
  • 3. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30

20
25
30
35
40
45
57
Dot Plot??
  • 1.???????????????????,???????????????
  • 2. ????????????????
  • 3. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32

20
25
30
35
40
45
58
Dot Plot??
  • 1.???????????????????,???????????????
  • 2. ????????????????
  • 3. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38

20
25
30
35
40
45
59
Dot Plot??
  • 1. ???????????????????,???????????????
  • 2. ????????????????
  • 3. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41

20
25
30
35
40
45
60
Describing Data????
???
61
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
144677
3
028
4
1
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41
62
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

63
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
3
4
2. Data
64
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
3
4
2. Data 21
65
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
1
3
4
2. Data 21
66
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
1
3
4
2. Data 21, 24
67
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
14
3
4
2. Data 21, 24
68
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
14
3
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24
69
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
144
3
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24
70
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
144
3
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26
71
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
1446
3
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26
72
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
1446
3
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27
73
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
14467
3
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27
74
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
14467
3
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27
75
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
144677
3
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27
76
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
144677
3
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30
77
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
144677
3
0
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30
78
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
144677
3
0
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32
79
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
144677
3
02
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32
80
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
144677
3
02
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38
81
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
144677
3
028
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38
82
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
144677
3
028
4
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41
83
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
  • 1. ??????????????????????
  • ????????
  • ???????????

2
144677
3
028
4
1
2. Data 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41
84
Stem-and-Leaf Display???
2 ? 1 4 4 2? 6 7 7 3 ? 0 2 3? 8 4 ?
1
  • ??????????????10,5,2????(??)??????????????????
  • ??????????????,??????????????????????
  • ??????????????

85
?????-Stem and Leaf display
Stem-and-Leaf of C1 N50 Leaf Unit 1
9 6 3 3 3 6 6 7 7 8 8
24 7 0 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 5 6 7 8 8 8 9
(17) 8 0 0 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 6 7 8 9 9 9 9
9 9 0 1 1 2 2 4 4 5 6
86
Data Presentation????
????
87
Frequency Distribution Table?????????
  • 1. ???????? rangemax - min
  • 2. ???(classes)???(k), ??5 ? k ? 20
  • 3. ?????? (Width)
  • 4. ?????/??? (Limits)
  • 5. ?????? (Midpoints)
  • 6. ??????????
  • 7. ?????? ??????????

88
????--?????
???? 24, 26, 24, 21, 27, 27, 30, 41, 32, 38
  • 1. ???????? ??41 2120
  • 2. ???3?(classes) (k3), ??5 ? k ? 20
  • 3. ?????? (Width)20/36.6, ?????????10
  • 4. ?????/??? (Limits)???
  • 5. ?????? (Midpoints)???
  • 6. ?????????????

89
Frequency Distribution Table ?????
????? 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41
90
Frequency Distribution Table???????
????? 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41
Class
Midpoint
Frequency
15 but lt 25
20
3
Width
25 but lt 35
30
5
35 but lt 45
40
2
(Upper Lower Boundaries) / 2
Boundaries
91
?????????Relative Frequency Distribution
Tables
Percentage Distribution (??????)
Relative Frequency Distribution (???????)
Class
Prop.
Class

15 but lt 25
.3
15 but lt 25
30.0
25 but lt 35
.5
25 but lt 35
50.0
35 but lt 45
.2
35 but lt 45
20.0
92
Cumulative Percentage Distribution Table????????
Raw Data 24, 26, 24, 21, 27, 27, 30, 41, 32, 38
??Class ?????
Xlt 25 0
15 ? But lt 25 30
25 ? But lt 35 80
35 ? But lt 45 100
45 ? X 100
??? ??????????
30 50
80 20
93
Data Presentation????
???
94
Histogram???
??????????????????????????????????,???????????????
?????????,????????????,????????????????????,??????
????????,????????????????????????????????????,????
?????????
95
Histogram???
1.
3.
Class
Freq.
Count
15 but lt 25
3
4.
5
25 but lt 35
5
35 but lt 45
2
4
???? Frequency Relative Frequency Percent
3
Bars Touch???????
2
1
0
0 15 25 35 45 55
Lower Boundary
2.
96
???????
Data in ordered array 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24,
26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46,
53, 58
Relative Frequency
Percentage
Class Frequency
10 but under 20 3
.15 15 20 but under 30 6
.30 30 30
but under 40 5 .25
25 40 but under 50
4 .20
20 50 but under 60 2
.10 10 Total
20 1 100
97
?????The Histogram
Data in ordered array 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24,
26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46,
53, 58
No Gaps Between Bars???????????
Class Boundaries???
Class Midpoints???
98
?????-Frequency Polygon-
  • ?????????????(?)????????????,?????????????????????
    ????????????????????????????????????????,?????????
    ???????,??????????????????????

99
?????????The Frequency Polygon
Data in ordered array 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24,
26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46,
53, 58
Class Midpoints????????
100
???????????? Cumulative Frequency
Data in ordered array 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24,
26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46,
53, 58
Cumulative Cumulative Class
Frequency Frequency 10
but under 20 3
15 20 but under 30 9
45 30 but under 40 14 70
40 but under 50 18
90 50 but under 60 20
100
101
???-Ogive
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ???????????

102
??????????? The Ogive (Cumulative Polygon)
Data in ordered array 12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24,
26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46,
53, 58
Class Boundaries (Not Midpoints)/??????????????
103
Box Plot???
  • 1. ??5-number summary(??????)????????

??? ?????? ??? ?????? ???
Median
Q
Q
X
X
3
1
largest
smallest
4
6
8
10
12
104
????
  • ??????????,?????????????????,?????
  • 70 78 94 80 96 92 71 75 84
    74
  • 84 66 71 82 78 77 91 76 67
    68
  • 89 92 90 89 83 66 71 96 67
    84
  • 89 94 74 63 63 86 81 71 71
    68
  • 63 91 89 78 88 84 80 82 87
    79
  • ???????,?????,???????

105
???-Stem and Leaf display
Stem-and-Leaf of C1 N50 Leaf Unit 1
9 6 3 3 3 6 6 7 7 8 8
24 7 0 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 5 6 7 8 8 8 9
(17) 8 0 0 1 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 6 7 8 9 9 9 9
9 9 0 1 1 2 2 4 4 5 6
106
????(?)
  • ??????????
  • 63 63 63 66 66 67 67 68 68 70
  • 71 71 71 71 71 74 74 75 76 77
  • 78 78 78 79 80 80 81 82 82 83
  • 84 84 84 84 86 87 88 89 89 89
  • 89 90 91 91 92 92 94 94 96 96
  • ????96 ????63 ??33

107
???????????
  • Min 63.00
  • 1st Qu. 71.00
  • Mean 79.64
  • Median 80.00
  • 3rd Qu. 88.75
  • Max 96.00
  • IQR 17.75
  • Mode 71
  • Midrange 79.5
  • Midquartile 79.875
  • Variance 94.03
  • Std Dev. 9.6970
  • Sum 3982
  • SE Mean 1.371
  • Skewness -0.077
  • Kurtosis -1.137

108
??????
109
????--?????
  • 1. ???????? ??96 6333
  • 2. ???5?(classes) (k5), ??5 ? k ? 20
  • 3. ?????? (Width)33/56.6, ????7
  • 4. ?????/??? (Limits)???
  • 5. ?????? (Midpoints)???
  • 6. ?????????????

110
????--?????
?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????
1 63, 70) 66.5 10 0.2 10 20
2 70, 77) 73.5 10 0.2 20 40
3 77, 84) 80.5 14 0.28 34 68
4 84, 91) 87.5 10 0.2 44 88
5 91, 98) 94.5 6 0.12 50 100
?? 50 1.00
111
??????????
30
112
??????????????
30
100
??????
? ? ? ? ?
80
60
40
20
113
???????
114
????????? The Ogive (Cumulative Polygon)
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
115
???????????1Graphing Bivariate Numerical Data
(Scatter Plot)
116
????????????
117
????????
  1. ???????
  2. ??????
  3. ????????????
  4. ???????

Dot Chart?
Bar Chart?
Pie Chart?
118
???????????????Distorting the Truth with
Descriptive Techniques
119
???????Errors in Presenting Data
  • 1. ????????
  • 2. ?????????
  • 3. ???(????)???
  • 4. ???(????)?????

120
????????Chart Junk
?????
?????
Minimum Wage
Minimum Wage

1960 1.00
4
1970 1.60
2
1980 3.10
0
1960
1970
1980
1990
1990 3.80
121
?????????No Relative Basis
?????
?????
Freq.

300
30
200
20
100
10
0
0
FR
SO
JR
SR
FR
SO
JR
SR
?????????????Assumes total of students in each
class is different.
122
???(????)???Compressing Vertical Axis
?????
?????
???Quarterly Sales
???Quarterly Sales


50
200
25
100
0
0
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
123
???(????)?????No Zero Point on Vertical Axis
?????
?????
??? Monthly Sales
??? Monthly Sales


45
60
42
40
20
39
0
36
J
M
M
J
S
N
J
M
M
J
S
N
124
??????
  • ?????????????????

?????????
125
????????
126
??
  • 1. ??????????
  • 2. ????????????
  • 3. ????????????
  • 4. ????????????????

127
?????...
????????
  • 1. ????????????????
  • 2. ????????????
  • 3. ??????????
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