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HOW ILLNESS IN WORLD LEADERS HAS AFFECTED HISTORY

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He was 59 years old, obese, bearded, a smoker, and with obstructive sleep apnoea. The anaesthetist was Sir Frederick Hewitt and the surgeon Sir Frederick Treves, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HOW ILLNESS IN WORLD LEADERS HAS AFFECTED HISTORY


1
HOW ILLNESS IN WORLD LEADERS HAS AFFECTED HISTORY
  • .

2
NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDER (NPD).
  • Defined as excessive preoccupation with power,
    prestige and vanity.
  • Unable to see the damage done to themselves and
    others.
  • Exaggerated feelings of self importance.
  • Sense of entitlement.
  • Lack of empathy.
  • Affects 1 of the population and formerly known
    as megalomania.

3
  • THE ONLY WAY TO DEAL WITH A PERSON WITH TYPE A
    NARCISSISTIC PERSONALITY DISORDER IS AVOIDANCE.

4
WORLD LEADERS WITH NPD.
  • Mao Tse Tung.
  • Stalin.
  • Hitler.
  • Napoleon.

5
DEMENTIA.
  • Dementia is a set of symptoms including memory
    loss, difficulty with thinking, judgement,
    language and or problem solving, and is
    progressive.
  • Common causes of dementia are Alzheimers disease,
    and a series of strokes.

6
World leaders with Dementia.
  • Woodrow Wilson in his second term.
  • Paul Van Hindenburg.
  • Ramsay MacDonald.
  • Winston Churchill after 1951.
  • Harold Wilson in his final office as prime
    minister.
  • Ronald Reagan in his late second term.

7
HUBRIS SYNDROME.
  • Power in world leaders can become intoxicating
    and affect their action and decision making.
  • The Greeks called it hubris syndrome
  • They took comfort in the knowledge that the Gods
    would punish the guilty ones (nemesis).

8
WORLD LEADERS WITH HUBRIS SYNDROME OR TENDENCY.
  • FDR (hubristic tendency).
  • LLOYD GEORGE (hubris syndrome).
  • GEORGE W BUSH (hubristic tendency).
  • TONY BLAIR (hubris syndrome).
  • MARGARET THATCHER (hubris syndrome).

9
BIPOLAR DISORDER.
  • Originally called manic depressive psychosis.
  • A mental disorder characterised by periods of
    elevated mood (hypomania) and periods of
    depression.
  • A more minor variant is known as cyclothymic
    personality disorder.

10
WORLD LEADERS WITH BIPOLAR DISORDER.
  • Teddy Roosevelt.
  • Abraham Lincoln.
  • LBJ.
  • Winston Churchill.

11
WORLD LEADERS WITH HISTORY OF ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE
OR ABUSE.
  • Herbert Asquith (squiffy).
  • Winston Churchill.
  • Richard Nixon.
  • George W Bush.
  • Ulysses S. Grant
  • Boris Yeltsin
  • Also George Brown, John Smith, Joseph McCarthy,
    Franklin Pierce.

12
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13
ABRAHAM LINCOLN 1809 to 1865.
  • He suffered with depression. He used to say when
    I am alone I dare not carry a penknife. He may
    also have had episodes of hypomania so maybe the
    correct diagnosis would be bipolar disorder
    (formerly manic depressive psychosis).
  • He was shot behind the left ear on April 14th
    1865, by James Wiles Booth, (his guard had gone
    over the road for a drink). The wound was
    unsurvivable and he immediately lost
    consciousness and died nine hours later.
  • It was 5 days after Robert E lee signed surrender
    terms.

14
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15
GROVER CLEVELAND 1837 to 1908.
  • He was the only president to serve two non
    consecutive terms as president, 1885 to 1889 and
    1893 to 1897.
  • In 1893 he complained of soreness of the roof of
    his mouth.
  • He was sat upright in a chair attached to the
    mast of the yacht Oneida in New York Harbour, and
    given a general anaesthetic by a dentist with
    anaesthetic experience (a brave man indeed). Part
    of his upper jaw and hard palate were removed
    this took less than an hour. The surgeon must
    have been very skilful (or foolhardy), and when
    the story leaked to the press it was strenuously
    denied.
  • He was given a dental prosthesis after, enabling
    him to talk properly, and without a change in
    appearance.
  • It was a verrucous carcinoma with a low potential
    for metastasis.

16
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17
JAMES GARFIELD 1831 TO 1881.
  • James Garfield became 20th president on March 4th
    1881.
  • On July 2nd 1881 he was shot by Charles Guiteau
    at the Baltimore and Potomac train station in
    Washington DC. One bullet grazed his shoulder and
    the second entered his back at L1, missing the
    spine, and coming to rest behind the pancreas.
  • Doctors probed the entry wound with dirty fingers
    and unsterilised instruments, looking for the
    bullet.
  • He died of sepsis on September 19th 1881.

18
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19
WILLIAM MCKINLEY 1843 TO 1901.
  • 6 months into his second term as 25th president
    of USA on 6th September 1901 Mckinley was shot in
    Buffalo, NY by Leon Czolosz.
  • The first bullet grazed McKinley but the second
    bullet entered his abdomen and was never found.
  • He was taken to a nearby hospital and was
    operated on by a gynaecologist who had no
    experience of abdominal wounds. The operating
    theatre was makeshift with no abdominal
    retractors and inadequate lighting.
  • The wound was not adequately cleaned, and
    Mckinley was nearly 60 and overweight. He died of
    sepsis on September 14th 1901.
  • Autopsy showed the bullet had passed through his
    stomach, transverse colon, and left kidney. It
    also showed he was suffering from cardiomyopathy.

20
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21
KING EDWARD V11th
  • On June 24th 1902 King Edward Seventh had an
    appendicectomy at Buckingham Palace.
  • He was 59 years old, obese, bearded, a smoker,
    and with obstructive sleep apnoea.
  • The anaesthetist was Sir Frederick Hewitt and the
    surgeon Sir Frederick Treves, both being knighted
    before the operation. The story is that before
    the operation the surgeon was given lunch at the
    palace and the anaesthetist had to go off and
    find himself a sandwich, plus ca change , plus
    cest la meme chose.
  • Ether anaesthesia was administered and the King
    turned purple. Dr Hewitt grasped his beard and
    relieved the obstruction.
  • The operation was a success.

22
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23
THEODORE ROOSEVELT 1858 TO 1919.
  • Teddy Roosevelt was 26th president from 1901 to
    1909. He suffered with bipolar-1 disorder and
    asthma. He undertook body building exercises and
    became a magnificent specimen of manhood. He
    was a man of phenomenal energy.
  • On October 14th 1912 campaigning in Milwaukee,
    Wisconsin he was shot in the chest. The bullet
    was slowed down by passing through his steel eye
    glass case and a 50 page copy of his speech in
    his breast pocket. Since he was not coughing
    blood he correctly concluded that it was not
    serious (the bullet had lodged in his chest wall)
    and despite the bloodtained shirt continued with
    a 90 minute speech. The bullet was never removed.

24
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25
VLADIMIR ULYANOV (LENIN) 1870 to 1924.
  • He assumed power in the October (Julian calendar)
    revolution of 1917, and remained as leader during
    the Russian Civil War 1917 to 1922.
  • On 30th August 1918 he was shot twice by Fanny
    Kaplan, one bullet passing through his neck and
    puncturing part of his left lung, and stopping
    near his right collar bone, and the other bullet
    lodging in his left shoulder.

26
  • He never fully regained his health.
  • The mental strains of leading a revolution, and
    fighting a civil war, working 16 hours daily and
    his physical debilitation consequent to the
    wounds (one of the bullets was removed in 1922),
    led to a series of strokes. The first stroke was
    in May 1922, the second in December 1922 causing
    a right hemiplegia, and the third in March 1923
    which ended his career.
  • He died on 24th January 1924, aged 53.
  • There are also reports that he had neurosyphilis.

27
  • On hearing of Lenins death Churchill commented,
  • Russias greatest misfortune was Lenins birth,
    their second greatest misfortune was his early
    death.
  • His incapacity made him unable to prevent the
    rise of Stalin.

28
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29
WOODROW WILSON 1856 TO 1924.
  • Woodrow Wilson was a severe hypertensive before
    he became the 28th president in 1913. He had
    neurological incidents as a result of high blood
    pressure from 1889 onwards, and retinal artery
    changes were noted as early as 1906.
  • He was president for two terms (1913 to 1921)
    during a crucial period in world history, and in
    his second term had a series of small lacunar
    strokes producing progressive dementia.
  • On 8th January 1918 he enunciated to Congress his
    14 points, the basis for a peace programme, and
    which led to the November 11th 1918 armistice.

30
  • In 1919 he attended the Paris Peace Conference
    which took place from 18th January 1919 to 28th
    June 1919 when the Treaty of Versailles was
    signed.
  • During this time his mental faculties were
    impaired due to cerebrovascular disease secondary
    to his hypertension. Had he been fit it is
    possible that a treaty less penal to Germany
    would have been signed.
  • In the last week of September 1919 he suffered a
    progressive cerebral artery thrombosis to the
    right hemisphere of his brain (a stroke). He
    developed complete paralysis of the left side of
    his body, slurring of his speech and visual
    defect.

31
  • His physician Cary Grayson, and his wife lied
    about his condition.
  • He continued as a seriously incapacitated
    president for a further 16 months (his wife Edith
    was spoken of as Americas first woman
    President).
  • During this time the crucial negotiations leading
    to the establishment of the League of Nations
    were taking place (America never joined, had they
    done so WW2 may have been avoided).

32
  • He should have been succeeded by his vice
    president (Thomas Marshall).
  • In 1967 his complex case became a motivation for
    the passage of the 25th amendment to the
    constitution of the United States, providing a
    way of dealing with just such a situation.

33
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34
IOSIF DZHUGASHVILI (STALIN) 1879 TO 1953.
  • Leader of Soviet Union from 1923 to 1953.
  • Narcissistic personality disorder with paranoia.
  • Responsible for between 20 and 40 million
    unnatural deaths in The Collectivisation
    programme 1928 to 1940, The Holodomor in the
    Ukraine 1932 to 1933, The Great Terror 1937 to
    1938, The Purges, and The Gulag Archipelago.
  • In addition an estimated 27 million Soviet troops
    and civilians died during The Great Patriotic War
    1941 to 1945.

35
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36
CALVIN COOLIDGE 1872 TO 1933
  • Silent Cal became the 30th president in 1923
    when Warren Harding suddenly died. He was
    reelected in 1924. He was a man of few words.
  • A wise old owl sat on an oak, The more he saw
    the less he spoke, The less he spoke the more he
    heard, Why cant we be like that old bird.
  • He had amazed everybody by marrying a vivacious
    schoolteacher Grace.

37
  • His ideal day was one in which nothing whatever
    happens.
  • He used to sleep for up to 11 hours a day.
  • One Sunday on returning from church Grace asked
    him what the sermon was about. Sin he replied.
    Well what did the minister say about it she
    asked. He was against it he replied.
  • Retrospectively he has been diagnosed as having a
    major depressive illness whilst in office.

38
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39
RAMSAY MACDONALD 1866 TO 1937.
  • He led a Labour government in 1924, in 1929 to
    1931, and a coalition government from 1931 to
    1935.
  • He suffered with depression and later on in his
    prime ministership began to develop Alzheimers
    disease.
  • This was at a critical time in history during the
    rise of Hitler which was not dealt with
    satisfactorily.

40
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41
FDR 1882 to 1945.
  • FDR was arguably the most influential political
    leader of the 20th century.
  • He contracted polio age 39 at a scout jamboree in
    NY State and became symptomatic at the family
    estate on Campobello Island, New Brunswick.
  • He was paralysed in both legs from the hips down,
    and confined to a wheelchair.

42
  • Of 35,000 photographs taken of him since
    contracting polio only 2 show him in the
    wheelchair.
  • In the early stages of his presidency, which
    lasted from 1933 to his death in 1945, his health
    appeared excellent.
  • In May 1941 he was diagnosed as having raised
    blood pressure and an iron deficiency anaemia and
    had two blood transfusions.

43
  • During the period 1942 to 1944 his health
    deteriorated.
  • His personal doctor was Admiral Ross McIntyre, an
    ENT surgeon!, who largely failed to recognise
    FDRs deterioration.
  • Eventually on 28th March 1944 Dr Howard Bruenn, a
    naval cardiologist, made the first proper medical
    examination of FDR for 11 years at the insistence
    of FDRs daughter Anna.

44
  • Bruenn found severe hypertension, a large heart
    and left ventricular failure, and said off the
    record that the presidents condition was god
    awful.
  • McIntyre was not ready to accept Bruenns
    findings and only agreed to FDR receiving
    digitalis after Bruenn had bravely said that
    otherwise he would have nothing more to do with
    the case. Bruenn also instituted a low salt diet
    and a weight loss programme.

45
  • Bruenn stated confidentially that it was
    impossible for FDR to run for a fourth term.
  • In August 1944 FDR developed angina due to
    coronary artery disease and his blood pressure
    was 240/130.
  • FDR ran for a fourth term, but showed insight
    into his health problems by naming the
    extraordinary ordinary man Harry S Truman as
    his running mate.

46
  • In February 1945, shortly after being sworn in
    for a fourth term, FDR travelled by ship and
    plane to Yalta and back for the meeting with
    Churchill and Stalin.
  • Here the future of Eastern Europe was decided.
  • It is still highly contentious how important an
    issue FRDs health was to the settlement.

47
  • Towards the end of the conference FDR developed
    pulsus alternans.
  • Churchills doctor Sir Charles Wilson (Lord
    Moran) could hardly fail to notice FDRs
    condition and only gave him a short time to live.
  • FDR died of a cerebral haemmorhage on 12th April
    1945 in Warm Springs Virginia, he was 63 years
    old.

48
  • On March 21st 1947 Congress passes the 22nd
    amendment to the Constitution of The United
    States of America, limiting any individual to a
    maximum of two terms as president.
  • FDR is the only president to serve more than two
    terms.

49
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50
ADOLF HITLER 1889 TO 1945.
  • Hitler suffered with narcissistic personality
    disorder.
  • He was addicted to amphetamines.
  • The origins of his disastrous (for the world)
    accession to power were multifactorial, but the
    increasing dementia of octogenarian president
    Paul Von Hindenburg, hero of the battle of
    Tannenburg in WW1, was paramount.
  • Thus the world suffered the catastrophic WW2.

51
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52
FAMOUS QUOTES BY HARRY TRUMAN.
  • I fired him (McArthur) because he wouldnt
    respect the authority of the president. I didnt
    fire him because he was a dumb son of a bitch,
    although he was, but thats not against the law
    for Generals. If it was half to threequarters of
    them would be in jail.
  • The buck stops here.
  • If you cant stand the heat get out of the
    kitchen.

53
  • Comment to reporters after becoming president on
    the death of FDR. Boys, if you ever pray, pray
    for me now. I dont know whether you fellows ever
    had a load of hay fall on you, but when they told
    me yesterday what had happened , I felt like the
    moon, the stars and all the planets had fallen on
    me.
  • Letter to Paul Hume of Time magazine, I have
    read your lousy review of Margarets concert and
    Ive come to the conclusion that you are an eight
    ulcer man on a four ulcer job.....Some day I hope
    to meet you. When that happens youll need a new
    nose, a lot of beefsteak for black eyes and
    perhaps a supporter below.

54
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55
MAO TSE-TUNG 1893 TO 1976
  • Mao seized power in 1949.
  • The Great Leap Forward 1958 to 1963 led to mass
    famines unprecedented in history, particularly
    from 1959 to 1961.
  • The Cultural Revolution was from 1966 to 1976.
  • It is estimated that Mao was responsible for up
    to 80 million unnatural deaths, eclipsing Stalin
    and Hitler.
  • Mao was a man in a hurry. Knowing his mortality
    he wanted to get the changes he wanted made in
    China done in his lifetime, with no consideration
    for others.
  • Mao was a heavy smoker and drinker all his life,
    and overweight, and in later life was beset by
    heart and breathing problems.
  • He had narcissistic personality disorder.

56
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57
WINSTON CHURCHILL 1874 to 1964.
  • Churchill was prime minister from 1940 to 1945
    and 1951 to 1955.
  • He was a moderate to heavy drinker and smoker.
  • He suffered with bipolar disorder and would avoid
    edges of platforms in case he jumped impulsively
    into the path of a train.
  • In 1931 forgetting that in the USA they drive on
    the right he was hit by a taxi in New York City.

58
  • His hypomania together with his powers or oratory
    enabled Britain to stay in the war during the
    dark days of 1940. Probably a saner prime
    minister like Halifax would have given in
  • To Churchill America and FDR were the key to
    survival, and Churchill had the advantage of an
    American mother.
  • Churchills sinking of the French Fleet at Mers
    el Kebir in July 1940 made Roosevelt realise that
    Britain wasnt going to surrender, and he agreed
    to lendlease which before the sinkings he had
    refused.
  • Churchills great fear was the U boat sinking of
    British shipping starving Britain into
    submission. Lendlease, the convoy system,
    Bletchley Park and Pearl Harbour saved Britain.

59
  • In December 1941 shortly after Pearl Harbour
    (which gave him his first decent nights sleep
    since becoming prime minister because he knew
    Britain was safe) he probably had a heart attack
    in the White House.
  • He had a severe stroke in June 1953 which
    affected his speech and walking ability. Anthony
    Eden the heir apparent was sick after his gall
    bladder operation in April 1953. The public were
    told Churchill was suffering from exhaustion.
  • He had a mild stroke in December 1956, and a
    severe stroke in January 1965 from which he
    subsequently died.

60
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61
George V1th Pneumonectomy, 23/9/51,Buckingham
Palace.
  • Clement Thomas was the surgeon and Robert Machray
    the anaesthetist assisted by Cyril Scurr who had
    to attach a wire between the oscilloscope (below)
    and a cold water tap. He survived the operation
    but died 5 months later.

62
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63
ANTHONY EDEN
  • Until 12th April 1953 he had lived a charmed
    life, then his luck ran out.
  • Unlike two of his brothers he survived WW1.
  • He was charming and handsome and much admired by
    the ladies.
  • He had a hat named after him.
  • He had been a successful foreign secretary

64
  • On 12th April 1953 60yo surgeon Basil Hume
    performed gall bladder surgery on Eden.
  • He was Edens choice, against other advice,
    because he had previously removed Edens appendix
    successfully.
  • Hume was not an expert at biliary surgery and had
    to delay the operation for an hour while he
    composed himself.
  • The three hour operation was a disaster, Edens
    common bile duct was damaged and his health
    permanently ruined.

65
  • He underwent many subsequent operations, 3 in the
    USA.
  • He was on a combination of amphetamines and
    barbiturates often, including during Suez.
  • During the Suez crisis of 1956 he had a fever of
    106 Fahrenheit due to cholangitis. This probably
    affected his judgement.

66
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67
DWIGHT EISENHOWER 1890 to 1969.
  • Eisenhower served two terms as president from
    1952 to 1960.
  • On September 24th 1955 he developed severe chest
    pain at 2.30 in the morning. His doctor Major
    General Howard Snyder correctly diagnosed a heart
    attack and gave the president morphine, a
    coronary dilator and an anticoagulant, but in
    order to avoid public alarm took the enormous
    risk of not admitting him to hospital for 12
    hours.
  • Eisenhower also had a stroke in November 1957
    from which he recovered.
  • Being a VIP is dangerous to your health.

68
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69
JFK.
  • He suffered with Addisons disease,
    hypothyroidism and chronic severe low back pain.
  • He was on many medications including steroids and
    amphetamines.
  • On 17th April there was the disastrous Bay of
    Pigs invasion.
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis was from 14th to 28th
    October 1962.

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71
VASIL ARKHIPOV 27th OCTOBER 1962.
  • The Soviet diesel powered submarine B59 which
    unbeknown to the Americans carried a nuclear
    torpedo, was detected in the quarantine area
    (international waters), during the Cuban Missile
    crisis.
  • The gungho US Admiral Anderson, who had fallen
    out with US secretary of defence Robert
    MacNamara, ordered depth grenades to be dropped
    to force it to the surface.
  • The submarine was out of touch with Moscow
  • The captain Valentin Savitsky believing war may
    have started wanted to launch the nuclear
    torpedo.

72
27th OCTOBER 1962.
  • According to protocol 3 officers had to agree in
    order to launch.
  • They were Captain Savitsky, the political officer
    Semonovich Maslennikov and a third officer Vasil
    Arkhipov.
  • Maslennikov agreed with Savitsky. Arkhipov who
    was only 36 and under enormous pressure said no
    and explained his reasoning and prevailed.
  • The submarine surfaced and possibly, maybe
    probably, thermonuclear war was averted.
  • In 2002 former US defence secretary Robert
    McNamara said we came very close to nuclear war.

73
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74
LEONID BREZHNEV.
  • For the last 10 years of his life Brezhnev, who
    was a heavy smoker and drinker, suffered every
    disease known to man. In the last years of his
    life the Soviet Union was governed by Andrei
    Gromyko, foreign secretary Dmitry Ustinov,
    defence secretary Mikhail Suslov, chief
    ideologist and Yuri Andropov, KGB chief. Indeed
    these four took the crucial and disastrous
    decision to invade Afghanistan on Christmas Eve
    1979, took no minutes of the decision, and
    presented a document for Brezhnev to sign to
    authorise it.

75
THE YOUNG BRITISH SOLDIER, 1895, RUDYARD
KIPLING. (DO WE NEVER LEARN).
  • When youre wounded and lying on Afghanistans
    plains,
  • And the women come out to cut up what remains,
  • Jest roll to your rifle and blow out your
    brains,
  • An go to your Gawd like a soldier,
  • So-oldier of the Queen.

76
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77
YURI ANDROPOV.
  • Andropov became general secretary on 12th
    November 1982.
  • In February 1983 age 68 he suffered total renal
    failure, requiring dialysis.
  • He spent the remaining year of his life in the
    Central Clinical Hospital west of Moscow.
  • March 8th 1983 Reagans evil empire speech.
  • September 1st 1983 KAL 007 shot down.
  • September 26th 1983 Petrov saves the world.
  • November 2nd_12th 1983 exercise Able Archer.

78
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79
STANISLAV PETROV, THE MAN WHO SAVED THE WORLD BY
DOING NOTHING.
  • On September 26th 1983 Petrov was (civilian
    fortunately) duty officer at the nuclear early
    warning command centre near Moscow, when the
    system (which was in its early stages after being
    opened and for which Petrov was aware there had
    been teething problems) reported a missile being
    launched from the USA. Contrary to protocol
    Petrov did nothing.
  • Later the system reported 4 more missiles being
    launched. Again contrary to instructions Petrov
    did nothing.
  • It was later determined that they were false
    alarms caused by a rare alignment of sunlight on
    high altitude clouds and a satellite orbit.
  • Fortunately Andropov, who was perceived as being
    trigger happy and was terminally ill, was never
    notified.
  • In January 2006 Petrov was personally honoured at
    the United Nations in New York City.

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81
KONSTANTIN CHERNENKO.
  • He was general secretary from 13TH February 1984
    to 10th March 1985.
  • He was a heavy smoker and drinker.
  • He suffered with emphysema, right heart failure
    and cirrhosis of the liver.
  • He died age 73.

82
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83
RONALD REAGAN 1981 to 1989.
  • He was shot on March 30th 1981 by John Hinkley.
    He was close to death on arrival at George
    Washington University Hospital.
  • The bullet entered his left lung which collapsed
    and he lost over 3 litres of blood.
  • He was stabilised in the emergency room with a
    chest drain and blood transfusion.
  • He then had a thoracotomy and his life was saved.
  • It was many months until he recovered his health,
  • In his second term he had a right hemicolectomy
    for a villous adenoma and developed early
    Alzheimers.

84
  • In February 1987 White House chief of staff
    Donald Regan was forced to resign over the Iran
    Contra controversy.
  • He was replaced by Howard Baker who found a badly
    demoralized White House staff over Ronald
    Reagans lack of attention to the duties of the
    presidency.
  • All he wanted to do was watch movies and
    television at the residence.
  • Baker considered applying section 4 of the 25th
    amendment, but after interviewing the president
    decided against that course of action.

85
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86
VLADIMIR PUTIN.
  • He was born in Leningrad in 1952.
  • His parents were both 41 when he was born and
    were survivors of the 872 day siege of Leningrad,
    in which there were up to 2 million deaths and in
    which in all of history is unequalled in terms of
    the resistance and refusal to surrender of the
    Russian people.
  • Both his elder brothers died.
  • He had a very difficult upbringing in conditions
    of hardship unimaginable to westerners.
  • NPD often has roots in childhood where family
    life is marked by trauma and emotional chaos.
  • This may account for his narcissistic personality
    disorder and bullying personality.

87
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88
HILARY CLINTON.
  • Hilary Clinton had a life threatening cerebral
    venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) following a fall
    while secretary of state. It was the second time
    she had had a CVST.
  • She is probably thrombophilic and probably on
    warfarin or rivaroxaban.
  • Should she run for the presidency?

89
  • MATERIAL FOR THIS PRESENTATION HAS BEEN COLLATED
    FROM THE INTERNET AND FROM
  • WHEN ILLNESS STRIKES WORLD LEADERS BY JERROLD
    M. POST, M.D. AND ROBERT S. ROBINS.
  • IN SICKNESS AND IN POWER BY DAVID OWEN
    M.B.B.S.
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