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Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

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Chapter 10 Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer There are several things that a woman can do to try to reduce her risk of CVD and cancer. Lifestyle is a critical part of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer


1
Chapter 10
Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer
2
Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer
  • The greatest causes of death in the United States
    and the world
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Heart disease
  • Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)
  • Cancer
  • Can affect any area
  • In women, most likely to affect breasts, lung,
    reproductive system and skin

3
Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease
  • 450,000 U.S. women die annually of CVD
  • If all major forms of CVD were eliminated, life
    expectancy would increase by 7 years
  • Of the various forms of CVD
  • Coronary heart disease is the leading killer,
    killing nearly 480,000 people
  • Stroke kills over 150,000 people per year (about
    1 of 5 CVD deaths)
  • 60 of stroke deaths are women

4
Economic Dimensions
  • Estimated cost annual cost for cardiovascular
    disease
  • Direct costs health expenditures, hospital and
    nursing home services, medications, home health
    care
  • Indirect costs lost productivity (both to people
    with CVD and their caretakers)

5
Cardiovascular System
6
Coronary heart disease
  • Occurs when the coronary arteries become blocked
    or narrowed with plaque
  • Clots forming in an artery can also lead to
    blockages
  • Can lead to a heart attack (death of part of the
    heart)

7
If Plaque Causes CHD, what Causes Plaque?
CHD begins with plaque buildup inside the lining
of the coronary arteries. Plaque begins with LCL
cholesterol moving inside the arteries white
blood cells can also get stuck inside the lining
and die. Plaque can grow until it takes up 95
of the space in an artery.
8
Other Forms of Heart Disease
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Weak heart muscles that cannot perform the
    pumping function with proper vigor
  • Often a disease of older women who have suffered
    heart damage from other causes
  • Arrhythmias
  • Problems with the heartbeat (can be fast, slow,
    or irregular

9
Other Forms of Heart Disease, Cont.
  • Rheumatic heart disease
  • Results from bacterial infection with
    Streptococcus, which can cause damage to heart
    valves. Can usually be cured with antibiotics.
  • Angina pectoris
  • Chest pain resulting from insufficient supply of
    blood (oxygen) to heart muscle
  • Disease of the extremities (arms/legs) in which
    blood supply is diminished, resulting in lack of
    nutrients and oxygen

10
Metabolic syndrome
  • Group of disease that occur together and cause
    CVD. Risk factors include
  • Elevated waist circumference
  • High blood lipid levels
  • Low HDL levels
  • High blood cholesterol
  • Elevated fasting blood glucose level
  • Metabolic syndrome is a greater risk for women
    than it is for men.

11
Cerebrovascular Disease, aka Stroke
  • Blood vessels either within or leading to the
    brain becomes damaged, blocked, or burst.
  • This leads to portions of the brain being unable
    to receive oxygen, and thus dying.
  • Often survivors have a long, difficult recovery
    processmany things may have to be relearned.

12
Stroke, Cont.
  • Types of stroke
  • Ischemic strokethe most common type, caused by a
    cerebral thrombus or embolism
  • Hemorrhagic strokecaused by ruptured blood
    vessels such as an aneurysm
  • Possible warning sign transient ischemic attacks
    (TIAs)brief memory loss, garbled speech, or
    other symptoms

13
Recovery From a Stroke
  • Recovery statistics
  • 50 to 70 of survivors regain functional
    independence
  • 15 to 30 are permanently disabled
  • 20 require institutional care within three
    months after onset
  • 25 of women with a stroke die within a year
    (risk of death and future strokes increases with
    age)
  • Rehabilitation
  • Depends on area affectedmay require physicians,
    nurses, physical therapy, speech therapy, mental
    health professionals, or others

14
Risk Factors for CVD
  • High LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good)
    cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Overweight and obesity
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Age (for women, after menopause)
  • Physical activity
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Physical inactivity

15
Risk Factors for CVD, Cont.
  • Age
  • Genetics
  • Race
  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • Hypertension
  • Elevated cholesterol
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Diabetes
  • Menopause

16
Gender Differences of CVD
  • Before menopause, womens hormones protect them
    from CVD. But afterward, their risk increases
    more sharply with age
  • Symptoms and signs of a heart attack vary among
    genders women tend to have fewer, quieter
    symptoms
  • Fewer sharp, intense pains
  • Shortness of breath
  • Cold sweat, nausea, dizziness
  • Women more likely to die from heart attack

17
Cigarette Smoking and CVD
  • Smoking is a major risk factor for CVD (as well
    as lung and other cancers)
  • Carbon monoxide, nicotine, and other substances
    in cigarette smoke constrict and injure arteries
  • Health risks for smoking decline the earlier a
    woman quits
  • Secondhand smoke is a CVD ( cancer) risk factor

18
Cancer and Related Terms
  • Cancer disease caused by uncontrolled cellular
    growth or reproduction
  • Tumor any abnormal cell growth can be benign
    (contained) or malignant (growing/spreading)
  • Metastasis the process of cancer spreading
    throughout the body
  • Carcinogen a substance that can cause cancer

19
Cancer and Women Epidemiological Overview
  • Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in
    the United States.
  • 75 of cancers are diagnosed in people aged 55
    and older
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women
  • Lung cancer is the second most common, but causes
    the most deaths (lower survival rate)
  • Third most common cancer colorectal
  • Fourth most common cancer endometrial

20
Breast Conditions
  • Most women will find a lump in their breast at
    some point in their lives. In 9 of 10 cases, this
    is not cancer.
  • Benign breast diseases include
  • Fibrocystic breast disease (cystic mastitis)
  • Hyperplasia
  • Fibroadenoma

21
Breast Conditions
  • Breast cancer is a frightening, misunderstood
    issue in womens health. It can usually be
    successfully treated if detected early.
  • Five levels
  • In situ Too small to be felt nearly 100
    5-year survival rate
  • Stage I lt 2 cm in size, localized
  • Stage II 25 cm in size, localized
  • Stage III gt 5 cm in size, grown into chest wall,
    skin, or lymph nodes
  • Stage IV Growth spread to other parts of body

22
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
  • Gender
  • Age
  • Family history
  • Never had children or first child after 30
  • Early menarche (before 12) or late menopause
    (after 55)
  • Consumption of high-fat diet or alcohol
  • Environmental factors
  • Obesity
  • Oral contraceptive use?

23
Breast Cancer Screening
  • Breast self-exam
  • Clinical breast exam
  • Mammography

24
Treatment
  • Lumpectomy
  • Partial or segmental mastectomy
  • Simple mastectomy
  • Radical mastectomy
  • Modified radical mastectomy
  • Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormone
    therapy may be used alongside surgery to improve
    chances of recovery.

25
Lung Cancer
  • Cigarette smoking is responsible for almost every
    case of lung cancer, the deadliest form of cancer
    for men and women.
  • Lung cancer often spreads to other parts of the
    body before it can be detected.
  • Common symptoms are persistent cough, weight
    loss, bloody sputum, recurring bronchitis,
    pneumonia, and chest pain.
  • Treatment is very difficult but can include
    surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.

26
Cervical Cancer
  • Caused by high risk strains of HPV
  • Modern medicine has the potential to prevent
    almost all cases of cervical cancer
  • Screening Pap smear, HPV test (for women 30 and
    over)
  • Vaccination can prevent most, but not all, cases
    of cervical cancer (screening still needed)
  • Treatment cyrosurgery, cone biopsy, laser cone
    biopsy

27
Gynecological Conditions
  • Benign uterine conditions
  • Fibroids
  • Endometriosiswhen it grows into wall of uterus,
    called adenomyosis
  • Endometrial hyperplasia
  • Treatments include hormone therapy or surgery
    (myomectomy, laparoscopy, hysterectomy)

28
Malignant Uterine Tumors
  • Risk factors
  • Age (over 50), obesity, diabetes, high blood
    pressure, early menarche or late menopause,
    history of infertility, family or personal
    history of other cancers, long-term high-dose
    ERT, cigarette smoking, use of Tamoxifen for
    breast cancer
  • Difficult to detecttoo high up to be found on a
    pelvic examination
  • Treatment may involve surgery and/or
    radiotherapy.


29
Benign Ovarian Growths
  • Cystsfollicular, hemorrhagic, epithelial,
    dermoid
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • A deadly, stealthy, and largely misunderstood
    form of cancer.
  • Risk factors no children, early menstruation,
    late menopause, pregnancy after age 30, previous
    cancer, long-term use of some fertility drugs
  • Early symptoms pelvic pressure, abdominal
    swelling, gas pains, indigestion, vague abdominal
    discomfort
  • Treatment surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy

30
Cervical Cancer
  • Caused by HPV, a very common sexually transmitted
    virus
  • Only high-risk strains of HPV can cause cervical
    cancer
  • Most women with high-risk HPV will NOT develop
    cervical cancer
  • Easily treated if found early (Pap smears, HPV
    test)
  • A new vaccine can now protect against some
    high-risk strains of HPV

31
Colorectal Cancer
  • Increasing age and familial adenomatous polyposis
    (FAP) are major risk factors high fat, low-fiber
    diet is also a risk factor
  • Warning signs blood in stool, cramping in lower
    abdomen
  • Screening digital rectal exam, sigmoidoscopy,
    fecal occult blood testing, colonoscopy
  • Treatment surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy

32
Skin Cancer
  • Skin cancer
  • Melanomas vs. nonmelanomas (basal cell and
    squamous cell carcinomas)
  • Risk factors UV from sunlight, moles, family
    history, race
  • Screening and diagnosis skin exam looking for
    ABCD
  • Asymmetry
  • Border irregularities
  • Color irregularities
  • Diameter
  • Treatment surgery, radiation therapy,
    electrodessication, cryosurgery, laser therapy

33
Reducing Your Risk of CVD and Cancer
  • Importance of preventive lifestyle habits
  • Knowledge of family history, genetic risks
  • Importance of screening for early detection
  • What are you doing to reduce your risk of CVD and
    cancer?
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