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Characteristics%20of%20Living%20Things

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Title: Characteristics%20of%20Living%20Things


1
Characteristics of Living Things
  • Life Science Biology

2
  • When you see the symbol, write
    down
  • the definition from the slide.

3
Objectives
  • Be able to determine whether something is a
    living thing or a non-living thing.
  • Learn and understand the 6 main characteristics
    of living things.

4
  • Organism-a living thing anything that can carry
    out life processes independently. They can be
    unicellular (one cell) or multicellular (many
    cells).
  • Some cells have organelles and some do not.

5
First Characteristic of Living Things
  • The first characteristic of living things is that
    they are all composed of cells.
  • Cells are the itsy bitsy puzzle pieces that make
    up all living things.

6
Second Characteristic of Living Things
  • The second characteristic of living things is
    that they have DNA.
  • When organisms reproduce they pass copies of
    their DNA to their offspring.

7
Third Characteristic of Living Things
  • The third characteristic of living things is all
    living things use energy.

Plants however use the sunlight to obtain their
energy.
Animals and humans eat food to obtain their
energy.
8
Energy
  • All organisms use energy to undergo life
    processes. Energy cannot be reused or recycled.
    In nature, materials needed by all organisms in
    an ecosystem are reused or recycled.

9
  • Nitrogen, carbon, oxygen and other nutrients move
    through ecosystems in a predictable pattern or
    cycle. These nutrient cycles in nature are
    called biochemical cycles.

10
Inorganic compounds
  • Water, carbon dioxide, ammonia and oxyen are the
    basic inorganic chemicals of life. Th formulas
    for each are
  • Water- H2O
  • Carbon-CO2
  • Ammonia-NH3
  • Oxygen- O2

11
Organic compounds
  • The organic compounds of life include
  • carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • nucleotides
  • They are called organic because all contain the
    compound element Carbon.

12
Carbohydrates
  • Any of a group of organic compounds that includes
    sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums and serves
    as a major energy source in the diet of animals.

13
Lipids
  • Any of a group of organic compounds, including
    the fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and
    triglycerides, that are insoluble in water

14
Proteins
  • made up of amino acids. Proteins are basic
    components of all living cells and are therefore
    among the principal substances that make up the
    body.

15
Nucleotides
  • Any of various compounds consisting of a
    nucleoside combined with a phosphate group and
    forming the basic constituent of DNA and RNA

16
  • Oxygen cycle-the process by which oxygen released
    into the atmosphere by photosynthetic organisms
    is taken up by aerobic organisms while the carbon
    dioxide released as a by-product of respiration
    is taken up for photosynthesis.

17
  • Carbon cycle- The continuous process by which
    carbon is exchanged between organisms and the
    environment.

18
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19
  • Nitrogen cycle-the circulation of nitrogen
    nitrates from the soil are absorbed by plants
    which are eaten by animals that die and decay
    returning the nitrogen back to the soil 

20
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21
Fourth Characteristic of Living Things
  • The fourth characteristic of living things is
    homeostasis.
  • This is maintaining the inside of their bodies.
  • Eating the right foods and staying clean are
    parts of this maintaining process.

22
Regulation of an organisms internal surroundings
(environment) involves sensing the internal and
external environment and changing physiological
activities to keep condition within the range
required to survive.
23
  • Lets discuss the things that can effect the way
    we respond to our environment.

24
Environment
  • the air, water, minerals, organisms, and all
    other external factors surrounding and affecting
    a given organism at any time.

25
Homeostasis
  • Homeostasis - the bodys ability to maintain a
    relatively constant internal environment despite
    changes in the external environment.

26
Feedback mechanisms
  • Homeostasis maintained through either
  • Negative feedback mechanisms
  • opposes response to stimulus
  • Positive feedback mechanisms
  • enhances response to stimulus

27
Stimulus
  • Stimulus- something that causes a reaction in a
    living thing

28
Response
  • A reaction, as that of an organism or any of its
    parts, to a specific stimulus

29
Plants
  • Animals and plants respond in different ways.
    Lets look at the way plants respond to their
    environment.

30
  • A plants responses to gravity, moisture, and
    light are called tropisms. Tropisms can be
    either negative or positive. Lets look each
    one.

31
Negative tropism
  • Negative tropism- Moving or turning away from a
    stimulus, such as light

32
Positive tropism
  • Positive tropism is when there is movement toward
    the source of stimulation.

33
Fifth Characteristic of Living Things
  • The fifth characteristic of living things is that
    all living things grow and develop. Cell growth
    can include size of cell or number of cells.

34
  • Development refers to the series of changes that
    produces a more complex organism.
  • Growth is an increase in size.

35
Sixth Characteristic of Living Things
  • The sixth characteristic of living things is
    reproduction. All living things need to reproduce
    to survive.

36
Reproduction is sexual and/or asexual.
  • Sexual reproduction-reproduction in which the sex
    cells from two parents unite, producing offspring
    that share traits from both parents.
  • Asexual reproduction-reproduction that does not
    involving the union of sex cells and in which on
    parent produces offspring identical to itself.

37
Living or Non-living and Why?
Living
Non-Living
Living
Non-Living
Living
Non-Living
38
Six Characteristics of Living Things
  1. Cells
  2. Have DNA
  3. Uses energy
  4. Homeostasis/responds to environment
  5. Growth and Development
  6. Reproduction
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