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Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

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Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis CENTRAL DOGMA DNA RNA Protein Trait DNA TO PROTEINS DNA is the blueprint for life it contains your genetic information ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis


1
Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis
2
Central Dogma
  • DNA ? RNA ? Protein ? Trait

3
DNA to PROTEINS
  • DNA is the blueprint for life it contains your
    genetic information
  • The order of the bases in a segment of DNA (Gene)
    codes for a particular protein these proteins
    then determine your traits
  • How do you get from a 4-letter code to an entire
    organism?

A GENE IS A SEGMENT OF DNA THAT CODES FOR A
PROTEIN. NOT ALL DNA CODES FOR PROTEINS.
4
DNA to RNA TRANSCRIPTION
  • In the first step of protein synthesis, the code
    of DNA is transcribed onto a molecule of RNA
    this step of the process is known as
    Transcription
  • DNA is too big and too sensitive to leave the
    nucleus. However, proteins are made in the
    ribosomes, so the information in DNA must be
    transferred.
  • It will be transferred to a molecule of RNA
  • RNA is also used because it allows the genetic
    information to move from the nucleus (safe) to
    the cytoplasm (dangerous)

5
RNA
  • RNA Ribonucleic acid
  • It is still a nucleic acid therefore it is made
    up of nucleotides (3 components sugar, phosphate
    group and nitrogen bases)
  • It uses ribose as its sugar
  • Instead of using thymine, it uses uracil (A, U,
    G, C)
  • It is a single strand only

6
Types of RNA - mRNA
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) single uncoiled chain that
    carries the genetic information from the nucleus
    to the cytosol

7
Types of RNA - tRNA
  • Transfer RNA (tRNA) single chain in the
    formation of a hairpin shape, each piece is bound
    to a specific amino acid

8
Types of RNA - rRNA
  • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) most abundant form, wraps
    around ribosomal proteins to make up the
    ribosomes where proteins are made

9
Transcription
  • Process by which genetic information is copied
    (transcribed) from DNA to RNA
  • RNA polymerase initiates transcription by binding
    to a specific area of DNA called promoters
  • What do you think a promoter is?
  • A promoter starts, or promoters the beginning of
    transcription
  • Where the polymerase binds, the DNA strands
    separate and a template is created upon which RNA
    is created

10
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11
Transcription (continued)
  • RNA polymerase attaches to the first nucleotide
    and adds on complementary bases using uracil
    instead of thymine
  • Continues until the polymerase reaches the
    termination signal
  • What do you think a termination signal does?
  • Termination signal causes the polymerase to
    release the DNA and RNA

12
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13
Protein Synthesis
  • When mRNA is produced it will be used in protein
    synthesis or the production of proteins
  • Proteins consist of polypeptides which consist of
    amino acids
  • There are 20 possible amino acids

14
Translation Protein Assembly
  • This process takes the information that was
    transcribed into mRNA and translates it into a
    protein
  • It begins when a piece of mRNA attaches to a
    ribosome
  • mRNA is read by the ribosome. It is read in
    segments of 3 letters called codons
  • Each codon codes for a specific amino acid. That
    amino acid is brought by a piece of tRNA which
    transfers amino acids.
  • tRNA is also read in segments of 3 letters called
    anticodons. The anticodon is complementary to the
    codon found on mRNA ( i.e. if the codon is AUG
    the anticodon is UAC)
  • Eventually a stop codon is reached. They do not
    code for amino acids. They tell the ribosome to
    stop adding amino acids.
  • Many ribosomes may work at once on one piece of
    mRNA

15
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16
Genetic Code
  • Correlation between nucleotides and amino acids
  • Codon 3 mRNA nucleotides codes for a specific
    amino acid
  • One codons codes to start (AUG amino acid
    Methionine) and 3 codons can stop (UAA, UAG, UGA
    no amino acids)
  • If you had a codon AAG, what amino acid would you
    have?
  • lysine
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