The Cold War - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – The Cold War PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 75e703-Zjg5O


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

The Cold War


The Cold War – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:120
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 57
Provided by: Brian895
Learn more at:
Tags: bombs | cold | destroy | nuclear | war


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Cold War

The Cold War
The United Nations
  • Chartered in April 1945
  • Replaced the League of Nations
  • 50 nations joined initially (today, UN has 193
  • In the General Assembly, which decides general UN
    policies, each nation gets 1 vote (so all are
  • UN Security Council US, Soviet Union, France,
    Great Britain, China reserved the power to veto
    any action by the UN
  • For the UN to take any military action requires a
    unanimous vote of the Security Council

The Potsdam Conference
  • Jul. 16 Aug. 2 1945
  • Stalin, Clement Atlee (who had replaced Churchill
    as British Prime Minister), and Truman met to
    decide the fate of Germany and other occupied
    territories in Europe
  • All sides agreed to divide Germany and Austria
    into occupation zones and to dismantle most
    German industry, but disagreed over making
    Germany pay war reparations to the Soviets

Germany divided
The Soviets Split from the Allies
  • Stalin wanted to keep territory which the Soviets
    had conquered in Eastern Europe, in order to
    protect his nation from future invasions
  • Allies insisted on free elections in
    Soviet-occupied Poland, Latvia, Lithuania,
    Estonia, Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia,
  • Stalin refused and by 1948 all of these states
    had communist governments (Latvia, Lithuania,
    Estonia became part of the Soviet Union itself)

The Iron Curtain
  • From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the
    Adriatic an "iron curtain" has descended across
    the Continent. Behind that line lie all the
    capitals of the ancient states of Central and
    Eastern Europe and all are subject, in one form
    or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a
    very high and in some cases increasing measure of
    control from Moscow. - Winston Churchill, 1946
  • Term iron curtain was meant to describe the
    ideological division that had risen between
    Communist Eastern Europe and Democratic Western

Containment Policy
  • US had little choice but to accept communism in
    Eastern Europe or enter into an unpopular war
    with the Soviets
  • US instead focused on preventing communism from
    spreading into new areas and pledged to contain
    communism to the areas where it already existed

First Test of Containment
  • Stalin supported communist rebels in Greece and
    Turkey in their efforts to overthrow US-backed
  • The devastation of WWII had left these
    governments in a seriously weakened state and
    they were in serious danger of falling without US

The Truman Doctrine
  • 1947 Truman declared that US foreign policy
    would be to support free peoples who are
    resisting attempted subjugation by armed
    minorities or by outside pressures
  • Truman essentially declared war on the spread of
    communism, launching a Cold War that would last
    into the 1990s
  • After Trumans speech, Congress approved 400
    million in economic aid to Greece and Turkey

The Marshall Plan
  • In support of the Truman Doctrine, Sec. of State
    George Marshall developed a plan to provide US
    financial aid to war-torn Europe, to help with
    rebuilding both physically and economically
  • The economic prosperity in Western Europe that
    followed minimized the potential for any further
    spread of communism in that region
  • The US sent 25 billion in aid to Europe in the 6
    years following the end of WWII

(No Transcript)
Stalin rejects the Marshall Plan
  • The US even offered economic assistance to
    countries behind the iron curtain, including
    the Soviet Union, but Stalin would not allow any
    communist state to accept US assistance,
    believing it would weaken his control

The Berlin Blockade
  • June 1948 May 1949
  • Frustrated with US efforts to restore a unified
    Germany, Stalin tried to push the US and its
    allies out of West Berlin by blocking all
    overland access to the city through East Germany
  • All road and rail lines were cut and no supplies
    could be brought into the western half of the city

The Berlin Airlift
  • Allies decided to fly supplies into Berlin
  • Soviets were unwilling to be the aggressor by
    shooting down Allied aircraft
  • 1500 flights a day delivered 5000 tons of
    supplies a day everything from food to coal to
    gasoline to cloth to machinery
  • After nearly a year, the Soviets lifted the
    unsuccessful blockade

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • Founded April 4, 1949
  • Mutual defense treaty against the Soviets
  • US, Canada, and most of Western Europe were
  • Today, still includes most of Europe US Canada

The Warsaw Pact
  • May 14, 1955 Soviets responded to NATO by
    creating an alliance of communist states
  • Unlike NATO, which was an alliance of free
    nations, Warsaw Pact members were given no choice
    but to join by the Soviets
  • Officially disbanded July 1, 1991 after the
    collapse of Soviet power

(No Transcript)
Russians Develop Atomic Bombs
  • August 29, 1949 Soviets tested their first
    atomic bomb (technology they had largely stolen
    from the US through espionage)
  • By 1961, Soviets were capable of detonating 100
    megaton bombs (equal to about 20 times all of the
    explosives used in WWII combined!)
  • Soviets had become a much more serious threat in
    the eyes of the US

US and Chinese Communism
  • China had been involved in a civil war between
    Nationalists and Communists since before WWII
  • Communists gained control of mainland China in
    1949, driving the Nationalists to flee to the
    island of Taiwan
  • The US refused to acknowledge the Communists as
    the legitimate Chinese government, instead
    insisting on recognizing the Nationalists on
    Taiwan as the true China, while the Soviets
    took just the opposite stance

The Korean War
  • June 1950 July 1953
  • After WWII, Korea had been divided much as
    Germany had into a Communist-held north and a
    US-backed south
  • North Korea, backed by China the Soviets
    attacked South Korea, backed by the UN (using
    mostly US soldiers)
  • Dispute was eventually settled by returning to
    essentially pre-war boundaries, but no formal
    peace was ever declared

The H-Bomb
  • Nov. 1952 The US tested its newest weapon the
    Hydrogen Bomb, a weapon 1000 times more powerful
    than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima
  • Within a year, however, the Soviets also had

Nuclear Arms Race
  • Soviets and Americans rapidly built enough
    nuclear weapons to destroy the world many times
  • MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) was the
    theory that the more nuclear weapons both sides
    had, the safer the world was because it made a
    nuclear war unwinnable for both sides

Domino Theory
  • US believed strongly in the idea that if you let
    even a single nation fall to communism, then you
    would set off a chain reaction where its
    neighbors would also fall to communism (like

  • Brinksmanship is the practice of escalating
    international tensions to the brink of war, with
    the hope that the other side will back down at
    the last minute and thereby give you an advantage
    in future negotiations

Nikita Khrushchev
  • 1894 1971 (life)
  • 1953 64 (Soviet leader)
  • Named head of the Soviet Union after the death of
    Stalin in 1953
  • More liberal than Stalin in Soviet domestic
    issues, but more confrontational in foreign
    policy, pushing the Soviet Union to the brink of
    war with the US on several occasions

The U-2 Incident
  • 1960
  • Just weeks before a major peace summit, the
    Soviets shot down an American U-2 spy plane over
    their airspace and captured the pilot, Francis
    Gary Powers
  • Marked a turning point in US-Soviet relations, as
    the peace summit was cancelled and the American
    pilot was tried as a spy and sentenced to prison
    (the Soviets later traded him back to the US for
    one of their own spies)

Communism in Cuba
  • Many US business held large investments in Cuba
    during the 1950s, but those investments were
    jeopardized when Cubas government was overthrown
    by communist rebels under the leadership of Fidel
  • US leadership were equally alarmed by the seizure
    of over 1 billion worth of property in Cuba
    owned by Americans as they were by suddenly
    having a communist state 90 miles off the US coast

The Berlin Wall
  • West Berlin, deep inside of communist East
    Germany, became a way for many Germans to flee
    communist oppression
  • In 1961, the Soviets ordered the construction of
    a wall around West Berlin to isolate it and
    prevent future defections
  • The Berlin Wall became the physical symbol of the
    Cold War

The Bay of Pigs Invasion
  • The American CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)
    began training Cuban exiles for an invasion of
    Cuba with the purpose of overthrowing Castros
    communist govt.
  • In April 1961, the exiles landed at The Bay of
    Pigs in Cuba, but were quickly defeated by Cuban
    forces when the US failed to provide any further
    invention on their behalf
  • Major international embarrassment for the US

The Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Soviets placed nuclear missiles in Cuba in Fall
  • US demanded their removal and enacted a naval
    blockade of Cuba to stop Soviet ships from
    bringing more missiles
  • Many thought that WWIII would result as the US
    and USSR faced off over a tense 13-day period,
    each threatening the other with nuclear force
  • Soviets eventually backed down and removed the
    missiles, thanks to the US publicly promising not
    to invade Cuba and secretly agreeing to remove
    American missiles from Turkey

The Vietnam War
  • 1959 1975
  • US backed South Vietnam against Soviet-backed
    communist North Vietnam
  • As tensions between the two Vietnams increased,
    the US began sending military advisors, then
    soldiers to train South Vietnamese troops and,
    eventually, hundreds of thousands of US combat

The Paris Peace Accords
  • Signed Jan. 27, 1973
  • After a decade of fighting and over 58,000
    casualties, US withdrew all troops from Vietnam
  • No permanent peace was formed between North and

The South Falls
  • March 1975
  • North launched a full-scale invasion of the South
  • Nixon had promised US aid if the North violated
    the treaty, but Nixon had been forced to resign
    due to the Watergate scandal and Congress refused
    to approve any new involvement in Vietnam
  • By April 30, the North had conquered the South

The Space Race
  • Both the US and USSR had captured German rocket
    scientists at the end of WWII and were pursuing
    missile technologies
  • Starting in 1957, these technologies were used to
    compete against each other for control of outer
    space a multi-billion dollar space race to
    see who could accomplish certain objectives or
    discoveries first

  • Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles
  • The development of missile technologies allowed
    both sides to mount atomic warheads onto
    long-range rockets which could be launched
    against distant targets

  • The first man-made object to attain orbit around
    the earth (satellite)
  • Sputnik I launched by the Soviets in Oct. 1957,
    followed by Sputnik II (which carried the first
    living creature into space, a dog named Laika) in
  • These launches triggered a panic in the US, as
    Americans worried that the Soviets were gaining a
    technological advantage over the US

Yuri Gagarin
  • 1934 1968
  • Soviet cosmonaut who became the first man in
    space in April of 1961
  • Declared a Hero of the Soviet Union, he was
    never allowed to return to space due to his value
    as an instrument of propaganda instead, he was
    sent on a world tour to promote Soviet
  • Ironically, he later died in a plane crash

Project Mercury
  • 1959 1963
  • NASAs first program designed to put an American
    in space
  • Capsule could carry only a single astronaut
  • Cost 384 million, but succeeded at getting the
    US manned space program off the ground

Kennedy Targets the Moon
  • We commit before this decade is out, to
    landing a man on the Moon and returning him
    safely to the Earth But why, some say, the
    moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may
    well ask why climb the highest mountain? We
    choose to go to the moon in this decade and do
    the other things, not because they are easy, but
    because they are hard, because that goal will
    serve to organize and measure the best of our
    energies and skills, because that challenge is
    one that we are willing to accept, one we are
    unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to

Project Gemini
  • 1965 1966
  • Could carry 2 astronauts
  • 10 manned flights cost 5.4 billion
  • Purpose was to develop the technologies that
    would be needed to make longer space flights
    possible (such as a trip to the moon and back)

Apollo Program
  • Series of 6 manned missions to the moon between
    1969 and 1972
  • Each Apollo craft carried 3 astronauts
  • Suffered two major accidents during the Apollo I
    training exercise in 1967, 3 astronauts died in
    an oxygen fire, and an explosion onboard Apollo
    13 forced the crew to abort the mission
  • Cost 25.4 billion

The Eagle has landed
  • July 20, 1969
  • Apollo 11 became the first manned-mission to land
    on the moon after a 4 day journey
  • Represented a major victory for the US, since we
    had finally surpassed Soviet achievement in space
    (to this day, no other nation has landed
    astronauts on the moon)

Thats one small step for a man
  • one giant leap for mankind.
  • After the success of the Apollo program,
    Americans tired of the space race we had
    clearly beaten the Soviets and Americans were now
    distracted by more down to earth matters such
    as the Vietnam War, Civil Rights, and Watergate

Détente Nixon Visits China
  • Nixon looked to improve relations with both
    communist China and the Soviet Union
  • In 1972, Nixon became the first US president to
    visit China, hoping to exploit a rift between the
    Chinese and Russians and gain influence
  • The Soviets responded by welcoming Nixon to
    Moscow just 3 months later

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
  • SALT I (1972)
  • US and Soviets agreed to limit the number and
    type of intercontinental ballistic missiles
    (ICBMs) held by each nation
  • Led to dramatically improved relations with the
    Soviet Union

Helsinki Accords
  • 1975 meeting of NATO and Warsaw Pact leaders
  • Soviets promised to uphold basic human rights,
    but when they did not keep that promise, American
    enthusiasm for détente began to fade and the Cold
    War began to deepen once again

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
  • In December 1979, Soviet troops entered
    Afghanistan to help the communist government put
    down a rebellion
  • US responded to this invasion with a grain
    embargo against the Soviet Union, by boycotting
    the 1980 Olympic Games which were being held in
    Moscow, and by refusing to ratify the recently
    agreed to SALT II treaty
  • Détente completely collapsed

Reagan The Cold War
  • US President Ronald Reagan abandoned all efforts
    at détente and negotiation with the Soviets,
    declaring them an evil empire and set out to
    win the Cold War by forcing the Soviets to
    deplete their economy through military spending

Military Buildup
  • Reagan spent 1.5 trillion on defense, forcing
    the Soviets to match with their own military
    buildup or run the risk of losing global
  • The idea was to break the Soviet economy and
    thereby win the Cold War it worked, but it
    would not be until after Reagan had left office
    that the Soviet economy failed

Star Wars
  • Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
  • Reagan called for the development of a
    space-mounted weapons platform which could be
    used to destroy Soviet nuclear missiles before
    they could reach the US
  • The US spent about 100 billion trying to develop
    such a system (with no success), forcing the
    Soviets to spend money on how to counter such a

The Reagan Doctrine
  • Reagan believed that that the US had a moral
    obligation to show support for guerrilla groups
    who were fighting communist or pro-Soviet
  • This policy would lead to US intervention in
    several conflicts

  • Reagan provided over 570 million in military aid
    to the mujahadeen rebels fighting the Soviets in
    Afghanistan, allowing them to drag the fight out
    for 9 bloody years
  • In 1988, the Soviets withdrew after losing nearly
    15,000 men

Mikhail Gorbachev
  • 1931 Present
  • Became new leader of the Soviet Union in 1985
  • Believed that economic and political reform was
    necessary to the survival of the USSR and pursued
    an arms reduction agreement with the US
  • Signed an agreement with Reagan in 1987 to reduce
    the number of nuclear weapons, leading to a new

Perestroika Glasnost
  • Gorbachev instituted new programs to try to save
    the Soviet economy
  • Perestroika (restructuring) allowed some small
    private businesses to operate outside of
    government control
  • Glasnost (openness) allowed Soviet citizens
    new freedoms of religion and speech and to have a
    voice in Soviet politics

The Wall Comes Down
  • Nov. 9, 1989
  • East Germans guards opened the gates in the
    Berlin Wall, removing the barrier between East
    and West within days the wall was completely
  • The next year, East and West Germany reunited
    into one country for the first time since 1945

Collapse of Communism
  • The Soviets inability to financially support
    communist states in Eastern Europe led to mostly
    peaceful overthrows of their unpopular
  • In 1989, the old communist bloc collapsed as
    communist regimes fell one after another
  • In late 1991, the Soviet Union itself collapsed
    after an attempted coup by communist hardliners
    failed to unseat Gorbachev and the communist
    party was banned in Russia the Cold War was
    over and the US had won