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VITAMINS

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VITAMINS Vijayalakshmi INTRODUCTION organic molecules with wide variety of capacities prominent function - cofactors for enzymatic reactions generally cannot be ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: VITAMINS


1
VITAMINS
  • Vijayalakshmi

2
INTRODUCTION
  • organic molecules with wide variety of capacities
  • prominent function - cofactors for enzymatic
    reactions
  • generally cannot be synthesized by mammalian
    cells
  • Vitamins are usually supplied in the diet or in
    dietary supplements
  • necessary for our growth, energy, and general
    well-being

3
HISTORY
  • Ancient Egyptians recognized night blindness
  • 1747-Scottish naval surgeon James Lind
    discovered the unknown nutrient (vitamin C) in
    citrus foods prevented scurvy

4
  • 1753- Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy
  • 1860- Louis Pasteur demonstrated that microscopic
    organisms can cause diseases
  • 1880- Christian Eijkman
  • vitamin-deficiency conditions in animals on
    an experimental basis
  • 1905- Julius Friedenwald and John Ruhräh
  • Beri-Beri is probably of microbic
    origin

5
  • 1906- Frederick Hopkin's - foods contain a
    small amount of growth factors
  • 1911- Casimir Funk discovered what he
    termed "vitamines"
  • 1919- Eat and Be Healthy, Virgil
    MacMickle, M.D., of Portland
  • chemical substances of which the body is
    composed are similar to those of the foods which
    nourish it. They are made up of the same chemical
    elements...the body can only get these from
    foods...

6
FUNCTIONS
  • Digestion
  • Converting food into energy
  • Cell division and growth
  • Tissue repair
  • Transporting oxygen and wastes in the
    circulation
  • Immunity

7
FUNCTIONS
  • Mental alertness
  • Making hormones
  • Reproduction
  • Protecting the body from poisons
  • Neutralizing the harmful by-products of
    metabolism such as free radicals

8
CLASSIFICATION
Water soluble Fat soluble
  Thiamin (B1)   Riboflavin (B2)   Niacin (B3)   Pantothenic acid (B5) Pyridoxine (B6) Biotin, Folic acid   Cobalamin (B12) Ascorbic acid Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K
9
VITAMIN A
  • Vitamin A consists of three biologically active
    molecules, retinol, retinal and retinoic acid
  • Retinol - sticky and light sensitive
  • Provitamin A carotenoids converted to retinol
    by the body
  • ex- Beta (b)-carotene

10
Sources
  • milk, cheese, cream, liver, kidney, cod and
    halibut fish oil milk,
  • Beta carotene - carrots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes,
    winter squashes, cantaloupe, pink grapefruit,
    apricots, broccoli, spinach and most dark green
    leafy vegetables

11
FUNCTIONS-VISION
12
  • Immunity- maintains integrity of skin and mucosal
    cells - Development and differentiation of
    WBC- by Retionic Acid
  • - activation of t-cells requires all-trans RA
    binding
  • Growth and Development-embryonic development
  • Regulation of expression of gene for growth
    hormone
  • Red blood cell production
  • DEFICIENCIES
  • Night Blindness- Bitots spot, Xeropthalmia
  • infectious disease Diarrhea, respiratory
    diseases

13
VITAMIN D
  • synthesized only when exposed to sunshine.
  • Converted to active form, 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin
    D
  • The 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D acts as a hormone,
    and has a specific nuclear receptor

14
SOURCES
  • Sunlight(PRIMARY)
  • MILK PRODUCTSCheese, butter, margarine, cream,
    fortified milk
  • SEA FOODS fish, oysters
  • fortified cereals.

15
  • FUNCTIONS
  • Calcium metabolism
  • Vitamin D endocrine system
  • - D3 bounds to vitamin D-binding protein and
    transported to liver
  • - converted to 25-OH-D3 or calcidol (inactive)
  • - increase exposure of sunlight increase blood
    level of calcidol
  • - hydroxyled to 1,25-OH-D3 or calcitriol
  • - parathyroid hormone released
  • Vitamin D receptor Vitamin D Receptor to
    Retinoic Acid X Receptor to form
    heterodimer-interacts with DNA
  • Vitamin D Responsive Elements - change in
    transcription of a nearby gene.

16
  • Cell differentiation- proliferation
  • - psoriasis - the proliferation of skin cells
    called keratinocytes
  • - identification of VDR in keratinocytes led to
    the use of creams containing analogs of
    calcitriol in the treatment of severe cases of
    psoriasis.
  • Immunity WBC recognizes Antigens
  • - Autoimmune disease
  • - Immune responses are mediated by
    T-Cells
  • DEFICIENCIES
  • Rickets
  • Osteomalacia

17
VITAMIN K
  • The K vitamins exist naturally as K1
    (phylloquinone) in green vegetables
  • K2 (menaquinone) produced by intestinal bacteria
  • K3 is synthetic menadione.

18
SOURCE
  • Spinach, cauliflower and other green leafy
    vegetables
  • chief source of vitamin K is synthesis by
    bacteria in the large intestine

19
  • FUNCTIONS
  • Coagulation (clotting)
  • - ability to bind Ca2 required for activation
    of the 7 vitamin k-dependent clotting factor in
    the coagulation cascade
  • Factors II , VII, IX,X make up the core
  • Protein Z enhances the action of thrombin by
    promoting association with phospholipids
  • Protein C and S control cascade
  • Vitamin k-dependent factors synthesized in liver
  • Bone mineralization Osteocalcin Osteoblasts-
    regulated by active form of vitamin D or
    calcitriol.

20
DEFICIENCIES
  • Liver disease
  • Poisoning with vitamin K antagonists
  • Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn results from
    vitamin K deficiency in human infants
  • Increased risk of fractures or reduced bone
    density may result from inadequate intake of
    vitamin K

21
VITAMIN E
  • Describes a family of 8 ?alpha, beta, gamma,
    delta and 4 tocotrienols
  • Alpha tocopherol is the only vitamin E that is
    actively maintained in human body found in
    tissues and blood
  • Maintains integrity of cell membrane and protects
    fats from oxidation

22
VITAMIN E
  • SOURCES
  • Vegetable oils, nuts, egg yolk, Parmesan,
    chickpeas, wheat germ, oatmeal, olives,carrots,
    parsnips, red peppers, green leafy vegetables,
    sweet potatoes, tomatoes, sweet corn
  • DEFICIENCIES
  • Sever malnutrition
  • Genetic defects
  • Fat malabsorption
  • Neurological symptoms

23
VITAMIN B
  • THIAMIN B1
  • RIBOFLAVIN B2
  • NIACIN B3
  • PANTOTHENIC ACID B5
  • VITAMIN B6

24
TYPE FUNCTION SOURCE DEFICIENCY
B1 Thiamin pyrophosphate Coenzyme non coenzyme function Whole grains, cereals, legumes nuts, lean pork, yeast BERI-BERI
B2 Flavin mononucleotide Flavin adenine dinucleotide Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions Antioxidant functions liver, eggs, cheese, milk and cereals damage to eyes, mouth, and genitals
25
NIACIN
  • found in fish,poultry, meat, nuts and eggs
  • Niacin is required for the synthesis of of the
    active form of vitamin B3 NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE
    DINUCLEOTIDE
  • Deficiency disease is pellagra

26
VITAMIN B6
  • PYIDOXAL, PYRIDOXAMINE and PYRIDOXINE
  • Protein metabolism
  • Deficiencies are rare and usually related to
    overall deficiency of all the B-complex vitamins.

27
VITAMIN C
  • derived from glucose via the uronic acid pathway
  • extracted from plant sources such as rose hips,
    blackcurrants or citrus fruits
  • easily oxidised in air

28
SOURCES
  • Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage,
    mange tout, green leafy vegetables, red peppers,
    chilies, watercress, parsley, blackcurrants,
    strawberries, kiwi fruit, guavas, citrus fruit.

29
VITAMIN C
  • FUNCTIONS
  • synthesis of collagen, neurotransmitter,
    norepinephrine
  • protects indispensable molecules
  • regenerate other antioxidants such as vitamin E
  • DEFICIENCY
  • Scurvy

30
THANK YOU
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