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Rise of New Leaders

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Title: Rise of New Leaders


1
Rise of New Leaders and Ideas in Europe during
the 1930s
2
Democracy
  • Rule by the people
  • Civil Rights
  • Representative democracy
  • Capitalism private business, no government
    ownership, free market
  • Rule of Law

3
Canada and USA, 1930s
  • Mired in a Depression
  • High Unemployment
  • Poverty
  • Hunger
  • Was capitalism failing?! Was democracy in
    Danger?!

4
in other parts of the world
  • No!
  • Democracy was kept safe here . . .

But
5
Who Would You Vote For?
Contestant 1 I am a womanizer, have
self-interested policies and unfortunately
suffer from ailing health.


Contestant 2 I have a drinking habit and a
defiant tongue or attitude
Contestant 3 I am a decorated war hero, do not
drink and want to create a stable economy
6
Who Did You Vote For?

Contestant 3


Contestant 2
Contestant 1
7
Black Tuesday 1929 - stock market
crashes
Treaty of Versailles
Great Depression during 1930s
Totalitarianism
Increasing influence of new political parties
that emphasize state control -For example
Communism, Nazism, Fascism
Total Control of State by a Dictator
8
Totalitarianism
  • What is it?
  • Describe its characteristics

9
Totalitarianism
  • Government establishes complete control of all
    aspects of the state (political, military,
    economy, social, cultural)
  • Highly nationalistic (flags, salutes, rallies,
    uniforms)
  • Strict controls and laws
  • Military state (secret police, army, military)
  • Censorship (opposing literature and ideas)
  • Propaganda (media radio, newspapers, posters)
  • One leader (dictator) charismatic
  • Total conformity of people to ideas and leader
  • Terror and Fear

10
Totalitarianism
These theories, specifically Communism and
Fascism, are completely different theories that
are bitterly opposed however they exhibit the
same behaviour
11
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12
Communism
  • I am Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet
    Union from 1922-1953.
  • What is Communism?
  • LEFT WING
  • based on theory by Karl Marx
  • revolutionary idea of a political,
    economic and social system that creates a
    classless society
  • state ownership and control of the means of
    production (no private ownership)
  • Soviet Communism or Stalinism, was more of
    a totalitarian and military state combined
    with elements of communism

13
Fascism
  • I am Benito Mussolini the leader (Il Duce) of
    Italy from 1922 to 1943.
  • What is Fascism?
  • RIGHT WING
  • intense nationalism and elitism
  • totalitarian control
  • interests of the state more important than
    individual rights
  • maintain class system and private ownership

Interesting Fact Fascism name was derived from
the fasces, an ancient Roman symbol of authority
consisting of a bundle of rods and an ax
14
Nazism
  • I am Adolf Hitler the leader (der Fuhrer) or
    dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945.
  • What is Nazism?
  • extremely fascist , nationalistic and
    totalitarian
  • based on beliefs of the National Socialist
    German Workers Party
  • belief in the racial superiority of the Aryan,
    the master race
  • belief that all Germans should have lebensraum
    or living space in Europe
  • Violent hatred towards Jews and blamed Germanys
    problems on them

15
Japan
  • Militarism
  • War is main policy of government
  • Use of force to reach goals
  • Strong Army

Rising Sun Japanese Imperial Flag
Emperor Hirohito
16
Hideki Tojo
  • Preached virtues of territorial expansion
  • Needed to conquer gain more land
  • Japan poor in natural resources
  • Claimed Japans destiny was to drive out the
    western colonial powers and rule all of Asia
  • Censored media and demanded total obedience

17
Spain
  • Spanish Civil War, 1936
  • Francisco Franco vs. Republic Government
  • Spain the place to stop the rise of Fascism?
  • Democracies looked the other way, remained
    neutral (U.S., Britain, France)
  • Hitler aided Franco, tested out
    strategies/weapons for future conflicts in his
    quest to enlarge Germany

Falange
Francisco Franco
18
Nazi Controls

19
Nazi Military State
  • GESTAPO the Secret State Police
  • SS (Schutzstaffel) Defense Corps black
    shirts, an elite guard unit formed out of the
    SA
  • SA (Sturmabteilung) Stormtroopers
    "brown-shirts" early private Nazi army that
    protected leaders and opposed rival political
    parties
  • Lebensraum (living space) concept that
    emphasized need for territorial expansion of
    Germany into east
  • Wehrmacht German army
  • HJ (Hitler Jugend) Hitler Youth
  • Einstazgruppen Nazi Death Squad mobile
    killing units
  • Volk all inclusive concept of nation, people
    and race, implying the superiority of German
    culture and race led to policy of
    Volksgemeinschaft (idea of a harmonized racial
    Nazi community in government policies and
    programs)

20
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21

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vKkSFIw6vePMfeatur
erelated
22
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23
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24
The Eternal Jew Depiction of a Jew holding gold
coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under
his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint
of the hammer and sickle. Posters like this
promoted a sharp rise in anti-Semitic feelings,
and in some cases violence against the Jewish
community.
This Nazi propaganda poster reads, Behind the
enemy powers the Jew.
25
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26
Policy of Appeasement
  • Appeasement
  • willingness to surrender to an aggressors
    demands to avoid war
  • How was it used prior to World War II?
  • Acceptance that Hitler could not be stopped and
    needed to be negotiated with (even at the expense
    of the smaller independent countries)
  • Accepted because of sympathy and guilt felt by
    Britain and USA of unjust Treaty of Versailles
  • Reality
  • Blindness to true nature of Hitlers agenda
    program for Eastern Europe
  • Irony policy used to avoid war but empowered
    Hitler to continue his aggressive campaign . The
    only way to stop Hitler was to declare war.

27
STEPS TO WAR
How did World War II begin? How did
appeasement contribute to World War
II? http//www.markville.ss.yrdsb.edu.on.ca/histo
ry/history/quotes.pdf
28
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29
Reflect
  • Was the Treaty of Versailles truly the cause of
    World War II? Or appeasement?
  • What do we have to remember about hindsight when
    examining history?
  • Could Hitler have been stopped at any time
    prior to 1939?
  • What was Canadas view of appeasement and another
    potential war? What was isolationism ?
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