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Healthy Choices at School: Nutrition Guidelines that Can Make a Difference

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Healthy Choices at School: Nutrition Guidelines that Can Make a Difference Action for Healthy Kids Minnesota Pamela Van Zyl York, MPH, PhD, RD, LN – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Healthy Choices at School: Nutrition Guidelines that Can Make a Difference


1
Healthy Choices at SchoolNutrition Guidelines
that Can Make a Difference
  • Action for Healthy Kids Minnesota
  • Pamela Van Zyl York, MPH, PhD, RD, LN
  • Teresa Rondeau-Ambroz, RD, LD
  • January 13, 2005

Minnesota
2
Minnesota
  • Action for Healthy Kids Minnesota works to
    improve nutrition and physical activity of
    children and teens through collaboration with
    diverse stakeholders.

3
HEALTHY SCHOOLS SUMMIT TAKING ACTION FOR
CHILDRENS NUTRITION FITNESS
October 7-8, 2002 The Ronald Reagan Building and
International Trade Center Washington, DC
4
MN State Team Members
  • Educators
  • School administrators
  • Health and nutrition professionals
  • Government leaders
  • Student leaders
  • Concerned parents
  • Community and business leaders

5
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7
Child and Adolescent Overweight by Race 1988-94
to 1999-2000
2010 Target
1988-94
Total
White Black Mexican American

Female Male
0 10
20 30
Percent
Note Overweight is defined for ages 6-19 years
as BMI gt gender- and weight-specific 95th
percentile from the 2000 CDC Growth Charts for
the United States Black and white exclude persons
of Hispanic origin. Persons of Mexican-American
origin may be any race. Source National Health
and Nutrition Examination Survey, NCHS, CDC.
Obj. 19-3c
8
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9
Caution Beyond Calories
  • Healthy growth and development
  • Calcium, Iron and other minerals
  • Vitamins
  • Protein
  • Other disease protective factors
  • Chronic disease prevention
  • Academic achievement
  • Enjoyment
  • Healthy eating and physical activity are
    important to health not just body weight

10
Did you know?
  • Kids with high added-sugar diets eat fewer fruits
    and vegetables and drink less milk
  • Poor nutrition can compromise cognitive
    development and school performance
  • Poor nutrition can increase the chances of
    getting a cold or the flu and lead to missed days
    at school

11
Environment of abundance and convenience The
Toxic Environment
  • Cheap, mass-produced, good-tasting food that is
    packed with calories is available 24/7 at very
    little effort.
  • Supersizing portion sizes at all levels
  • Incessant advertising
  • Physical activity increasingly unneeded
  • Modern conveniences, auto-based transportation,
    communities are not walkable and have no
    destinations

12
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13
Increased Introduction of Large Portion Sizes in
the US
Young and Nestle, JADA 2003
14
Soda
20 Years ago
Today
12 fluid ounces 110 calories
??? calories
Twenty years ago, 12 fluid ounces was the popular
size for soft drinks and provided 110 calories.
How many calories do you think are in todays
popular soft drink portion?
125
250
500
15
Environment
16
Availability
17
Promotion
18
Annual NCI budget for 5-a-day nutrition education
1 million
McDonalds we love to see you smile campaign
500 million
19
U.S. governments entire budget for nutrition
education
Is one-fifth the advertising budget for
Altoids mints
Nestle, 2002
20
Revenue Concerns
  • For decades, soft drink companies
  • have had an important presence
  • in our nations schools

The revenue generated from the sale of beverages
in schools is an important part of the education
funding equation in the United States
Web Site, 5/18/02
21
Change the Person versus Change the Environment
  • Change the Person
  • - Education alone is not enough
  • Change the Environment
  • - Supportive environment makes healthy
    food choices easier

22
What can we do to change the environment?
  • Recreation opportunities schools, worksites,
    rec centers, other community spaces
  • Availability, accessibility, acceptability
  • Support healthy food environment
  • Promote availability of healthy foods and
    decrease availability of unhealthy foods
  • Vending machines, cafeterias, other sales venues
  • Support healthful messages and counter
    advertising campaigns

23
What does your school food environment look like?
24
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26
Strategies that Support Healthy Eating
  • Allow adequate time to eat
  • Provide adequate space and comfortable seating
  • Restrict availability of vending machines during
    school
  • Only allow water in classrooms
  • Use non-food items for fundraising

27
More Healthy Strategies
  • Close the campus so students dont get fast food
  • Serve lunch after recess
  • Integrate nutrition education into curriculum
    (and food service)
  • Provide nutrition-related in-service to staff

28
More Healthy Strategies
  • Encourage staff to model healthy eating
  • Educate parents and staff about a healthy school
    environment in newsletters, etc.
  • Make healthier foods more price appealing
  • Involve students

29
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30
Strategies for Improving Vending
  • Improve the offeringshealthy options are
    available (involve kids)
  • Adjust the pricing to encourage the healthy
    choice
  • Research shows profits can be maintained

Source French, et al. Am J Public Health
200191112-117.
31
Success Stories
  • North Community High School Mpls Limited soft
    drinks to just 1 machine, added water, juice,
    sports drinks. Vending profit increased 4,000
  • Whitefish Central School in Montana replaced junk
    foods and pop with fruits, bagels, 100 juice,
    milk and water. Profits remained the same

2003, Action for Healthy Kids
32
  • Choices must be available, accessible and
    affordable for individuals to make choices
  • Question assumptions about what is needed, what
    is possible and what can be changed

33
Why the Guidelines for Good Nutrition at School?
  • Kids are not meeting their nutritional needs and
    often get too many calories
  • Meals and snacks at school can provide one-third
    to one-half of a childs daily nutritional needs
  • More children are selecting a la carte and
    vending itemswhich are not regulated for
    nutritional value

JADA April, 2003
34
Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among MN Youth (MN
Student Survey, 2001 and 2004)
Students eating 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables on the previous day Students eating 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables on the previous day Students eating 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables on the previous day Students eating 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables on the previous day Students eating 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables on the previous day Students eating 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables on the previous day Students eating 5 or more servings of fruit and vegetables on the previous day
6th grade 6th grade 9th grade 9th grade 12th grade 12th grade
2001 2004 2001 2004 2001 2004
Boys 21 20 17 16 15 13
Girls 22 22 13 14 11 12
35
25 of all vegetables eaten in the U.S. are
French Fries
Krebs-Smith, Cancer, 1998
36
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37
On average, adolescents aged 12-17, get 11 of
their calories from soft drinks
Soft drinks carbonated beverages,
fruit-flavored and part juice drinks, and sports
drinks Source USDA, Continuing Survey of Food
Intake by Individuals, 1994-96
38
Beverages Consumed by MN Youth (MN Student
Survey, 2001 and 2004)
Three or more glasses of milk Three or more glasses of milk Three or more glasses of milk Three or more glasses of milk
6th grade 9th grade 12th grade
Boys 46 to 42 44 to 42 37 to 35
Girls 37 to 34 27 to 25 19 to 18
One or More Glasses of Pop or Soda One or More Glasses of Pop or Soda One or More Glasses of Pop or Soda One or More Glasses of Pop or Soda
Boys 70 to 64 76 to 71 77 to 72
Girls 60 to 55 60 to 54 62 to 56
One or More Glasses of Sports Drinks One or More Glasses of Sports Drinks One or More Glasses of Sports Drinks One or More Glasses of Sports Drinks
Boys 33 to 40 32 to 41 27 to 38
Girls 21 to 27 14 to 22 8 to 15
39
Beverages Consumed by MN Youth (MN Student
Survey, 2001 and 2004)
One or more glasses of Fruit Drinks One or more glasses of Fruit Drinks One or more glasses of Fruit Drinks One or more glasses of Fruit Drinks
6th grade 9th grade 12th grade
Boys 61 to 60 57 to 55 59 to 48
Girls 60 to 58 52 to 51 43 to 40
One or more glasses of 100 Fruit Juices One or more glasses of 100 Fruit Juices One or more glasses of 100 Fruit Juices One or more glasses of 100 Fruit Juices
Boys 64 to 61 64 to 60 62 to 61
Girls 63 to 59 59 to 54 56 to 52
Five or more glasses of Water Five or more glasses of Water Five or more glasses of Water Five or more glasses of Water
Boys 46 to 47 38 to 39 32 to 34
Girls 42 to 44 32 to 35 27 to 31
40
Schools are Taking Action
  • Proactive schools have taken positive steps to
    make improvements in school foods, however,
    definitions of healthier choices are not
    consistent
  • No simple nutrition guidelines existed for
    competitive foods in schools

41
New Requirement for Local Wellness Policy
  • Local Wellness policies must be in place
  • by July 1, 2006
  • Must include goals for nutrition education
  • and nutrition guidelines for ALL foods
  • available on each school campus
  • Must form a task force or work group as
  • defined by the law
  • (Child Nutrition Reauthorization, 2004)

P.L. 108-265
42
AFHK MN Goal
  • Develop statewide nutrition guidelines with the
    support of students, families, community and
    school to ensure a healthy school nutrition
    environment

43
Guidelines vs Policy
  • With the Guidelines for Good Nutrition at School
    as a standard from with to base local discussions
    individual schools or districts can make local
    policies

44
Guidelines are for Non-Regulated Foods
  • Vending machines
  • A la carte in cafeteria
  • School stores
  • Concession stands
  • Snack bars
  • Fund-raising events
  • Classroom parties
  • School-related meetings
  • Other foods in schools not regulated by USDA

45
Priorities Set
  • Kids health is first and foremost
  • Keep it simple
  • Foods kids will eat!
  • Recognize local fiscal constraints and needs

46
Nutrition Goals
  • To provide healthier food choices for students
    (and staff!)
  • To reduce the availability of high-sugar,
    high-fat candy and beverages
  • To work with the school to help the students
    reach their full potential having had healthier
    food choices for breakfast and lunch

47
  • Three Nutrition Criteria
  • Serving size
  • Dietary fat
  • Added sugars

48
Serving Size
  • People eat more food and calories when they are
    served larger portions
  • Larger portions can lead to weight problems
  • Guideline Defines sensible serving sizes except
    for water, fruits and vegetables

49
Wanted Fruits and Vegetables
  • Half of children eat less than one serving of
    fruit a day
  • One-third dont even get a serving of vegetables
    that have not been fried
  • Most miss out on the health benefits

50
Fats
  • High fat diets increase the risk for heart
    disease, stroke, some types of cancer and other
    chronic conditions in adulthood and can add
    excess calories
  • Some fats may reduce the risk for heart disease
    and some types of cancer
  • Guideline Limit total fats to about less than
    35 total calories except for nuts and seeds

51
Added Sugars
  • Kids get 20 of their calories from added sugars!
  • Sweetened beverages are the biggest source of
    added sugars
  • Extra calories may contribute to obesity

52
Added Sugars
  • Some sugars found naturally in food
  • - Whole fruits
  • - 100 fruit juice
  • - Milk
  • Labels dont indicate the source of sugars
  • Guideline Sugar is not the first ingredient
    except no added sugar in most beverages

53
Wanted More Calcium
  • Half of adult bone mass is built during
    adolescent years
  • By age 13, 95 of girls and 75 of boys are not
    getting adequate calcium

54
Wanted Whole Grains
  • Most kids missing out
  • Less risk of heart disease, certain cancers,
    type-2 diabetes
  • Three are key!
  • Cereals, tortilla chips, popcorn, whole-grain
    breads

55
Promote Healthier Choices
  • Whole-grain cereals and breakfast bars
  • Baked chips
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Fruits and vegetables
  • Skim, 1 milks and yogurt
  • 100 juices

56
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57
Limit Amounts
  • Most candy bars
  • Sweetened beverages
  • Most cookies
  • High-fat chips
  • High-fat milks, meats and other high-fat foods

Sugars
FATS
Calories
58
Guideline Pilot Test Apple Valley
  • Allowed flavored milks
  • Allowed for 1 oz. cookies
  • Allowed cereal bars granola bars within the
    guidelines
  • Allowed small muffins, bagels
  • Allowed for small bags of snacks
  • Allowed for ice creams, frozen yogurts

59
Key Learnings
  • Food industry still needs to improve on
    availability and sizing of healthier snacks
  • Pricing is still a big factor
  • With increase market share, hopefully pricing
    will become more attractive
  • Manufacturers are responding to needs
  • Students will choose healthy options if provided

60
Support Better Nutrition in Schools for
  • Better learning
  • Better behavior
  • Better life-long habits
  • Better health
  • Better futures

61
Healthy foods for kids Guidelines for good
nutrition at schools
  • Action for Healthy Kids MN
  • www.actionforhealthykids.org, click on MN on pull
    down menu

62
Visit the AFHK Website
  • www.ActionForHealthyKids.org
  • Click on Minnesota on the pull down menu
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