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Introduction to the Human Body

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Introduction to the Human Body Anatomy & Physiology Class Mrs. Leisher * Anatomy: study of the structure, shape, and locations of body parts Physiology: study of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to the Human Body


1
Introduction to the Human Body
WELCOME
  • Anatomy Physiology Class
  • Mrs. Leisher

2
WHAT IS ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY?
  • Anatomy study of the structure, shape, and
    locations of body parts
  • Physiology study of the function of body parts

3

4
Principle of Complementarity of Structure
Function
- This principle states that function reflects
structure
Can you think of an example?
5
ANATOMICAL POSITION
  • Assumed position of body
  • standing face-front, feet flat on floor facing
    forward with palms facing forward

6
Structural level of organization
7
DIRECTIONAL TERMS
  • Superior/inferior
  • Anterior/posterior
  • Medial/lateral
  • Proximal/distal
  • Superficial/deep

8
Systems of the Body
  • 10. Urinary
  • 11. Reproductive
  • (Male and female)
  • 1. Integumentary
  • 2. Skeletal
  • 3. Muscular
  • 4. Nervous
  • 5. Endocrine
  • 6. Cardiovascular
  • 7. Lymphatic/immune
  • 8. Respiratory
  • 9. Digestive

9
Planes imaginary flat surfaces that pass
through the body
  1. Sagittal divides into right and left
  2. Frontal divides into anterior/posterior
  3. Transverse divides into superior/inferior

10
(No Transcript)
11
Cavities spaces that protect, separate, and
support internal organs
  • Dorsal
  • Cranial
  • Vertebral
  • Ventral
  • Thoracic
  • Abdominopelvic separated from thoracic by
    diaphragm

12
IN CLASS ASSIGNMENT
  • For each system
  • Write 1-3 sentences that describe the
    responsibilities of that system. Then list 2-4
    organs/components of that system.
  • Work on your sentence NOT being just copied from
    the book. Sufficient, but concise!!!
  • Illustrate (literal or symbolic)

13
HOMEOSTASIS
  • Maintaining homeostasis is essential for life.
  • Homeostasis keeping internal conditions
    relatively stable
  • Maintaining the volume and composition of body
    fluids important for homeostasis
  • Intracellular
  • Extracellular EX blood plasma, cerebrospinal
    fluid
  • Know examples

HOW IS THIS PICTURE A VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF
HOMEOSTASIS?
14
Regulated by
  • The body communicating within itself, constantly
    regulating the balance in the body.
  • the nervous (fast) or endocrine (slow) system

15
Feedback Systems
  • A cycle of events in which the status of a body
    condition is monitored, evaluated, changed,
    remonitored, reevaluated, and so.
  • A disruption that changes a controlled condition
    (eg temp, blood glucose levels) is called a
    stimulus

16
Feedback systems cont.
  • 3 components
  • Receptor structure that monitors changes in a
    controlled condition and sends input to a control
    center.
  • EX nerve endings in finger tips sense temp.
    change

17
  • Control center sets the range of values within
    which a controlled condition should be
    maintained, evaluates the input it receives from
    receptors, and generates output commands when
    they are needed.
  • EX the brain or nucleus of cell

18
  • Effector structure that receives output from the
    control center and produces a response that
    changes the controlled condition.

19
example
  • body temp. drops sharply (stimulus), detected by
    your hypothalamus (receptor), your brain (control
    center) sends nerve impulses (output) to your
    skeletal muscles (effectors). Results in
    shivering to generate heat to raise your body
    temp.

20
BIG PICTURE
  • HOMEOSTASIS IS REGULATED BY FEEDBACK SYSTEMS!!!!!

21
Disruption monitored by ___________ which send a
message
_____ disrupts homeostasis
______ _____ receives message and provides output
______ bring about a change or response that
alters the controlled condition
Messages sent to and from the control center are
either _______ or ______ signals
Flowchart of a feedback system
22
Negative Feedback Systems
  • Reverses a change in a controlled condition.
  • EX blood pressure returning to normal after
    increasing.

23
Positive Feedback Systems
  • Strengthens or reinforces a change in one of the
    bodys controlled conditions
  • EX. Normal childbirth

24
Negative feedback sys.
Positive feedback sys.
25
Reverses a change In controlled condition
Chemical and electrical messengers
Reinforces a change In a Controlled condition
Stops as controlled Condition Returns To normal
Have receptors Control center effectors
Shut off by outside event
Negative feedback sys.
Positive feedback sys.
Start with stimulus End with response
Reinforce events That dont Happen Very often
Regulate more common conditions
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