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Computer Science 129

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Title: Computer Science 121 Author: Chaffey College Last modified by: KD Created Date: 4/13/2004 1:16:56 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Computer Science 129


1
Computer Science 129
  • Science, Computing and Society
  • Week 8
  • Chapter 6

2
GRE/GMAT WORDS
  • Veracity truthful
  • Prodigal wasteful, extravagant
  • Alacrity an eager willingness to do something
  • Prosaic dull and lacking imagination

3
Interesting Stories
  • Alien hand syndrome is a rare neurological
    disorder in which one hand functions
    involuntarily, with the victim completely unaware
    of its action. Symptoms include involuntary
    reaching and grasping, touching the face or
    tearing at clothing. More extreme cases have
    involved involuntarily stuffing food in the
    mouth, preventing the normal hand from completing
    simple tasks and self inflicted punching or
    choking.

4
(No Transcript)
5
Interesting Stories
  • Think of the corpus callosum as the brain's
    e-mail server, a bundle of message sending nerves
    that connect and share information with the two
    hemispheres. Alien hand syndrome is a result of
    damage to these nerves. This damage most often
    occurs in brain aneurysms, stroke patients and
    those with infections of the brain, but can also
    manifest as a side effect of brain surgery, most
    commonly after a radical procedure that treats
    extreme cases of epilepsy.

6
Chapter 6
  • The brain performs an incredible number of tasks
  • It controls body temperature, blood pressure,
    heart rate and breathing.
  • It accepts a flood of information about the world
    around you from your various senses (eyes, ears,
    nose, etc.).
  • It handles physical motion when walking, talking,
    standing or sitting.
  • It lets you think, dream, reason and experience
    emotions.

7
Chapter 6
  • The Brain and Vision
  • Class Experiment
  • Wave opened fingered hand in front of eyes
    (notice blur)
  • Now hold open fingered hand in front of eyes and
    shake your head (no blur)

8
Chapter 6
  • Why?
  • Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR)
  • The vestibulo-ocular reflex, or VOR, is a reflex
    eye movement that stabilizes images on the retina
    during head movement by producing an eye movement
    in the direction opposite to head movement

9
Chapter 6
  • When the head moves, the VOR responds with an eye
    movement that is equal in magnitude but opposite
    in direction.

10
Chapter 6
  • Brain receives input, processes the input, and
    gives an output
  • It does this at a cellular level and at the level
    of an organ

11
Chapter 6
  • Some Scientists do not believe the brain
    computes
  • Consider the Chinese room analogy
  • Man in room who does not speak or read Chinese
  • The room is sealed off except for one door

12
Chapter 6
  • Man in room is given cards with Chinese symbols
    on them and a book of instructions (written in
    English or his native language)
  • The instructions tell the person what symbols to
    send out in response to Chinese messages slipped
    under the door

13
Chapter 6
  • The Man uses the instructions as a computer uses
    a computer program
  • The man does not know what or if he is
    communicating, but to an outsider his responses
    could look reasonable

14
Chapter 6
  • Conclusion is that a computer computes whereas a
    brain thinks, understands and has consciousness
  • Brain is biological, not a machine

15
Chapter 6
  • Argument seems to be semantical
  • Definition of computing is the debate
  • I believe our brains compute, it is just our
    instruction booklet changes minute to minute
    depending upon what has happened to us.

16
Chapter 6
  • The complete function of the brain is still
    unknown
  • 4 Regions of Brain
  • Cerebrum (4 lobes)
  • Cerebellum
  • Diencephalon
  • Brain Stem

17
Chapter 6
  • The medulla oblongata, located in the brain stem,
    manages the reflex centers for
  • Vomiting
  • Coughing
  • Sneezing
  • Swallowing
  • Hiccupping
  • Respiratory rate
  • Vasoconstriction

18
Chapter 6
  • These are perfect examples of input, process,
    output analogy

19
Chapter 6
The Neuron is the basic unit of our central
nervous system which includes our brain
20
Chapter 6
  • Something activates a dendrite and it passes an
    electrical signal down the soma (cell body) and
    the axon to the tip of the synapses. The
    presence of this electrical signal causes a
    change in permeability to the tip of the synapses
    allowing neurotransmitters to seep out into the
    synaptic cleft. The neurotransmitters bind to
    receptor sites on the tip of the post synaptic
    neurons dendrites. This binding causes an
    electrical signal to go down the post synaptic
    neuron and the process repeats. This sends a
    signal very quickly.

21
Chapter 6
22
Chapter 6
  • Neurons use chemical mechanisms to transfer an
    electric impulse, or action potential, from cell
    to cell to affect a response
  • http//www.bristol.ac.uk/synaptic/basics/basics-1.
    html
  • Go to this website and read this one page

23
What You Should Know
  • Know all GRE/GMAT words

24
What You Should Know
  • Define
  • Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR)

25
What You Should Know
  • What are the four primary regions of the brain?

26
What You Should Know
  • SHORT ESSAY
  • WHAT SEVEN REFLEX CENTERS DOES THE MEDULLA
    OBLONGATA CONTROL AND HOW DO THEY RESEMBLE A
    COMPUTER PROCESS

27
What You Should Know
  • SHORT ESSAY
  • EXPLAIN CHINESE ROOM ARGUMENT AND WHAT IT HAS
    BEEN PURPORTED TO ILLUSTRATE

28
What You Should Know
  • SHORT ESSAY
  • HOW DOES A NEURON USE CHEMICAL MECHANISMS TO
    TRANSFER AN ELECTIRCAL INPULSE
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