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WORLD WAR II

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Title: WORLD WAR II


1
WORLD WAR II
  • CAUSES OF THE WAR
  • Standards 7.2-7.8

2
GROUNDWORK FOR WAR HITLER AND MUSSOLINI
  • 1. EUROPE WAS DEVASTATED BY THE GREAT DEPRESSION.
  • 2. POLITICAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL UNREST WAS
    WIDESPREAD.
  • 3. TOTALITARIAN GOVERNMENTS SEIZED CONTROL IN
    GERMANY AND ITALY.
  • GERMANY ELECTED INTO POWER THE NAZI (NATIONAL
    SOCIALIST PARTY) PARTY LED BY ADOLPH HITLER--
    1933
  • ITALY, AFTER A REBELLION, ALLOWED BENITO
    MUSSOLINI AND HIS FACIST PARTY TO TAKE CONTROL.
  • THEY BOTH PREACHED THAT THE STATE WAS MORE
    IMPORTANT THAN THE INDIVIDUAL, THEREFORE
    OPPOSITION PARTIES WERE OUTLAWED AND PERSONAL
    FREEDOMS WERE ELIMINATED.
  • HITLER BLAMED THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES AND THE
    JEWS FOR GERMANYS PROBLEMS. HE BECAME KNOWN AS
    THE FUHRER AND HIS RULE THE THIRD REICH (1000
    YEAR EMPIRE)
  • FACIST AND NAZI EXPANSION
  • OCT. 1935, ITALY INVADED ETHIOPIA. LEAGUE OF
    NATIONS CONDEMNED ITALYS AGGRESSION BUT DID
    LITTLE TO HELP ETHIOPIA.
  • 1936, HITLER ORDERED GERMAN TROOPS INTO THE
    FRENCH OCCUPIED REGIONS OF GERMANY. ENGLAND AND
    FRANCE DID NOTHING.
  • 1938, GERMANY ANNEXED AUSTRIA AND LATER THAT YEAR
    THE SUDETENLAND.
  • 1938, ENGLAND, FRANCE AND GERMANY SIGNED THE
    MUNICH PACT.
  • GERMANY CAN HAVE THE SUDENTENLAND BUT MUST
    PROMISE TO TAKE NO MORE APPEASEMENT.Neville
    Chamberlain Peace in our Time.

3
IN ASIA JAPANESE AGGRESSION
  • Hitler wanted the USSR for living
    spacelebensraum.
  • Hitler did not want war with Russia, maybe after
    they defeat France, but not in 1938 signed a
    Non-Aggression Treaty.
  • Japans leader was Emperor Hirohito but actually
    the military was in controlGen. Tojo Hidecki.
  • Sept. 1931 Manchurian Crisis Mukden Incident.
  • Nov. 1931 League of Nations demanded that Japan
    remove troops from Manchuria, Japan refuses.
  • Jan. 1932 Japan captures Manchuria.
  • Feb. 1932 Japan claims Manchuria to be
    independent Manchukuo
  • Mar., 1932 League of Nations refuses to recognize
    Manchukuo.
  • May, 1932 Japan and China sign Tangku Truce
    unofficial beginning of WW2.
  • 1935 Congress passes Neutrality Act 1935ban on
    weapon sales to warring countries.
  • 1937 War breaks out between China and Japan.
  • 1937 FDR issues Quarantine Speech
  • 1937 Panay Incident
  • 1938 Japan repudiates open door policy in
    China.
  • 1938 US puts an embargo on all fuel and
    scrap-metal for Japan.
  • 1938 US is not neutral in China.
  • 1938 German annexes Austria and Sudetenland.
  • 1939 Germany annexes the rest of Czechoslovakia.
  • 1939 US Neutrality Act cash and carry policy
    to nations at war.

4
THE WORLD GOES TO WAR
  • WAR IN EUROPE
  • Sept. 1, 1939 Germany invades Poland
    blitzkrieg (lightning warfare). Poland fell in
    less than 30 days.
  • England and France declared war on Germany on
    Sept. 3.
  • THE FALL OF FRANCE
  • April 1940 Germany conquered Denmark and Norway.
  • Blitzkrieg on Belgium, The Netherlands and
    France.
  • Paris fell in June, France was under Nazi
    control. Hitler installed a puppet
    governmentVichy Government. France had to sign
    an armistice in the same boxcar that Germany
    signed the WW1 armistice.
  • Free French leader Charles De Gaulle fled to
    England.
  • THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
  • Hitler did not want war with Britain. The
    countries he invaded were the ones needed to
    fulfill lebensraum.
  • When England declared war on Germany, Hitler then
    felt they must be defeated.

5
BATTLE OF BRITAIN continued
  • With the US officially neutral and the USSR not
    yet involved the new British Prime Minister
    Winston Churchill found himself alone in stopping
    the German domination of Europe.
  • No one had successfully invaded Britain since
    1066, Hitler realized to achieve he would have to
    wipe out Englands Royal Air Force.
  • From JulyOctober 1940, 1000s of German Luftwaffe
    bombed British airfields and cities every night.
  • Churchill appealed to British patriotism and hope
    to hold off until the New World comes to
    Englands aid.
  • THE US ENTERS THE WAR
  • 1940FDR won an unprecedented 3rd term.
  • Most Americans favored neutrality, but that was
    becoming increasingly difficult to do.
  • FDR felt for England struggle.
  • March 1941 Lend Lease Act passed
  • Aug. 1941, US signs the Atlantic Charter with
    England.

6
PEARL HARBOR
  • Due to Japans lack of natural resources plus the
    American embargo, the Japanese military
    leadership decided that aggressive action needed
    to be taken.
  • Japan now turned toward SE Asia and the Dutch
    East Indies, which were both rich in natural
    resources.
  • Japans only fear was the US fleet in the
    Philippines and at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
  • Admiral Yamamoto was in charge of the attack on
    Peal Harbor. He put together an attack force of
    6 aircraft carriers, and in total silence made
    their way toward Hawaii. (Nov. 1941)
  • US intelligence knew that Japan was planning
    attack but did not know where.
  • Sunday,800am Dec. 7, 1941, the Japanese launched
    their attack on Pearl Harbor.
  • Within 2 hours the Japanese had sunk 12 warships,
    destroyed 200 warplanes and killed or wounded
    3,000 people.
  • Dec. 8, 1941, Congress declared war on Japan, 3
    days later the US declared war on Germany and
    Italy.

7
(No Transcript)
8
MAJOR POINTS OF THE WAR
  • JUNE 1941, AFTER THE FALL OF FRANCE, HITLER
    ORDERED THE INVASION OF RUSSIA.
  • GERMANY, USING BLITZKRIEG WARFARE DROVE DEEP INTO
    RUSSIA. THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE DESPISED STALIN AND
    WOULD HAVE GLADLY HELPED THE GERMAN ARMY, BUT THE
    GERMAN SOLDIERS TREATED THE RUSSIANS BRUTALLY.
  • GERMAN ARMY MOVED TO WITHIN 25 MILES OF MOSCOW BY
    THE FALL, HAD LENINGRAD SURROUNDED AND ONLY
    STALINGRAD LAY IN THE WAY OF TOTAL GERMAN
    VICTORY.
  • DEC. 1941--3 DAYS AFTER PEARL HARBOR GERMANY AND
    ITALY DECLARED WAR ON THE US.
  • JAN 1942--STALIN ASKS FOR THE US AND GREAT
    BRITAIN TO LAUNCH AN INVASION OF FRANCE TO CREATE
    A 2ND FRONT.
  • FDR AND CHURCHILL DECIDED THAT ATTACKING GERMAN
    TROOPS IN NORTH AFRICA WAS BEST.
  • IT WOULD OPEN THE SUEZ AND THE MEDITERRANEAN FOR
    ALLIED SHIPPING and PROTEST MIDDLE EAST OIL
    FIELDS
  • OPERATION TORCH NOV. 1942.
  • THE INVASION WAS PLANNED BY GEN. DWIGHT D.
    EISENHOWER, AND LED BY GEN. GEORGE S. PATTON (US
    TANK CORPS) AND the BRITISH GEN. BERNARD
    MONTGOMERY.
  • THE ALLIES DEFEATED THE DESERT FOX GEN. ERWIN
    ROMMEL IN TANK BATTLES IN MOROCCO AND TUNISIA.

9
INVASION OF ITALY
  • After winning the Battle of El Alamein, FDR and
    Churchill met in Casablanca to discuss the
    long-range plans for the Allies.
  • The invasion of Italy was next in Europe and a
    full scale offensive in the Pacific against Japan
    with nothing less than unconditional surrender
    as the end result.
  • July 1943 Patton invaded Sicily and won.
  • Allies attacked the mainland in the autumn of
    1943, the Italians arrested the King and
    Mussolini, but the German army in the north freed
    Mussolini and put him back in charge.
  • The Battle for Italy lasted until the spring of
    1945.
  • Sept. 1942, Germany launched its attack on
    Stalingrad.
  • The German army destroyed the city but guerilla
    warfare during the winter forced the Germans to
    retreat, eventually 90,000 German soldiers were
    captured.
  • Dec. 1943, Teheran Conference (FDR, Churchill,
    Stalin).
  • FDR and Churchill finally agreed to open a 2nd
    European front.
  • Gen. Eisenhower was made the Supreme Allied
    Commander.
  • Operation Overlord-- D-Day Invasion June 6, 1944
    the Normandy Coast of France.
  • The Allies sent 500,000 men ashore in a week.
  • By Aug. 1944, the Allies had taken Paris.

10
THE PUSH TO BERLIN
  • BATTLE OF THE BULGE
  • DEC. 1944, THIS GERMAN ATTACK CAUGHT THE ALLIES
    IN BELGIUM COMPLETELY BY SURPRISE.
  • GEN. PATTONS REINFORCEMENTS SAVED THE ALLIES.
  • VICTORY IN EUROPE
  • MAR. 1945 ALLIES IN POSITION TO INVADE GERMANY.
  • THE SOVIET ARMY WAS CLOSING IN ON GERMANY FROM
    THE EAST.
  • YALTA CONFERENCE (FEB. 1945, FDR, CHURCHILL,
    STALIN)
  • YALTA DECLARATION
  • AGREED TO DEMOCRACY IN POST-WAR EUROPE
  • USSR WOULD DECLARE WAR ON JAPAN AFTER GERMANY WAS
    DEFEATED.
  • USSR WOULD RECEIVE 50 OF WAR REPARATIONS.
  • PART OF POLAND WOULD BE TURNED OVER TO RUSSIA.
  • PART OF CHINA WOULD BECOME PART OF THE USSR AND A
    RETURN OF THE SAHKALIN ISLANDS.
  • SOVIET TROOPS WOULD ENTER BERLIN FIRST.
  • DIVIDE GERMANY INTO 4 OCCUPATION ZONES AFTER THE
    WAR
  • CREATE A UNITED NATIONS.
  • END OF NAZI GERMANY
  • HITLER COMMITTED SUICIDE IN APRIL 1945
  • FDR DIED ON APRIL 12, 1945HARRY TRUMAN BECAME
    THE PRESIDENT. VE DAY MAY 8, 1945

11
WAR IN THE PACIFIC
  • On the same day that the Japanese attacked Pearl
    Harbor they also attacked the US base at Clark
    Field in the Philippines.
  • Within a week Japan launched an invasion of the
    Philippines and within 3 months the Philippines
    fell.
  • The only positive results from the war in the
    Pacific were the aircraft carriers at Pearl
    Harbor were still intact and Gen. Douglas
    MacArthur escaped from the Philippines.
  • THE BATAAN DEATH MARCH
  • When the Philippines fell 75,000 American
    soldiers were taken prisoner, they marched 60
    miles to be sent to POW Campsmany died from
    disease, injuries and from the harh treatment.
    After the war the officers responsible for it
    were tried for war crimes.
  • NAVAL BATTLES
  • Battle of Coral Seastopped the Japanese attack
    on New Guinea and Australia. May 1942.
  • Battle of Midway Admiral Yamamoto believed that
    the remainder of the American fleet had to be
    destroyed.
  • June 1942 the Japanese launched an attack on
    Midway Island.
  • It was a turning point in the war in the Pacific.
  • US bombers attacked the Japanese fleet before
    they had a chance to detect the location of the
    US fleet.
  • The hero was Admiral Chester Nimitz.

12
WAR IN THE PACIFIC continued
  • The victory at Midway allowed the US to go on the
    offensive against Japan.
  • US strategy
  • Attack from the Central Pacific led by Adm.
    Nimitz
  • Island- hop Central Pacific to establish a
    position to bomb or attack Japan spearheaded by
    Naval and Marine Corps assaults
  • Guadalcanal
  • Iwo Jima
  • Okinawa April 1945 Fiercest and bloodiest
    engagement of WW2.
  • Attack the south Pacific Gen MacArthur and Adm.
    Halsey
  • Island hop the South Pacific
  • Main objective was to recapture the Philippines.
    Navy and Army
  • I have returned Oct. 1944-1945
  • Battle of Leyte Gulflargest naval battle in
    history. Oct. 23-26, 1944
  • Japanese resorted to kamikaze attacks.

13
THE ATOMIC BOMB
  • The capture of Okinawa cleared the way for the
    invasion of Japan.
  • In 1941 the US began work on the Manhattan
    Project, the top secret project to build an
    atomic bomb. J. Robert Oppenheimer.
  • July 1945 US detonated the 1st atomic bomb in New
    Mexico.
  • Pres. Truman was at Potsdam discussing post-war
    policies, one of which was the unconditional
    surrender of Japan or face prompt and total
    destruction.
  • Japans refusal led Truman to make the decision
    to drop the bomb on Japan.
  • Aug. 6, 1945, the Enola Gaye, a B-29 bomber
    dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
  • Instantly 125,000 people died. But Japan refused
    to surrender.
  • Aug. 8, 1945, USSR declared war on Japan.
  • Aug. 9, 1945, the US dropped another atomic bomb
    on Nagasaki.
  • Aug. 14, 1945, Japan surrendered V-J Day WW2
    was over.
  • The formal surrender was signed aboard the USS
    Missouri in Tokyo Bay Gen. Douglas MacArthur
    signed on behalf of the US, the Emperor Hirohito
    signed for Japan Sept. 2, 1945.
  • Unconditional Surrender
  • No military
  • US occupation
  • Democratic government

14
THE WAR AT HOME
  • 1940 SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT
  • AT FIRST MEN BETWEEN 21-35 HAD TO REGISTER WITH
    LOCAL DRAFT BOARDS.
  • AFTER PEARL HARBOR, 18-45 HAD TO REGISTER FOR
    MILITARY SERVICE.
  • BY 1943, 18-65 HAD TO REGISTER.
  • NATIONAL MORALE, WAR INDUSTRY, AND CITIZEN
    SACRIFICE
  • GOVERNMENT CREATED A FILM BOARD AND ARTIST GUILD
    TO MAKE PATRIOTIC MOVIES AND PATRIOTIC ART TO
    KEEP MORALE HIGH.
  • WAR PRODUCTION BOARD
  • RE-DIRECTED RAW MATERIALS TO MILITARY USE NOT
    CONSUMER GOODS.
  • CONSUMER INCOME INCREASED.
  • UNEMPLOYMENT DROPPED.
  • WESTERN STATES EXPERIENCED TREMENDOUS GROWTH.
  • INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE
  • INCOME TAX INCREASED, WITHHOLDING TAX
  • WAR BONDS SOLD (BOND DRIVES)--60 MILLION
  • RATIONING
  • VICTORY GARDENS
  • RATIONING COUPONS WERE DISTRIBUTED FOR EVERYDAY
    ITEMS RANGING FROM TIRES TO GAS TO MEAT AND MILK.

15
WOMEN AND MINORITIES IN UNIFORM
  • 275,000 WOMEN VOLUNTEERED FOR MILITARY SERVICE.
  • THE WAC (WOMENS ARMY CORPS) WAS THE BIGGEST.
  • THEY DID EVERYTHING BUT PARTICIPATE IN COMBAT.
  • NEARLY 1 MILLION AFRICAN-AMERICANS VOLUNTEERED OR
    WERE DRAFTED.
  • THEY SERVED IN SEGREGATED UNITS.
  • TUSKEGEE AIRMEN
  • THEY SERVED AS BOMBER ESCORTS
  • AMERICAN NAVAJOS SERVED AS MARINE CORPS RADIOMEN
  • 17 MEXICAN-AMERICANS WON THE CONGRESSIONAL MEDAL
    OF HONOR.
  • JAPANESE AMERICANS SERVED IN THE 442ND UNIT
    ASSIGNED TO FIGHT IN ITALY. THEY BECAME THE MOST
    DECORATED UNIT IN AMERICAN HISTORY.
  • ROSIE THE RIVETER
  • MILLIONS OF WOMEN WORKED IN FACTORIES
  • DOING JOBS THAT WERE TRADITIONALLY MENS.

16
THE AFFECTS THE WAR HAD ON MINORITY GROUPS
  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS
  • THE PRESIDENT ISSUED AN EXECUTIVE ORDER
    FORBIDDING DISCRIMINATION IN DEFENSE WORK AND
    ALSO REQUIRED NON-DISCRIMINATION CLAUSES IN
    DEFENSE CONTRACTS.
  • THIS LED TO A 2ND GREAT MIGRATION OF BLACK
    LABORERS. THIS TIME TO THE WEST.
  • WW2 LED TO A CALL OF DOUBLE V FOR BLACKS
    VICTORY OVER HITLER AND VICTORY OVER SEGREGATON.
  • JUNE 1943 DETROIT RIOTS 25 BLACKS AND 9 WHITES
    DIED BEFORE FEDERAL TROOPS ENDED THE RIOTING.
  • NATIVE AMERICANS
  • 25 OF INDIANS WORKED IN DEFENSE INDUSTRIES IN
    MINNEAPOLIS AND MILWAUKEE. THIS ENABLED INDIANS
    TO LEAVE THE RESERVATION AND IT LEFT A LOT OF
    FARM WORK AVAILABLE IN THE GREAT PLAINS.
  • HISPANICS
  • THE NEED FOR FARM LABORERS CAUSED THE US
    GOVERNMENT TO MAKE A DEAL WITH MEXICO FOR MORE
    IMMIGRANTS.
  • HISPANIC FARM WORKERS COULD NOT BE DRAFTED AND
    HAD TO BE PAID A REASONABLE WAGE.
  • THIS RAPID INCREASE IN HISPANICS LED TO RACIAL
    VIOLENCE IN LOS ANGELES ZOOT SUIT RIOTS.

17
INTERNMENT OF JAPANESE AMERICANS
  • AFTER PEAL HARBOR MOST AMERICANS WERE VERY
    SUSPICIOUS OF JAPANESE-AMERICANS.
  • FEB. 1942 FDR SIGNED EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066
    FORCING JAPANESE-AMERICANS TO MOVE AWAY FROM
    MILITARY BASES.
  • 100,000 JAPANESE-AMERICANS WERE FORCED TO MOVE TO
    INTERNMENT CAMPS LOCATED IN REMOTE AREAS.
  • MANY OF THESE PEOPLE WERE AMERICAN CITIZENS AND
    HAD BEEN FOR GENERATIONS. MANY LOST EVERYTHING
    THEY OWNED.
  • KOREMATSU V. UNITED STATES, 1944, THIS WAS A
    LAWSUIT AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT FOR VIOLATING
    JAPANESE-AMERICANS CIVIL RIGHTS.
  • SUPREME COURT RULED IN FAVOR OF THE GOVERNMENT,
    THE MILITARY URGENCY OF THE SITUATION..
    JUSTIFIED THE ACTION.
  • 1983 THE US GOVERNMENT RECOGNIZED THE INJUSTICE
    AND AUTHORIZED 20,000 TO EACH OF THE LIVING
    JAPANESE-AMERICANS WHO HAD BEEN INTERNED.
  • THE AFTERMATH OF WW2
  • 1. NAZI ATROCITIES AGAINST PEOPLE THEY JUDGED AS
    SOCIALLY INFERIOR AND UNFIT TO LIVE.--HOLOCAUST
  • 2. NAZIS BLAMED THE JEWS FOR ALL OF THEIR
    PROBLEMS. HITLER IN 1934 PUT INTO ACTION HIS
    FINAL SOLUTION TO THE JEWISH PROBLEM.
  • 3. 6-10 MILLION JEWS WERE KILLED BY GAS,
    STARVATION, WORKED TO DEATH OR GUNNED DOWN.

18
WAR CRIME TRIALS
  • NAZI WAR CRIMES NUREMBURG TRIALS
  • NOV. 1945 20 NAZI LEADERS WERE PUT ON TRIAL FOR
    CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY
  • 11 WERE SENTENCED TO DEATH. HERMANN GOERING.
  • LATER, OTHERS WHO ESCAPED GERMANY WERE
    CAUGHT..ADOLF EICHMAN EXECUTED IN ISRAEL IN 1960.
  • IN ASIA, 7 JAPANESE WERE EXECUTED FOR WAR CRIMES.
  • TOJO HIDECKI.

19
AFTERMATH OF THE WAR
  • 60- 90 MILLION DEAD, ESTIMATED 20-30 MILLION IN
    RUSSIA.
  • Europe from Britain to Russia destroyed.
  • Many of the great cities of the world
    destroyedLondon, Paris, Berlin, Rome, Warsaw,
    Leningrad, and Tokyo.
  • Millions displaced.
  • Agriculture disrupted.
  • US and the USSR the 2 great powers left
    standingwhich ushered in the COLD WAR Period.
  • INNOVATIONS OF WW2
  • ATOMIC BOMBLED TO A NUCLEAR ARMS RACE AFTER THE
    WAR BETWEEN US AND SOVIET UNION.
  • PEACEFUL USE OF NUCLEAR POWER.
  • RADAR, SONAR, MICRO-WAVE TECHNOLOGY, COMPUTERS,
    ANTIBIOTICS, OIL PIPELINES, SYNTHETIC RUBBER,
    TRANSISTOR RADIOS, TV, X-RAY TECHNOLOGY, BAZOOKA,
    JET PROPULSION AND ROCKET SCIENCE
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