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Remember: We decided to attack Hitler first

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Remember: We decided to attack Hitler first But, we sent a small force to the Pacific to attempt to keep Japan busy until we could focus on them and for a little ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Remember: We decided to attack Hitler first


1
Remember We decided to attack Hitler first
  • But, we sent a small force to the Pacific to
    attempt to keep Japan busy until we could focus
    on them and for a little payback

Write the Purple on Chart- (a4) And the
Green/White into Prez NB
2
Early Pacific Front
  • A. After the assault on Pearl Harbor, Japan
    launched widespread attacks on various areas in
    the Pacific and East.
  • B. Included Guam, Wake, and the Philippines,
    Hong Kong, British Malaya, and Burma.
  • C. The United States was sending supplies to
    Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kei-Shek) in China to help
    with resistance against Japan.

3
Japan, Philippines, Hawaii
4
General Douglas MacArthur
5
(29) Bataan Death March
  • A. General Douglas MacArthur commanded the US in
    the Philippines and slowed the Japanese for 5
    months. 20,000 American Soldiers and a large
    number of Filipinos withdrew to Bataan near
    Manila.

6
  • B. The force held off Japan until April 9, 1942
    MacArthur was ordered to leave for Australia
    until more forces could come but he proclaimed
    I shall return.
  • C. The men he left behind were treated with
    vicious cruelty and were forced to march 65 miles
    to a prisoner-of-war camp known as the Bataan
    Death March.

7
Bataan Death March
11,700 Americans and as many as 65,000 Filipinos
began the 65-mile march from the Bataan Peninsula
to San Fernando. Of those, between 600 and 700
Americans and between 5,000 and 10,000 Filipinos
died on the march. One of the highest rates of
POW death in World War II Liberation for most
came by August 1945.
8
  • We move to
    defeat
  • Germany and
    Italy

9
THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC Jan 1941-May 1945
  • After Americas entry into the war, Hitler was
    determined to prevent foods and war supplies from
    reaching Britain and the USSR from Americas east
    coast.
  • He ordered submarine raids on U.S. ships on the
    Atlantic.
  • During the first four months of 1942 Germany
    sank 87 U.S. ships .

The power of the German submarines was great, and
in two months' time almost two million tons of
Allied ships were resting on the ocean floor.
Efforts were soon made to restrict German subs'
activities.
10
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11
ALLIES CONTROL U-BOATS
  • In the first seven months of 1942, German U-boats
    sank 681 Allied ships in the Atlantic.
  • Something had to be done or the war at sea would
    be lost.
  • First, Allies used convoys of ships airplanes
    to transport supplies.
  • Destroyers used sonar to track U-boats.
  • Airplanes were used to track the U-boats ocean
    surfaces.
  • With this improved tracking, Allies inflicted
    huge losses on German U-boats.

U-426 sinks after attack from the air, January
1944. Almost two-thirds of all U-boat sailors
died during the Battle of the Atlantic.
12
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13
THE EASTERN FRONT MEDITERRANEAN
  • Hitler wanted to wipe out Stalingrad, Soviet
    Union a major industrial center.
  • In the summer of 1942, the Germans took the
    offensive in the southern Soviet Union.
  • By the winter of 1943, the Allies began to see
    victories on land as well as sea.
  • The first great turning point was the Battle of
    Stalingrad.

Battle of Stalingrad was a huge Allied victory
14
  • For weeks the Germans pressed in on Stalingrad.
  • Then winter set in and the Germans were wearing
    summer uniforms.
  • The Germans surrendered in January of 1943.
  • The Soviets lost more than 1 million men in the
    battle (more than twice the number of deaths the
    U.S. suffered in
    all the war).

Wounded in the Battle of Stalingrad
15
(31) THE NORTH AFRICAN FRONT- Operation Torch
American tanks roll in the deserts of Africa and
defeat German and Axis forces.
  • Operation Torch an invasion of Axis
    -controlled North Africa --was launched by
    American General Dwight D. Eisenhower in November
    1942.
  • The Allies wanted to attack the soft underbelly
    of Europe- through Italy.
  • Allied troops landed in Algeria.
  • They sped eastward chasing the Afrika Korps led
    by German General Edwin Rommel the desert Fox.

16
Allied troops landed in Casa-blanca, Oran and the
Algiers
17
TUSKEGEE AIRMEN
  • Among the brave men who fought in Italy were
    pilots of the all-black 99th squadron the
    Tuskegee Airmen.
  • The pilots made numerous effective strikes
    against Germany and won two distinguished Unit
    Citations .
  • On May 31, 1943, the 99th Squadron, the first
    group of African-American pilots trained at the
    Tuskegee Institute, arrived in North Africa.

18
Moving North to Italy- the Soft Underbelly of
Europe
  • The Italian Campaign got off to a good start as
    the Allies easily took Sicily.
  • At that point King Emmanuel III stripped
    Mussolini of his power and had him arrested.
  • However, Hitlers forces continued to resist the
    Allies in Italy.
  • Heated battles ensued and it wasnt until 1945
    that Italy was secured by the Allies.

19
  • German-Italian army surrendered in May 1943 in
    North Africa the focus then turned to Italy.
  • September 1943 Allied troops moved into Italy.
  • Rome was taken on June 4, 1944
  • Rome was first Axis capitol to fall.
  • It took until May 2, 1945 for the rest of the
    Axis troops to stop fighting in Italy.

20
  • h. Mussolini tried to escape with his mistress to
    Switzerland both were shot to death on April 28
    their bodies were brought to Milan and dumped
    into a large square, mobs of angry Italians
    trampled the bodies. The bodies were then strung
    with wire and hung upside down.

21
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22
D-DAY ALLIES LIBERATE EUROPE
Allies sent fake coded messages indicating they
would attack here. We actually landed on 5
beaches in Normandy, France. Utah, Juno, Omaha,
Gold, Sword
  • Even as the Allies were battling for Italy, they
    began plans on a dramatic invasion of France.
  • It was known as Operation Overlord and the
    commander was American General Dwight D.
    Eisenhower.
  • Also called D-Day, the operation involved 3
    million U.S. British troops and was set for
    June 6, 1944.

23
D-Day Invasion of France
  • a. Teheran, Iran (November 28 December 1, 1943)
    conference between Stalin, Churchill and
    Roosevelt to plan for an Allied invasion of
    France.
  • b. Britain and the U.S. would attack France from
    the west and the Soviets would attack from the
    east at the same time.

24
General Dwight D. Eisenhower was in command of
all Allied forces.
25
  • (36) June 6, 1944 D-day Operation Overlord
    a surprise landing on the beaches of Normandy,
    France- for an Allied invasion to take France
    back from Hitler and begin Germanys defeat.
  • e. 100,000 Allied troops landed in 2 days by
    July 1, over 1 million men were inside the
    beachhead.

26
D- Day Invasion- Operation Overlord June 6, 1944
27
D-DAY JUNE 6, 1944
  • D-Day was the largest land-sea-air operation in
    military history.
  • Despite air support, German retaliation was
    brutal especially at Omaha Beach.
  • Within a month, the Allies had landed 1 million
    troops, 567,000 tons of supplies and 170,000
    vehicles.

D-Day was an amphibious landing soldiers going
from sea to land
28
OMAHA BEACH 6/6/44
29
Landing at Normandy
30
Planes drop paratroopers behind enemy lines at
Normandy, France
31
Losses were extremely heavy on D-Day. There is no
"official" casualty figure for D-Day. Estimates
are 10,000 casualties, including 2,500
dead. Casualties refers to all losses suffered
by the armed forces killed, wounded, missing in
action (meaning that their bodies were not found)
and prisoners of war. The breakdown of US
casualties was 1,465 dead, 3,184 wounded, 1,928
missing and 26 captured. The total German
casualties on D-Day are not known, but are
estimated as being between 4,000 and 9,000 men.
32
FRANCE FREED
  • By September 1944, the Allies had freed France,
    Belgium and Luxembourg.
  • Our focus moved to Berlin, Germany.
  • That good news and the Americans peoples
    desire not to change horses in midstream
    helped elect FDR to an unprecedented 4th term.

General George Patton (right) was instrumental in
Allies freeing France.
33
Franklin D. Roosevelt (D) VP Harry Truman
and Thomas Dewey(R)
(37) Presidential Election of 1944
34
November 1944 Election FDR wins 4th
term! Electoral votes FDR 432 to Dewey 99
RedRoosevelt BlueDewey
35
BATTLE OF THE BULGE Dec 16, 1944 - Jan 25, 1945
  • In October 1944, Americans captured their first
    German town (Aachen) the Allies were closing in.
  • Hitler responded with one last ditch massive
    offensive.
  • Hitler hoped breaking through the Allied line
    would break up Allied supply lines.

36
(39) BATTLE OF THE BULGE
  • The battle raged for a month the Germans had
    been pushed back.
  • Little seemed to have changed, but in fact the
    Germans had sustained heavy losses.
  • Germany lost 120,000 troops, 600 tanks and 1,600
    planes.
  • From that point on the Nazis could do little but
    retreat.

The Battle of the Bulge was Germanys last gasp
37
(41) Yalta Conference
  • Second meeting between Stalin, Churchill and
    Roosevelt -agreement that the priority was the
    defeat of Germany, her unconditional surrender,
    with a partition into four occupied zones, with a
    division occupation of Berlin as well.

38
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin Yalta
Conference Feb 4-11, 1945
39
(43) On April 12, 1945 FDR died. He suffered
a massive cerebral hemorrhage and stroke and died
(at Warm Springs, GA The Little White House)
(Truman1) his VP Harry S Truman became the
nations 33rd president.
40
Final Days of Hitler
  • a. March 1945 American troops
  • reached Germanys Rhine River.
  • b. Americans were horrified to find the German
    concentration camps of the Jews.
  • c. Nazis engaged in mass murder of the
    undesirables an estimated 6 million Jews were
    murdered.
  • d. It was not known until the wars end about the
    atrocities of the Holocaust.

41
LIBERATION OF DEATH CAMPS
  • While the British and Americans moved westward
    into Germany, the Soviets moved eastward into
    German-controlled Poland.
  • The Soviets discovered many death camps that the
    Germans had set up within Poland.
  • The Americans also liberated Nazi death camps
    within Germany.

42
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43
  • e. The Soviets reached Berlin first and were very
    vengeful to the Germans.
  • f. April 29 Hitler married his long-time
    mistress Eva Braun, April 30 Hitler and Eva
    committed suicide (poisoned her and shot himself)
    aides burned the bodies in the Chancellery
    garden (2 Truman.)

44
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45
Not really him dead- the soviets put this picture
out as propaganda
46
  • j. May 8, 1945 Victory in Europe VE Day The
    celebration of official surrender of Germany in
    Berlin celebrated the 7th in Paris- (3 Truman)
  •  

Celebrating in New York City Streets
47
  • Now we go back to take care of Japan- blister
    those britches!!!
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