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Section 4: Ancient Egyptian Culture

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Section 4: Ancient Egyptian Culture Most of what we know about Egyptians is based on painting that cover the walls of tombs and temples. Social classes: Society ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Section 4: Ancient Egyptian Culture


1
Section 4 Ancient Egyptian Culture
  • Most of what we know about Egyptians is based on
    painting that cover the walls of tombs and
    temples.
  • Social classes Society resembled a Pyramid.
  • Pharaoh
  • Upper class
  • Priests, pharaohs court
  • Middle Class
  • Merchants and skilled workers
  • Peasants
  • Farm labor, build roads and temples

2
Slavery
  • Prisoners captured in war were made slaves.
  • They were a separate class and it was not very
    large.
  • They still had rights Could own personal items,
    and inherit land from masters and could be set
    free.

3
Peasants
  • Could own land but most worked the land of the
    wealthy.
  • Flood season they worked on roads, temples and
    other buildings.
  • After flood they would plant the field. One
    worker would use an oxen to plow the field while
    another would plant the seeds.
  • Harvest season was very busy for everyone and
    they worked from sundown to sunset.
  • When season was over they feasteed and celebrated.

4
Women of Egypt
  • They were the living model of Isis, the wife of
    god Osiris.
  • Had most of the rights that men had Own
    property, run businesses, and enter legal
    contracts.
  • They also traveled freely.
  • The paintings show them supervising farm work and
    hunting.
  • They performed many roles such as priestess and
    dancer.

5
Writing in Egypt
  • Things were written down in picture like symbols
    called hieroglyphs.
  • Sometimes symbols stood for ideas such as a
    picture of two legs is Go. Others stand for
    sounds such as an owl is M.
  • They began using Hieroglyphs because they had to
    keep track of the kingdoms wealth.

6
Writing Materials
  • At first the Egyptians write on clay and stone as
    the Sumerians.
  • Then they found papyrus, an early form of paper
    made from a reed found in the marshy area of the
    Nile delta.
  • The inner stalks of the plant were made into
    narrow strips and places side by side in one
    layer. Another layer was placed on top going the
    opposite direction.
  • They pressed it flat and dried it in the sun.
    Sap plant glued the strips together. Once they
    were pasted side by side, the sheets formed long
    strips that could be rolled up.

7
Unlocking the Mystery
  • The meaning of the hieroglyphs was lost after 400
    A.D.
  • It wasnt until 200 years ago, in 1789, that a
    large black stone was found with three different
    types of writing on it.
  • The upper part is Hieroglyphs, middle part showed
    demotic, lower part Greek letters.
  • This stone was called the Rosetta Stone because
    it was found near the Rosetta.
  • The three sets had the same meaning.
  • In 1820s, Jean Francois Champollion, finally
    figured out the meaning and published it.

8
Science and Medicine
  • Important advances in astronomy and medicine.
  • Astronomers or scientists who study stars and
    other objects in the sky, were able to predict
    the Nile floods- the waters would rise when they
    could see Sirus, the dog star, shortly before
    sunrise.
  • Also calculated the year by seeing the time
    period between the Sirus appearance.

9
Mathematics
  • Used basic math to find solutions to problems
    faced everyday.
  • They could add, subtract, multiply, and divide.
  • They could measure the stones so they were the
    proper size and used geometry to measure areas to
    figure out the amount of taxes for a plot of land.

10
Medicine
  • Religion and medicine were closely related.
  • Doctors were also priests that used religious
    practices and their knowledge of illnesses.
  • Because of the work on mummies they knew a great
    deal about the body and learned to perform
    surgery.
  • Herbalism - practice of creating medicines from
    plants. Used natural remedies to help ease
    everyday illnesses such as a stomach ache or
    headache.
  • Mothers made their own medicine for their
    children.
  • The Egyptians wrote down most of their medical
    knowledge on papyrus.
  • Centuries later, the ancient Greeks and Romans
    used these records.

11
Questions??
  • How were the lives of Egypts peasants ruled by
    the seasons?
  • During flood season, peasants worked on roads,
    temples, and buildings. After flood, they would
    farm and harvest.

12
Section 5 Cultures of Nubia
  • From 3100 B.C. many Nubian kingdoms arose only to
    die out when their rulers lost power.
  • Located south of Ancient Egypt beyond the first
    cataract of the Nile River.
  • Egypt and Nubia were for the most part friendly
    neighbors.
  • Egyptians called Nubia Ta Sety or the land of
    the bow as a reference to the Nubians skills as
    archers and the Egyptians hired the archers for
    their armies.

13
Valuable Resources
  • Rich mineral resources such as gold, copper, and
    iron ore.
  • Ore is a mineral or a combination of minerals,
    mined for production of metals.
  • Nubia became a bridge for good traveling between
    central Africa and Egypt.
  • Egypt benefited from Lower Nubia (between first
    and second cataract).
  • Upper Nubia in the south had powerful kingdoms
    and they rivaled Egypt for control of land.
  • One of the most powerful were the cities of
    Kerma, Napata, and Meroe and they were ruled by
    the Kushites.

14
Kerma Culture
  • Kushites came to power when Egypt was weakening.
  • By 1699 B.C., they expanded into S. Egypt.
  • It was known for the artisans who made delicate
    pottery.
  • Also used Royal burials and buried their kings in
    mounds as large as football fields.
  • The kinds would be rested on top of gold-covered
    beds surrounded by jewelry, gold and ivory.

15
Conflict w/Egypt
  • Around 1500 B.C. Egypt regained its strength and
    Pharaoh Thutmose I sent armies into Nubia and
    fought for 50 years. They finally gained control
    and ruled Nubia for the next 700 years.
  • Nubians began to adopt the Egyptian ways such as
    worshipping Egyptian gods.

16
Napata and Meroe
  • South of Kerma is a land called Kush.
  • Late 700s B.C. Egypt was weak and divided and
    the Nubian king and Kushites took control of
    Egypt.
  • Moved the capital city to Thebes and then
    Memphis.
  • In Taharkas rule the Nubians ruled all of Egypt.
  • The pharaohs of the 25th dynasty were Nubian.
  • They brought back many of the Egyptian ways back
    and preserved them and began building pyramids
    (smaller).
  • Rule did not last very long and about660 B.C.,
    they were forced back into Nubia and moved
    capital to Meroe.
  • The Nubians never again controlled Egyptian land.

17
Capital of Meroe
  • After the retreat from Egypt, the Nubians made a
    royal court in Meroe which was located between
    the 5th and 6th cataract and was the center of
    the empire.
  • Ore was found in the rocky deserts east of Meroe.
  • They used ore to make iron weapons and tools.
    The plows gave them generous supplies of food and
    the weapons allowed them to control all trade all
    the way to the Red Sea.
  • It is largely a mystery because they created
    their own hieroglyphics.
  • Meroe weakened around 200 A.D.- fell to African
    kingdom of
  • Features of the Nubian culture lasted over 3500
    years Pottery, furniture, jewelry, braided
    hairstyles, and clothing survive among people of
    the modern-day African country of sudan.
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