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Title: Essentials%20of%20Evidence-Based%20Academic%20Interventions

Essentials of Evidence-Based Academic
  • November 21, 2013
  • Chapters 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10
  • Heidi Hahn and Jennie Stumpf
  • Regions 5 and 7 SLD Trainers

  • Chapter 6 Spelling
  • Chapter 7 Handwriting and Written Expression
  • Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Chapter 9 Math Problem Solving
  • Chapter 10 Relevance of Cognitive Abilities to
    Academic Interventions
  • Please watch for a follow-up survey in your e-mail

Chapter 6 - Spelling
  • Spelling Development
  • Reading requires only recognition, whereas
    spelling requires the complete recall of every
    letter in the correct sequence.
  • Characteristics of children with Spelling
  • Weakness in phonemic awareness
  • Difficulty understanding spelling rules
  • Difficulty with word structure and letter
  • Visual memory problem specific to letters and

Language Components of Spelling
  • Phonology knowledge of speech sounds
  • Orthography knowledge of spelling patterns
  • Morphology knowledge of meaning units
  • Vocabulary knowledge of word meanings
  • Regular Words words that conform to the most
    common English spelling patterns and rules
  • Irregular/Exception Words one or more elements
    to do not conform to the common English spelling
    patterns (i.e. sight words)

Developmental Stages
  • Emergent or Prephonemic Preschool to Kndg
  • Understands that letters communicate meaning and
    can be written.
  • Early Letter Name/Semiphonetic Kndg. 2nd
  • Child has discovered the alphabetic principle
    developed some knowledge of sound-letter
  • Middle to late letter name/phonetic (early 1st
    late 2nd gr.)
  • Represents both consonant and vowel sounds
    usually writes one letter for each sound.

Development Stages - Continued
  • Within word pattern spelling/transitional
  • mastered most diagraphs and consonant blends
  • Syllables and affixes spelling (Upper Elem MS)
  • spelling of multisyllabic words
  • Derivational relations spelling (MS Adulthood)
  • Still lack knowledge of word derivations.focus
    on the relationships among word structures, word
    origins and word meanings

Analyzing Spelling Errors
  • Are the sounds of words in the correct order?
  • Is there an omittion or addition of certain
    sounds from words?
  • Did they spell the irregular elements of words
  • Are there vowels in every syllable?
  • Did they spell the homophones correctly?
  • Did they spell the common affixes correctly?
  • Do they understand how to form plurals and change
    verb tense?

Effective Instruction
  • Segmenting spoken words into their sounds
  • Matching the sounds to the letter correspondences
  • Spelling common orthographic patterns
  • Learning and practicing common spelling rules
  • Spelling irregular words with emphasis on the
    irregular parts
  • Adding affixes to words
  • Spelling different syllable types
  • Spelling word derivatives
  • Learning about word origins

Model Instruction
  • Word Sorts
  • Spelling Rules Page 130
  • Spelling Tests
  • Spelling Flow Lists
  • Individualized accommodations certain words for
    certain students needs
  • Spelling irregular words
  • Multisensory spelling method
  • Commercial Spelling programs p. 134
  • Spelling related Web Sites p. 135

Chapter 6 Spelling
  • Any final questions related to spelling?

Chapter 7 Handwriting and Written Expression
  • Writing is a complex task that requires the
    integration of multiple cognitive, linguistic and
    motor abilities
  • Writing may be the most complex task students are
    asked to perform in school because of the
    integration of so many different skills
  • Many students with writing difficulties can
    formulate clear, coherent ideas, but they then
    have trouble translating these thoughts into
    written form

Chapter 7 Handwriting and Written Expression
  • Writing involves
  • Low level transcription skills
  • Handwriting, spelling, punctuation,
    capitalization, and grammar
  • High level composition skills
  • Planning, content, organization and revision
  • It is estimated that 60 of medication errors
    result from illegible handwriting or
    transcription errors

Chapter 7 Handwriting
  • Handwriting
  • While technology certainly is used for a large
    portion of writing, the need for legible
    handwriting has not disappeared
  • There has been a decreasing emphasis on
    handwriting instruction and competence over the
    past several decades
  • Only 12 of teachers have even taken a course in
    how to teach handwriting
  • Hand writing has been identified as an important
    predictor of the quality of written expression
  • Fluent, automatic handwriting has been linked to
    the quality of compositions

Chapter 7 Handwriting
  • If a student has to think about letter formation
    and production, the quality of the written
    expression will suffer because cognitive
    resources are focused on how to write rather than
    what to write
  • Children in Kindergarten Fourth grade think and
    write at the same time. Only later do students
    begin thinking about their writing apart from
    their handwriting

Chapter 7 Handwriting
  • Characteristics of Students Struggling with
  • Poor motor abilities or coordination problems
  • Difficulty with memory of letter forms
  • Weakness in orthographic processing (coding)
  • Store and retrieve sound-symbol associations
  • Poor handwriting is an early warning sign of
    students at risk for problems with written
  • Automatic letter writing has been found to be the
    best predictor of composition length and quality

Chapter 7 Handwriting
  • Effective Handwriting Instruction
  • Formal handwriting instruction is most effective
  • Lessons should be short, 5 to 10 minutes, and
    followed by an opportunity to use handwriting in
    a meaningful manner
  • Teach
  • Letter formation (page 144)
  • Keyboarding and Technology (page145)

Chapter 7 Handwriting
  • Formation
  • Writing Aids
  • Pencil grip or weight
  • Raised-line paper
  • Commercial Writing Programs
  • Handwriting Without Tears
  • Developmentally based, flexible curriculum for
    teaching handwriting to children in preschool
    through grade 5

Chapter 7 Handwriting
  • Keyboarding and Technology
  • Keyboarding skills should be taught to children
    beginning in first grade, especially those
    children who struggle with handwriting
  • Mavis Beacon Teaches Typing
  • Speech Recognition Software
  • Dragon Naturally Speaking (translates speech
    into text)

Chapter 7 Written Expression
  • Writing is often called the Neglected R because
    it ahs not received the same intensity of focus
    from researchers, educators, or legislators as
    reading or math
  • It is estimated that states spend one quarter of
    a billion dollars annually to remediate
    employees writing difficulties

Chapter 7 Written Expression
  • Characteristics of Students Struggling with
    Written Expression
  • Lack awareness of what good writing is and do not
    know how to produce it
  • Lack knowledge of text structures (genre) and
  • Do not plan before or during writing
  • Do not monitor their own performance
  • Show poor attention and concentration
  • Limited language skills (vocabulary, syntax,

Chapter 7 Written Expression
  • Characteristics of Students Struggling with
    Written Expression continued
  • Students struggling in writing have coexisting
    difficulties in other areas
  • Writing problems are frequently present in
    students with attention problems, possibly due to
    the number of elements that must be integrated
    and attended to when writing
  • Students with reading difficulties often exhibit
    difficulties in writing because of the common
    perceptual and linguistic demands required of
    both tasks

Chapter 7 Written Expression
  • Often times a students writing difficulties are
    not noticed until about fourth grade because it
    is at this point that writing demands increase
    from minimal level (providing single word
    responses or filling in blanks) to higher-level
    demands (composing)

Chapter 7 Written Expression
  • Effective Written Expression Instruction
  • The quality of instruction students receive has a
    major impact on writing achievement
  • Teach the Writing Process (page 150 151)
  • Prewriting
  • Writing/Drafting
  • Revision
  • Editing
  • Publishing

Chapter 7 Written Expression
  • Effective Written Expression Instruction
  • Three Effective Elements for Improving Written
    Expression (page 151 152)
  • Use a framework of planning, writing, and
  • Explicitly teach critical steps in the writing
  • Provide relevant feedback on what is taught
  • Ten Recommendations for Improving Writing (page

Chapter 7 Written Expression
  • Effective Written Expression Instruction
  • Strategy Instruction
  • Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) (page
    153 154)
  • A writing strategy approached that is a
    supplemental method designed to help students
    learn, use, and adopt the strategies of a
    skilled writer
  • Build Writing Vocabulary
  • Teach Text Structures
  • Narrative Writing
  • Expository Writing
  • Teach Revising and Editing Strategies (page 157

Chapter 7 Written Expression
  • Effective Written Expression Instruction
  • Technology (page 161)
  • Draft Builder, Co-Writer, Write Outloud, Read
  • Writing Workshop
  • Focuses on the process of writing more than the
    end product
  • High quality workshops should include
  • Explicit modeling
  • Frequent conferencing
  • High Expectations
  • Flexibility
  • Cooperative learning
  • Self-regulation

Chapter 7 Written Expression
  • Effective Written Expression Instruction
  • Writing portfolio (page 162)
  • Writing frames (page 162)
  • Graphic organizers (page 162)
  • Writing Prompts (page 163)
  • Provide Models (page 163)

Chapter 7 Written Expression
  • Example Accommodations of Instructional Materials
  • Highlight key words or phrases
  • Simplify language used in writing prompts
  • Use graphic organizers and procedural checklists
  • Display mnemonic strategies in the classroom so
    students can access these cutes
  • Develop individual spelling lists and have
    students keep personal dictionaries of
    troublesome words
  • Provide (as needed) pencil grips, raised or
    colored line paper, personal alphabet strips, and
    paper positioning marks on a students desk

Chapter 7 Written Expression
  • Example Modifications of Task Demands
  • Increase time to complete tasks
  • Decrease length or complexity of writing
  • Use text frames (partially completed text)
  • Reduce or eliminate copying tasks
  • Permit use of dictation or a scribe
  • Permit use of a word processor
  • Use technology supports (spell checker, voice
    recognition, semantic mapping, outline software)
  • Allow other means of demonstrating assignment
    (oral versus written)

Chapter 7 Handwriting and Written Expression
  • Summary
  • Writing is a highly complex task that is
    susceptible to difficulties in a multitude of
  • Students must be proficient and automatic with
    the low-level foundational skills of handwriting
    and spelling in order to build fluency and free
    cognitive resources for the higher-level tasks of
    planning, composing, and revising
  • The most effective writing instruction is
    explicit instruction
  • When combined with explicit strategy instruction,
    students experience more success in developing
    the writing skills needed to clearly convey their
    ideas, feelings, and their knowledge

Chapter 7 Handwriting and Written Expression
  • Any final questions related to handwriting and
    written expression?

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Difficulties with math have received less
    attention from researchers and educators than
    have difficulties with reading
  • Between 5 and 8 of school-age children have
    significant problems with math
  • More than 60 of students identified as having a
    learning disability in reading are also achieving
    below grade level in math

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Difficulties with math may result from numerous
    sources, including impairments in
  • Working memory
  • Processing Speed
  • Language
  • Attention
  • Sequencing
  • Spatial skills
  • Reasoning

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • A students success in math reflects the efficacy
    of the instruction and can be negatively impacted
  • Poor teaching
  • The design and materials of the curriculum
  • Due to the cumulative nature of math with one
    skill building on another, poor instruction at
    any level may impede future success

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Special education training programs and
    professional development opportunities focus
    disproportionally on the delivery of reading
    rather than math interventions
  • Both special and general educators take few
    courses in methods for teaching math and are
    often inadequately prepared to teach math skills,
    particularly at the secondary level

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Some curriculum designs can be especially
    troublesome for students that struggle with math
  • Spiraling curriculums
  • Introduces a number of important concepts and
    then returns to those concepts in successive
  • In one year, the time devoted to a concept may be
    too limited for students that do not learn
  • Teaching to mastery
  • Doesnt allow ample opportunities to practice
    mastered skills so it may leave to a false
    conclusion about the students true skill level
  • Frequently, a struggling students performance is
    uneven the student demonstrates proficiency one
    day but not the next
  • Focusing on procedures versus understanding
  • Focus on learning the algorithms instead of
    developing concept understanding

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Characteristics of Individuals Struggling with
    Basic Math Skills
  • Difficulty storing and retrieving basic math
  • Cognitive problems
  • Long term memory
  • Memory span
  • Working memory
  • Attention
  • Processing speed
  • Weaknesses in oral language abilities
  • Students who struggle with basic math
    computations also have difficulty completing math
    problems that involve multiple steps

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Number Sense
  • The childs fluidity and flexibility with
    numbers, as well as understanding of what numbers
    mean and their relationships to others
  • Foundational skill that serves as a prerequisite
    for math success
  • Usually develops during the preschool years and
    most children have an initial understanding in
    place by the age of 4 or 5
  • No one best way to teach
  • Use of problem-centered curriculum that
    emphasizes student interactions and
    self-generated solutions has shown to be

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Math Facts and Fluency
  • Drill and practice approaches are frequently
    recommended for helping students master math
  • As children work on building automaticity of
    facts, they should continue to receive
    instruction in more complex computation and
    problem solving.
  • Give them supports such a pocket sized fact chart
    to reference

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Effective Instruction (page 174 180)
  • Direct, explicit instruction with cumulative
  • Most effective instructional approach for
    teaching basic or isolated skills
  • Demonstration or modeling by the teacher,
    followed by guided practice with immediate
    feedback, and then independent practice to master
    the skill
  • Strategy instruction
  • Strategies need to be taught and practiced in a
    clear, explicit manner
  • Mnemonics, visual images, flashcards, rhymes,
  • Practice
  • Board games, computer-assisted instruction,
    self-correcting materials, cover-copy-compare,

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Concrete Representations
  • Illustrate math concepts with concrete objects or
  • Children can develop mental images of math
  • Can be helpful at any age, especially when
    introducing a new math concept
  • Concrete-Representational-Abstract (CRA)
  • Instruction begins at the concrete level,
    transitions to a semi concrete or
    representational level (pictures) and then
    evolves to the abstract level (numerals, symbols)
  • Students may require up to seven lessons at the
    concrete and semi concrete levels before being
    able to handle abstract-level problems

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Explicit Timings
  • 1 minute timings
  • Provide students with a worksheet of problems
    that cannot be completed within 1 minute
  • Have students complete as many problems as they
    can within the minute
  • Ask students to stop after 1 minute
  • Score the sheet by counting the number of correct
    and incorrect digits written
  • Plot the total number of correct digits on a

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Other effective teaching methods (pages 185
  • Reciprocal Peer Tutoring
  • Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies and Cross-Age
  • Commercial Products
  • Number Worlds
  • PALS Math
  • TouchMath
  • Structural Arithmetic
  • Software and Web-based Resources

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Error Analysis
  • One of the most effective ways to help resolve a
    students errors on basic math computation
  • Analyze any mistakes on standardized tests,
    classroom exams, school papers, and homework
  • Determine the reasons why a student missed a
    certain problem
  • Students will continue to make the same types of
    errors unless intervention occurs
  • If you cant figure out why a student missed a
    problem, ask the student to explain step-by-step
    what they were doing to solve the problem

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Monitor Student Progress
  • Helps students become more aware of their growth
  • Provides teachers with valuable information about
    the effectiveness of their instruction and
    whether or not adjustments are needed
  • Having students chart their own progress not only
    motivates the students, but it also frees the
    teacher from this task

Chapter 8 Basic Math Skills
  • Any final questions related to basic math skills?

Chapter 9 Math Problem Solving
  • Math is one of the most challenging academic
    areas because it is comprised of numerous domains
    that continue to increase in complexity
  • Almost 1/5 of the U.S. population experiences
    high levels of math anxiety
  • Research has found that individuals struggling
    with math often use immature behaviors, such as
    counting on their fingers
  • Over 30 of individuals diagnosed with ADHD are
    also diagnosed with math learning disabilities
  • Due to working memory and executive function

Chapter 9 Math Problem Solving
  • Characteristics of Individuals Struggling with
    Math Problem Solving
  • No clear research on what the characteristics are
    for students struggling in math problem solving
  • May include
  • Processing speech
  • Short-term memory
  • Working memory
  • Oral language abilities
  • Race and poverty
  • Executive functions (planning, inhibiting
    responses, shifting attention, and monitoring

Chapter 9 Math Problem Solving
  • Although problem solving is recognized as a
    critical element of mathematics by researchers
    and national organizations, the emphasis in
    classrooms, especially special education
    classrooms, continues to be on memorization of
    facts and computational procedures.
  • Little time is spent on developing the conceptual
    and procedural knowledge and strategies necessary
    for problem solving
  • Problems
  • Instructional time
  • Textbooks

Chapter 9 Math Problem Solving
  • Teachers state that word problems are the most
    problematic math problems for students
  • Students struggle with following the multiple
    steps of the problem and understanding exactly
    what the problem is asking them to do
  • Effective problem solving requires that an
    individual can
  • Represent the problem accurately
  • Visualize the elements of the problem
  • Understand the relationships among numbers
  • Use self-regulating
  • Understand the meaning of the language and

Chapter 9 Math Problem Solving
  • 10 Effective Instructional Practices that Improve
    Math Achievement
  • Opportunity to learn provide ample math exposure
    and practice
  • Focus on meaning teach important math ideas
  • Problem solving build conceptual understanding
    to improve procedural knowledge
  • Opportunities to invent and practice provide
    time for student to invent ways of solving
    problems and to apply skills being learned
  • Openness to student solutions and student
    interactions use understanding of how students
    construct knowledge

Chapter 9 Math Problem Solving
  • 10 Effective Instructional Practices that Improve
    Math Achievement
  • 6. Small-group learning provide cooperative
    learning activities
  • 7. Whole-class discussions encourage sharing of
    various student solutions
  • 8. Focus on number sense help students determine
    reasonableness of solutions
  • 9. Use of concrete materials provide
    manipulatives to increase student achievement
  • 10. Use of calculators encourage the use of
    technology to increase student achievement and
    improve attitude

Chapter 9 Math Problem Solving
  • Effective Teaching Methods (page 204 217)
  • Direct/Explicit Instruction
  • Cueing, modeling, verbal rehearsal, and feedback
  • Strategy Instruction
  • Self-instruction, self-questioning, self-checking
  • Problem-Solving strategies (page 207)
  • Schema-Based Strategy Instruction
  • Teaches procedural and conceptual understanding
    related to mathematical word problem solving
  • Concrete-Representational-abstract (CRA)
  • Instruction begins at the concrete level,
    transitions to a semi concrete or
    representational level (pictures) and then
    evolves to the abstract level (numerals, symbols)

Chapter 9 Math Problem Solving
  • Effective Teaching Methods (page 204 217)
  • Demonstration Plus Permanent Model
  • Used to teach long division
  • The teacher first demonstrates the steps and then
    this becomes a permanent model to help students
    solve similar problems
  • Mnemonic Strategies (page 210 211)
  • STAR (steps to solve word problems)
  • DRAW (used to solve addition, subtraction,
    multiplication, and division problems)
  • ORDER (to remember which operation should be
    solved first)
  • EQUAL (greater than, less than, and equal to)
  • Please Excused My Dear Aunt sally (executive

Chapter 9 Math Problem Solving
  • Effective Teaching Methods (page 204 217)
  • Technology
  • Calculators, videos, computers and web-based
  • Commercial Products
  • Everyday Math
  • I CAN Learn Pre-Algebra and Algebra
  • Saxon Middle School math
  • Classworks
  • These were determined to have potentially
    positive effects on math achievement for students

Summary Math Disabilities
  • Existing research in mathematics suggests that
    instructional practices are more important and
    effective in teaching math than any curricula
  • A direct/explicit instructional approach is most
    effective for teaching basic math skills.
  • Strategy instruction is most effective for
    improving students math problem solving skills

Chapter 10 The Relevance of Cognitive Abilities
to Academic Interventions
  • LOTS of great information worth reading the
    entire chapter

Final Thoughts
  • Questions?
  • Comments?
  • Follow-Up Survey in an e-mail sent by Jennie. By
    completing the survey you will receive your CEUs
  • Contact Information
  • Heidi Hahn
  • Jennie Stumpf

  • If keeping the book, please send a check for 31
  • SLD Project
  • NJPA
  • Cheryl Husman
  • 202 12th St NE
  • PO Box 219
  • Staples, MN 56479

  • If not keeping your book, it can be returned to
  • Fran Johnson
  • 1248 7th Avenue N
  • Sauk rapids, MN 56379
  • Or
  • Dropped off at Benton Stearns Ed District in care
    of Fran Johnson