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The Muscular System

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The Muscular System The ability to move is an essential activity of the human body Consists of over 600 individual muscles. 3 purposes: Body movement – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Muscular System


1
The Muscular System
  • The ability to move is an essential activity of
    the human body
  • Consists of over 600 individual muscles.
  • 3 purposes
  • Body movement
  • Body shape
  • Body heat (maintain temp.)

2
The Muscular System
  • Body movements are determined by three types of
    muscles
  • Smooth (involuntary) cannot be controlled by
    will.
  • Cardiac control the contractions of the heart.
  • Skeletal (Voluntary) can be controlled by will.

3
Types of Muscles
4
Function of Skeletal muscles
  • Attach to bones to provide voluntary movement
  • Tendons strong, tough connective cords
  • Fascia tough, sheet-like membrane
  • Produce heat and energy for the body
  • Help maintain posture
  • Protect internal organs
  • Called striated (striped) because they have
    striations of alternating light and dark band

5
Functions contd.
  • Fleshy body parts are made of skeletal muscles
  • Provide movements to the limbs, but contract
    quickly, fatigue easily and lack the ability to
    maintain contraction for long periods
  • Blinking eyes, talking, breathing, eating,
    dancing and writing all produced by these muscles

6
Function of Smooth Muscle
  • Called smooth muscle because they are unmarked by
    striations
  • Unattached to bones, act slowly, do not tire
    easily and can remain contracted for a long time
  • Not under conscious control so they are also
    called involuntary muscles
  • Found in walls of internal organs (intestines,
    bladder, stomach, uterus, blood vessels)

7
Function of cardiac muscle
  • Found only in the heart
  • Involuntary muscle
  • Requires a continuous supply of oxygen to
    function
  • Cardiac muscle cells begin to die after 30
    seconds of oxygen cut-off
  • Striated

8
Special muscles
  • Sphincter (dilator) muscles are openings between
  • the esophagus and stomach
  • The stomach and small intestines
  • Walls of the anus, urethra and mouth
  • Open and close to control passage of substances

9
Characteristics of Muscles
  • All muscles have 4 common characteristics
  • Excitability ability to respond to a stimulus
    (i.e. nerve impulse)
  • Contractibility muscle fibers that are
    stimulated by nerves contract (become shorter)
    and causes movement
  • Extensibility ability to be stretched
  • Elasticity allows the muscle to return to its
    original shape after it has been stretched

10
Sources of heat/energy
  • When muscles work, they produce heat that our
    body needs to function properly
  • Major source of this energy is Adenosine
    Triphosphate (ATP) a compound found in muscle
    cells
  • ATP requires muscle cells to have oxygen, glucose
    and other materials circulated by the blood
  • When the muscle is stimulated, ATP is released,
    thus producing heat

11
Definitions
  • Adduction
  • Moving a body part toward the midline
  • Abduction
  • Moving a body part away from the midline
  • Flexion
  • Decreasing the angle between two bones or bending
    body parts
  • Extention
  • Increasing the angle between two bones or
    straightening the body part
  • Rotation
  • Turning a body part around its own axis
  • Circumduction
  • Moving in a circle at a joint

12
  • Buildup of lactic acid caused by vigorous
    exercise where blood is unable to be transported
  • MUSCLE FATIGUE
  • State of partial contraction is called
  • MUSCLE TONE
  • Loss of muscle tone occurs when muscles are not
    used for a long period of time. Muscles atrophy
    (shrink in size and lose strength) and results
    in
  • CONTRACTURES
  • Foot drop is the most common type of contracture
    seen, but fingers, knees and other joints can be
    affected

13
  • FIBROMYALGIA
  • FibroFibrous
  • MyMuscle
  • AlgiaPain
  • Chronic, widespread pain in specific muscle site
    numbness and tingling in arms or legs headaches
  • Cause unknown
  • Treat symptoms pain relief stress reduction
    and muscle relaxers
  • MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
  • DysDifficulty
  • TrophyCondition of nutritional growth
  • Group of inherited diseases that cause chronic,
    progressive muscle atrophy resulting in total
    disability and early death
  • No cure
  • Treatment used to slow progression of disease

14
  • MYASTENIA GRAVIS
  • Chronic condition where nerve impulses are not
    transmitted correctly leading to progressive
    muscular weakness and paralysis affects
    respiratory muscles and can be fatal
  • Cause unknown
  • Treatment is supportive
  • MUSCLE SPASMS/CRAMPS
  • Sudden, painful involuntary muscle contractions
  • Caused from overexertion, low electrolytes or
    poor circulation
  • Treat by applying gentle pressure and stretching
    of the affected muscle

15
  • STRAIN
  • Overstretching of a muscle or tendon frequently
    in legs, back or arms
  • Caused by sudden muscle exertion
  • Treated by resting, muscle relaxants, or pain
    medications, elevation of extremity and applying
    hot/cold compresses

16
RANGE OF MOTION
17
????? WHY ?????
  • Done to maintain health of the musculoskeletal
    system (muscle/skeleton)
  • Each joint and muscle is moved through its full
    range for patients with limited ability to move
  • Administered by PT, RN, Assistant, or other
    authorized personnel (with training)
  • Done to prevent problems caused by lack of
    movement

18
Problems from lack of movement
  • Contractures
  • Tightening and shortening of a muscle resulting
    in a permanent flexing of a joint
  • Muscle atrophy
  • Muscles become weak and joints become stiff
  • Circulatory impairment
  • Blood clots and pressure ulcers can develop
  • Mineral loss
  • Especially calcium from the bones making bones
    brittle and easily to be fractured
  • Other problems
  • Poor appetite constipation urinary infections
    respiratory problems and pneumonia

19
Types of ROM
  • Active ROM
  • Performed by patients who are able to move each
    joint without assistance
  • Active assistive ROM
  • Patient actively moves the joints but receives
    assistance to complete the entire range
  • Passive ROM
  • Another person moves each joint for a patient who
    is not able to exercise
  • Resistive ROM
  • Exercises are performed by a PT against resistance

20
Definitions
  • Abduction moving away from midline
  • Adduction moving toward midline
  • Flexion bending of body part
  • Extension straightening of body part
  • Rotation moving around its own axis
  • Circumduction moving in a circle at a joint

21
Principles to follow
  • Movement should be slow and smooth
  • Support provided to the parts above and below the
    joint being exercised
  • Never force a joint beyond its ROM or to the
    point of pain
  • STOP if a person complains of pain
  • Perform each movement 3-5 times
  • Encourage patient to assist as much as possible
  • Prevent patient exposure
  • Keep door closed and patient screened off
  • Use correct body mechanics

22
Body Mechanics
23
4 main reasons
  • Muscles work best when used correctly
  • Correct use of muscles makes lifting, pulling and
    pushing easier
  • Prevents unnecessary fatigue and strain
    therefore, saves energy
  • Prevents injury to self

24
8 rules of good body mechanics
  • Maintain broad base of support (8-10 in.)
  • Bend from hips and knees to get close to object
  • Use strongest muscles shoulders, arms, hips,
    thighs
  • Use weight of body to help push/pull
  • Carry heavy objects close
  • Avoid twisting body turn whole body when
    changing direction
  • Avoid bending for long periods
  • Get help if object is too heavy
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