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Muscular System

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Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Anne Bartram Last modified by: Hernandez, Bridget Created Date: 2/4/2009 2:48:39 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Muscular System


1
Muscular System
Chapter 10 p278 Chapter 11 p 312
2
Is this what you guys want to look like?
3
or you girls?
4
this is a little more realistic
5
and this is more like what we have to learn!!
6
What is the difference between a typical animal
cell and a MUSCLE CELL? Why are muscle cells
called MUSCLE FIBERS? What do you think a
MYOFIBER is?
7
Muscle fiber Cytoplasm SARCOPLASM Cell
membrane SARCOLEMMA ER SARCOPLASMIC
RETICULUM
Nucleus
A muscle cell is a MUSCLE FIBER !!
8
One MUSCLE FIBER is wrapped in connective tissue
called ENDOMYSIUM
A bunch of muscle fibers are wrapped in
connective tissue called PERIMYSIUM and the
whole thing is called a FASCICLE.
Epimysium forms the tendon
All the fascicles are wrapped in
connective tissue called the EPIMYSIUM
9
Muscle fiber or one muscle cell
10
Lets COLOR Page 142A.numbers 1-2-3-4-5
only Right now.?
11
Remember, one muscle cell/muscle fiber is made of
a thousand or more myofibrils and each of them
is made of thousands of myofilaments !!
12
One Muscle fiber
is made of
One-thousand myofibrils
each of which contains
Thousands of myofilaments Thin actin Thick --
myosin
13
UH OH .. more new terms Sarcomere basic
contractile unit of a myofibril thin
myofilaments made of proteins called actin,
tropomyosin, and troponin thick myofilaments
made entirely of myosin T tubules inward
extensions of sarcolemma at a right angle to the
long axis of the cell Z disk or Z line
separates one sarcomere from the next and also
serves as an anchor for the myofibrils
14
(No Transcript)
15
Lets color!!!! Page 142A.numbers
6-7-8-9-10 Right now.. ?
16
Neuromuscular junction Impulse travels down the
AXON of the motor nerve to the terminal end
plate. There, the NEUROTRANSMITTER Acetylcholine
(Ach) is released to cross the SYNAPSE and
stimulate the sarcolemma of the muscle cell
17
Are you absolutely, positively, guaranteed, for
sure that you know what each of these things
are????????? terminal end plate calcium Ac
h sarcolemma T tubules SR sarcoplasm sar
comere troponin tropomyosin ATP
18
Sliding filament theory
Terminal end plate of neuron Calcium is required
to trigger the release of Ach Ach diffuses
rapidly across synapse Ach receptors initiate an
impulse that travels along the sarcolemma, along
T tubules to the SR Ca is released from SR into
the sarcoplasm where it binds to troponin
molecules in the thin myofilaments Tropomyosin
molecules in those thin filaments shift, exposing
actins active sites Energized myosin cross
bridges bind to actin and pull the thin
myofilament toward the center of the
sarcomere This continues several times a second
as long as there is ATP available As the thin
filaments slide past the thick filaments, the
entire muscle shortens
19
Relaxation Immediately after the Calcium is
released into the sarcoplasm, it is pumped back
into the SR. The Ca is stripped off the troponin
moleculestroponin without Calcium allows the
tropomyosin to block the active sites on actin.
The contraction is over.
20
Disuse atrophy prolonged inactivity results in
decreased muscle mass Hypertrophy exercise
results in increased muscle mass Strength
training exercise increasing resistance,
isometric exercises, and weight lifting results
in increased numbers of myofilaments (protein
strands) Endurance training (aerobic training)
increases a muscles ability to sustain moderate
exercise over a long periodresults in increase
vascular presence which increases supply of
oxygen and glucose
Muscle fibers must continually resynthesize ATP
energy is also supplied by the breakdown of
creatine phosphate which is present in small
amounts in muscle fibers.
21
Lactic acid accumulates in muscle tissue and
causes a burning sensation. Some of it is
carried back to the liver where it is converted
back into glucosethis takes timetime to work
the soreness out.
22
ASSIGNMENT one minute verbal report or
description of one of these
1. 3 types of muscle fibersslow, fast,
intermediate 2. Myography 13. myalgia 3.
Twitch 14. contusion 4. Treppe 15.
poliomyelitis 5. Tetanus 16. Duchene Muscular
Dystrophy 6. Muscle tone 17. Myasthenia
Gravis 7. Graded strength principle 18.
Hernia 8. Isotonic contractions 19.
Origin/Insertion 9. Isometric contrctions 20.
Prime mover/agonist 10. Cramps 21.
Antagonist 11. Convulsions 22. Synergist 12.
Fibrillation 23. fixator muscle
23
TEST Wednesday, January 28
24
Naming muscles
Location -- brachialis in arm gluteus in
buttocks Function flexor carpi radialis Shape
-- deltoid (triangular) Direction of fibers
rectus (straight) abdominus Number of heads
biceps brachii, triceps brachii Points of
attachment sternocleidomastoid Size of muscle
gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and
gluteus minimus
Table on page 285-287 in your textbook
LEARN THESE!!
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