The Rise and Decline of the Gunpowder Empires - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Rise and Decline of the Gunpowder Empires

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The Rise and Decline of the Gunpowder Empires AP World History Overview Rise of Ottomans, Safavid, Mughal Conditions of Europe: Why no Gunpowder Empire in Europe? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Rise and Decline of the Gunpowder Empires


1
The Rise and Decline of the Gunpowder Empires
  • AP World History

2
Overview
  • Rise of Ottomans, Safavid, Mughal
  • Conditions of Europe Why no Gunpowder Empire in
    Europe?
  • Big Question What accounts for the rise of the
    Gunpowder Empires and why arent they able to
    keep pace with Europe?

3
European Overview
  • Most Monarchs claim Divine Right
  • Intermarriage among royal bloodlines is common
  • Monarchs gain influence in another country via
    marriage/inheritance ties (i.e., Phillip II)
  • Strong National Loyalties develop (Spain/Portugal
    start ? Replaced by France/England
  • Wars Religious, Political, Economic

4
Rise of Mughal India
  • Rise of power swift, easily conquered and
    controlled Northern India. (map)
  • Akbar solidified power, made social changes
  • Created a new religion with elements of Hinduism
    and Islam
  • Eliminated jizya tax on Hindus
  • Allowed Hindus to build temples again
  • Promoted Hindus in the govt
  • Outlawed Sati (immolation), discouraged child
    marriage

5
Mughal Military Power
  • Massive armies, cavalry, artillery, no navy
  • Firearms purchased from Europeans, limited local
    production
  • Troops poorly trained conscripted from poor

6
Mughal Decline
  • Public works (including the Taj Mahal) drain
    budgets

7
Mughal Decline
  • Wars to conquer Southern India depleted reserves,
    distracted emperor from internal problems
    (uprisings and revolts), and incursions from
    Persian and Afghan warriors bands

8
Mughal Decline
  • Repressive tax system, with few benefits seen by
    poor
  • Extensive bureaucracy allowed large scale
    corruption
  • Later emperors refused to integrate Hindus into
    the govt (80 of population)
  • Military technology unable to match European
    development modernization plan Why?

9
Ottoman Rise
  • Void left by Mongols taken up by Ottomans
  • Cavalry, Jannisaries dominate
  • Conquer Constantinople, make it their capital
  • Considered the terror of Europe

10
Ottoman Military Might
  • Adopted firearms readily easily defeated Muslim
    rivals, Hungary
  • Initially they had superior technology
  • 15th Century - Build navy to ward off Europeans,
    gain control of Mediterranean (Significance?)

11
400 Years of Decline
  • Military victories bring about decline, how?
  • Had to constantly guard gains

12
(No Transcript)
13
400 Years of Decline
  • Conservative Islam focused on tradition,
    spirituality
  • Turks did not have the resources, forethought to
    modernize army
  • Trade imbalance
  • Middle class heavily taxed (why relevant?)
  • Numerous ineffective leaders

14
Land-Based Empires
  • Focus on self-defense
  • Agricultural base, not industrialization
  • Centralized power
  • Large land masses
  • Controlled by large administrative and economic
    systems
  • Why have you never heard of them?
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