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Child Developmental Theories

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Title: Child Developmental Theories


1
Child Developmental Theories
  • Constructivist

2
DevelopmentalConstructivist
  •  
  • Approach very concerned with socialization and
    the lifecycle. (curvilinear) (end point)
  • Draws from child psychologists, human development
    researchers.
  •  
  • Directs attention to the longitudinal career of
    the family rather than focusing on one point in
    time.

3
Key Assumptions
  • 1. Human conduct is best understood through
    preceding as well as current social milieus.
  • 2. Human conduct cannot be understood apart from
    human development 
  •  

4
Key Assumptions
  • 3. The human is both an actor and a reactor 
  • 4. Individual and group development is dependant
    upon inherent and developed capacities.
  • 5. The individual in a social setting is a basic
    autonomous unit

5
The Developmental Approach
  •  
  • Constructivists approach helps to understand an
    individuals internalization of family from their
    formation to the various stages of the lifecycle.
  • i.e.. courtship, engagement, wedding, divorce or
    death
  •  

6
  • Besides these there are theories dealing
    individual rather than the family psychoanalytic,
    cognitive and learning.

7
Summary
  •  
  • Taken independently, these theories describe only
    a portion of the realities of the family.
  • They should not be seen as mutually exclusive
    from one another.

8
Developmental analysis
  • Constructivist/development theories are weak in
    situational analysis.  
  • Heavy emphasis on arbitrary stages in theory,
    concept and method. 

9
Concept-
  • An abstraction used as a building block for the
    development of propositions and theories.

10
Freudian Theory or psychoanalytic tradition.
  • Freudian theory essential deals with the egos
    attempts to satisfy the desires of the id while
    dealing with opposition from both the superego
    and the real world.

11
To Freud
  • Children are born with only the primitive element
    of the psychic structure-the id- sexual and
    aggressive drives.

12
Psychic energy
  • Freuds theory essentially shows that the
    personality functioning was fueled by psychic
    energy that becomes distributed among the id, ego
    and superego.

13
ID instincts, drives
  • All psychological functioning requires energy,
    and the id was the source of the energy.
  • The id is the only psychic structure possessed
    by children for roughly the first year of their
    lives.

14
The pleasure principle
  • They are driven by the pleasure principle, they
    are hedonistic beings who seek pleasure and avoid
    pain.

15
  • Young infants are wildly unsocialized creatures
    who seek immediate gratification whenever their
    sexual and aggressive urges are aroused.
  •  

16
The Ego
  • The ego is the rational, reasonable component of
    personality. The ego operates on the reality
    principle -it can plan, delay gratification, and
    block the irrational choices of the id.

17
The superego.
  • The third aspect of the personality to Frued is
    the superego.
  • Freud maintains that it usually develops within
    the child between the ages of 3 and 5

18
   Psycho-Sexual Stages.
  • Freud was the first to conceptual child
    development in a stage pattern based upon a
    biological foundation

19
His stages include
  • Oral -year one
  • Anal -year two
  • Phallic-years three
    to five
  • Latency-
    adolescence
  • Genital-adolescence

20
Healthy vs. Pathology
  •  
  • Freud believed that in a healthy person, sexual
    energy now becomes focused on a loved person of
    the opposite sex.

21
Critique of Fruedian Theory
  • The following are the major criticisms
  • A.      shortcoming in his methods used to
    validate his hypotheses-Freuds data were the
    verbal reports of neurotic parents who were asked
    to free associate -not reliable indicator of the
    patients real thoughts.an ivory tower approach.

22
Freuds concepts-difficult to measure
  • B.     Freuds concepts are not defined in ways
    that make them amenable to concrete behavior
    assessment
  • How do you measure a childs level of psychic
    energy?
  • How do you measure a childs strength of ego?

23
Generalizing
  • C.      A third criticism is that although
    Freuds theory can explain just about anything,
    it is difficult to use in making predictions.
  • It is weak on relational rules if this happens,
    then that will happen

24
Nature more than Nurture
  • D. Lastly, it places too much emphasis on
    intra-psychic determinants of behaviour, paying
    little attention to environment.

25
  • For example, although he acknowledges
    parent-child relationships, he believed that
    internal conflicts and defenses are ultimately
    responsible for the childs personality.

26
Freuds Legacy
  •   There is little direct influence on development
    today, but his concepts have had impact on
    research directions and issues
  • On research and theory-Erikson was student of
    Freud.. 

27
-Issues
  • -Issues such as Breast feeding can be directly
    attributed to Frued.Rooted in his notions of the
    oral stage of development.
  •  
  •  

28
  • Freuds theory is highly criticized by Feminists
    who argue he is sexist, conservative and
    monolithic.
  • Responsible for mother blaming

29
Unscientific
  • Because Freuds theory is so unscientific and
    lead to few clear-cut empirical predictions.
  • Many other theories have been developed
    emphasizing childs formative years

30
Environment
  • Freud does not see the the social environment in
    influencing development.
  • The emphasis is upon socialization of the child
    becoming adult
  • The Child is placed on the margins 

31
Superego
  • . During this stage, children develop an
    Oedipal crisis, which they resolve by identifying
    with the same sex parent, thereby developing a
    conscience or an external representation of the
    values and sanctions of society.

32
Erik Erikson (1902-1994) A student of Frued
  • Psychoanalytic Approach- Eriksons psychosocial
    theory was one of many developed by followers of
    Freud.
  • His theory stretched, rearranged and in many ways
    improved on Freuds model.

33
Erikson (1902-1994)
  • Beginning in 1950 he expanded understanding of
    each stage of Frueds developmental model.
  • Eriksons, Childhood and Society (1950)
  • Identity, Youth and Crisis (1968)

34
Culture Personality Erikson
  • Firmly rooted in the psychoanalytic tradition
  •  
  • Beginning with Freud-hotly debated -still with
    us- ie feminists
  •  

35
Easy to understand Phases Linear Pattern
  • Divide into assumptions re. biological endowment,
    perception, learning and socialization 

36
  • Proposes a series of stages, specifies adult
    practices associated with each, postulates the
    maturation and timing of the child's capacities
    and proposed some relationships between
    experiences at each stage and the child's
    motivation for learning.

37
Eriksons theory
  •  
  •  
  • Eriksons theory goes beyond Freud-more respect
    for the individual and his innate ability to meet
    the challenges of a dynamic society.
  •  

38
Goes beyond Freud
  •  
  • -more respect for the individual and his innate
    ability to meet the challenges of a dynamic
    society.

39
Erikson
  • Erikson believed that each stage does not lead to
    an embattled ego that mediates between the id and
    the superego. (Freud)

40
The ego
  • The ego is a positive force (Erikson) in
    development. At each stage the ego acquires
    skills and attitudes that allow individuals to
    become positive, functional members of human
    society.

41
Three positionsDifferent from Freud
  • 1. Emphasized the ego over the id-instincts like
    death wish may have their role but less
    significant than the individuals capacity to
    adjust.
  • 2. Goes beyond child-mother-father triad-stress
    family and larger society
  • 3. Optimistic view-believes hazards in life and
    crises are conducive to growth
  •  

42
Basic Assumptions
  • 1. Unlike Freud dreams do not provide signals to
    unconscious-play does...if you want to understand
    a child's ego look at play 
  • -emphasis on qualitative research, psychoanalysis
    alone won't help-look at history, anthropology 

43
  • 2. Child unfolds biologically and psychologically
    from birth-child learns to survive and promote
    culture through the culture in him

44
Individual not evil (Hobbes, Freud)
  • 3. Each individual is bad- potentially good or
    bad must be prevented from being bad by democracy
  •  

45
  • 4. Believes in libido-but man not animal-discards
    Freud notion of dynasty of drives in favor of
    flexible modifyable-gives rise to his notion of
    styles of life
  • -One can manage inner and outer forces by
    adaptive skills-play, speech, though and actions.

46
Freud/Erikson agree on Libido
  •  
  • 5. Erikson accepts Freud idea that Libido
    influences all aspects of lifebut Erikson
    believes id, ego and superego can balance through
    play in a child's development
  •  

47
Play teaches
  • Play teaches a. how to organize inner life in
    relations to the outer world. 
  • b. How to educate oneself and heal defeats and
    pains 
  • c. How to master tasks to deal with inner and
    outer world 

48
  • Play is particularly important when the child
    does not have language it helps the child
    progress in developmental stages

49
Stages End Point
  • InfantTrust vs MistrustNeeds maximum comfort
    with minimal uncertaintyto trust
    himself/herself, others, and the
    environmentToddlerAutonomy vs Shame and
    DoubtWorks to master physical environment while
    maintainingself-esteem

50
Preschooler
  • PreschoolerInitiative vs GuiltBegins to
    initiate, not imitate, activities
    developsconscience and sexual identity

51
School-Age Child
  • School-Age ChildIndustry vs InferiorityTries to
    develop a sense of self-worth by refining skills
  • AdolescentIdentity vs Role ConfusionTries
    integrating many roles (child, sibling, student,
    athlete,worker) into a self-image under role
    model and peer pressure

52
Young Adult
  • Young AdultIntimacy vs IsolationLearns to make
    personal commitment to another asspouse, parent
    or partner

53
Adult
  • Middle-Age AdultGenerativity vs StagnationSeeks
    satisfaction through productivity in career,
    family, andcivic interests
  • Older AdultIntegrity vs DespairReviews life
    accomplishments, deals with lossand preparation
    for death

54
Summing Up
  • 1. Erikson a cultural determinist, ego
    psychologist and an optimist
  •  
  • 2. Child development must be understood in terms
    of the whole situation involves the child the
    family and his culture.
  •  

55
Developing personality
  • 3. The potential of a developing personality must
    be protected against the hazards of instinctual,
    parental, communal, cultural and environmental
    pressures to allow innate tendencies to develop
    successfully.

56
Stages are Ideal typical-
  •  
  • 4. Explains development within a specific culture
    North America-assumes a monolith bias-ideal
    typical-notions of freedom of expression,
    opportunity, rapid social change and role
    ambiguity-generation gap underlie his thinking

57
Piaget's Background
  • 1. A Swiss zoologist, interested in philosophy
    -wanted to link God with life

58
  • 2. . Career began with a zeal to link biology and
    psychology...whereas learning theorist sees
    development as a primary process of learning...

59
  • Piaget saw them as independent -learning cannot
    explain development, while the stages of
    development can, at least in part, explain
    learning.....

60
Development of cognition
  • 3. Piaget's primary concern was to understand the
    development of cognition not cognitive
    development...

61
Effective socialization
  • He explains that effective socialization is the
    product of three elements 
  • a. Maturation-differentiation of the nervous
    system
  • b. Experience-interaction with the physical world
  • c. Equilibrium-self regulation, cognitive
    adaptation

62
 Piaget's Concept of the New Born
  •  
  • A newborn is a biological organism with a
    psychological make-up..

63
Newborn Drives-sensory-motor
  •  
  • He has a drive for hunger, a drive for balance
    and a drive for independence.
  •  

64
Child development
  • The child's development takes place in the
    context of the environment, physical, social and
    ideational. The environment can promote, retard
    or change the order of the succession of the
    individuals growth process. But the sequence of
    the developmental phases must remain the same.

65
Linear Course of Development
  •  
  • Piaget explains development in terms of three
    phases...they are irreversible and denote a
    course of development...'
  • Stages-along a continuum

66
Piagets Phases of Cognition
  • Each phase reveals an organizational pattern,
    potential capacity, probable level of behaviour
    and moves on to the next with a concern for
    balancing.
  •  

67
Sensory-Motor Stage
  • 1. Sensory-Motor (0-24 mos. -with six sub phases)
  • Use of reflexes through repetition and
    adaptation... 
  • Voluntary movements- coordination- Imitation-
    Play -Affect
  • Continuous experimentation, greater mobility,
    cyclical repetition

68
Preparation for Conceptual Thought
  •  
  • 1. Preconceptual2-4 2. Intuitive 4-7
    3.Concrete Operations(7-11)
  •  
  •  

69
Pre-conceptual phase
  • During the pre-conceptual phase events are
    explained and experienced in terms of their
    outward appearance without any logic.
  •  
  • He does not perceive any connections between
    relationships i.e.. quantity and quality.
  •  

70
Intuitive phase
  • During the Intuitive phase, he learns to balance
    between assimilation and accommodation. i.e. he
    does not think in a whole but in parts i.e..
    parts of a house not the whole house.
  •  
  • Play becomes more social, language helps to
    foster intuition, child reflects on events,
    projects into the future

71
Concrete operations
  • During the Concrete operations phase, the child
    can consider several points of view
    simultaneously...he can work out solutions, he
    can establish systems of classification, he can
    move from inductive to deductive reasoning.

72
Phase of Formal Operations (11-15)
  • It is in this phase that childhood ends, around
    14 and youth is reached, with the maturation of
    cerebral structures.

73
Formal Operations
  • He moves in a world of ideas The growing youth
    possesses
  • 1. Qualitative understanding of objects and
    events
  •  
  • 2. Knowledge of metrical activities
  •  

74
Deductive reasoning
  • 3. Deductive reasoning develops to a point where
    he is able to establish personal rules and
    values...His personality is crystallizing.....
  •  
  • His/her interests center around weighing,
    classifying and reevaluating....(this is why
    adolescents are so critical)

75
At 15,
  • 4. At 15, he/she has the following developmental
    accomplishments
  •  
  • a. Sees the social world as an organic unit-laws,
    roles social functions
  •  
  • b. Egocentricity is dissolved by a sense of moral
    solidarity
  •  

76
Formal Operations complete
  •  
  • 5. Personality has developed through
    intra-communication
  •  
  • 6. Submission to adult authority is related by a
    sense of equality
  •  

77
Summary
  • Piaget's developmental framework, provides a
    model for individual potentiality-a frame of
    reference
  • Regular patterns of cognitive development bound
    to be experienced by everyone 
  • We are able to predict an individuals mode and
    range of comprehension along a developmental
    plane 

78
Robert Sears The Learning Theory
  • Sears, an empiricist and an experimentalist.
  • Taught at Stanford-Social Learning Psych
    Department
  •  

79
Stimulus/Response
  • Explains child development through the S.R.
    (stimulus-response) sequence.
  •  
  • SR-the effect of an action can be the learned
    cause of future behaviour.

80
  • Many of his ideas were formed with the help of a
    colleague-Clark Hull who stressed
    reinforcement-secondary drive, motivation and
    frustration and aggression hypothesis advanced by
    Dollard, Miller and others.

81
SR and Behaviour
  •  
  • For example, -hunger (stimulus) activates the
    individual and determines how he/she (will
    respond) thus producing an action sequence and a
    goal.
  •  
  • Behaviour to Sears, is the cause and effect of
    other behaviour Behaviour is Learned
  •  

82
Learning Theory
  • Behaviour is self motivated towards tension
    reduction 
  • Behaviour is reinforced by goal achievement
    producing secondary motivational systems
  •  

83
Concept of Development in PhasesConstructivist
  •  
  • For Sears, development is a continuous chain of
    events, some of which replace previous
    acquisitions.
  •  
  • The development of the child occurs in three
    phases

84
Stages of Learning
  •  
  • 1. Rudimentary behaviour (1-16 months)
  •  
  • 2. Secondary motivational systems- family
    cantered learning (1.5 years to 5 years)
  •  
  • 3. Secondary motivational systems- extra familial
    learning (5-)
  •  

85
Phase One Rudimentary Behaviour
  •   Like Freuds Id, and Piagets Sensory Motor
    Phases,
  • Sears Rudimentary Stage
  • -Phase of gratification of immediate needs
  •  

86
  • -Primary drives the cry
  •  
  • -Environmental learning -fulfilment of needs
    reduction of tensionrewards, experience (crying
    and the breast)
  •  
  • -

87
  • the child learns he/she can manipulate the
    environment-learns that he is not only controlled
    but can control
  •  
  • -child begins to learn techniques for cooperation
  •  
  • Child development to Sears occurs in dyadic units
    of behaviour..

88
Dyadic relationships
  • The prime dyad is between mother and child-the
    mother looks after the biological needs of the
    child, enforcing dependency, regulating
    appropriate behaviour on the part of the child
    seeking gratification

89
  •  
  • This dyadic relationship eventually serves to
    control and modify behaviour because as mothers
    permissiveness becomes more discriminately
    offered it give rise to frustration and
    aggression

90
The second dyad
  •  
  • The second dyad is child-environment-child's sex,
    position in the family structure, mother's
    personality, social status and education
  •  
  • In brief, it is in the rudimentary phase that the
    child bonds with the mother and is introduced to
    the environment, which leads to ever increasing
    interaction with it...
  •  

91
Learning Primary
  • Sears gives little consideration to the role of
    punishment and more to reward
  • The child learns positive roles and relationship
    from primary agents, significant othersmother,
    father, siblings

92
Phase II Secondary Motivational System-Family
Centered Learning
  •  
  • During this phase the child's primary needs
    continue to motivate, but these are incorporated
    into social learning and secondary drives
  •  
  • ie. before child would cry because the stomach
    contracts, now cry might occur because of the
    sight of the bottle or the refrigerator

93
Learning and Affection
  •  
  • Learning occurs and depends upon affection and
    learned dependency- mere permissiveness
    reinforced the status quo so direction teaches
    the child and serves to protect him/her

94
Second year
  • In the second year the child shows successful
    partial withdrawl from the care of mother.
  •  
  • The child begins to see there is a larger world
    around him/her gratification, affection, esteem
    can come from other sources-father, siblings and
    family friends and relatives
  •  

95
Weaning-
  • Sears places a great deal of interest in factors
    such as weaning-weaning has four aspects
  • 1. new food intake
  • 2. solid food
  • 3. learning to handle food orally
  • 4. to eat without being held

96
Toilet Training-
  • All of these must occur within 20 months to avoid
    setbacks-can start as early as six months
  •  
  • Another developmental phenomenon is toilet
    training. For Sears, it is vital to behavioural
    learning-associated with reward and punishment
    and maternal rejection

97
Sexual modesty
  • A third vital aspect of development is sexual
    modesty -to Sears parental attitudes shape the
    conscience of children
  •  
  • If parents are too restrictive may lead to the
    feminization of boys, sex anxieties,
    aggressiveness.
  •  

98
 Social aggression
  • A less restrictive attitude will lead to the
    encouragement of masculine qualities in both boys
    and girls.
  •  
  • Social aggression, for Sears is not learned by
    accident-it is learned in the family-can be
    avoided by careful balance of permissiveness and
    restraint.

99
Third year
  • In the third year identification and role playing
    are significant characteristics of development...
    a child remembers gratifying experiences in
    infancy and in the absence of mother, begins to
    reproduce mother's caring activities.
  •  

100
A childs upbringing
  • To Sears involves five clusters of dependency 
  • 1. negative attention seeking-defiance,
    disruption, aggressiveness
  • 2. reassurance- seeking protection, apologizing
    because of high demands 
  • 3. positive attention- seeking praise,  
  • 4. touching- holding and clutching others 
  • 5. being near-

101
Summary Phase Two
  • Thus, Sears hold that this second phase is vital
    for the child's social development.
  •  
  • The progression from parental control to partial
    self control affects the child's ability to give
    affection, identify with adults, deal with
    criticism and cope with adult role and
    sex-appropriate behaviour.
  •  

102
Phase Three (extra-familial learning)
  • At age 5 the child's dependency on parents of
    both sexes begins to give way because of
    participation in the outside world.
  • Teachers, peers and other adults reinforce
    operate dependency behaviour. 
  • The child's ability to identify with extra
    familial role models is rooted in the previous
    stage of his/her development.

103
Learning through phases
  •  
  • As the child matures permissiveness grows
    narrower and controlled areas become expanded,
    defined and reinforced by various adults...
  •  
  • Thus, for Sears, the learning theorist, a child's
    development is the product of his interaction
    with the social world...
  •  His behaviour is the product of environmental
    experiences and child rearing practices...

104
Sears The Learning Theorist
  • The most open-ended of the developmental
    theorists
  • A constructivist-he adopt the phase concept of
    socialization and development
  • Sears places the most emphasis on social
    environment compared to Piaget, the Cognitive
    Theory, and the Psychoanalytic theorists, Freud
    and Erikson.

105
Innate Aggression
  • Aggression is an innate drive that may be aroused
    when an individual encounters frustration or
    threat.
  • The individual is automatically directed towards
    the goal of injuring or destroying the source of
    irritation. Furthermore, when the aggressive
    drive is aroused energy is

106
Ecological Systems Theory
  •  
  • -Developed by Urie Bronfrenbenner, is a classical
    psycholical model emphasizing how certain
    biological dispositions combine with
    environmental forces to mould development.
  •  

107
Systems micro meso, exo
  • His theory looks at the micro system, mesosystem,
    and mesosystem.
  •  
  • The microsystem-refers to the child's immediate
    environment
  •  

108
  • The mesosystem -encompasses broader agents of
    socialization such as home, neighbourhood,
    daycare center.
  •  
  • The exosystem- involves social settings beyond
    the childs environment that effect the child in
    some way. These might include work schedules,
    maternity leaves, sick pay etc.
  •  
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