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Physics and Astronomy Writing - Part II

- Physics 695
- 2011
- Some material courtesy of
- Dr. William Wing, Phys. Dept., U. of Arizona
- Dr. Celia Elliott, Physics Dept., U. of Illinois
- Chem. Eng. Dept., Texas Tech.

Style Manuals

- AIP style manual (4th edition)
- http//www.aip.org/pubservs/style/4thed/toc.html
- IEEE Style Manual
- http//standards.ieee.org/guides/style/2007_Style

_Manual.pdf - SFSU Thesis Guidelines
- http//www.sfsu.edu/gradstdy/forms/thesis-guideli

ne.pdf(Can use AIP or IEEE style with special

intro pages)

Capitalization Notation k (kilo), as in kV, kW,

kA, kg, keV, is always written in lower

case. Elements not capitalized when written as

words (oxygen, lead, vanadium) Abbreviations for

chemical elements are capitalized (O, Pb, V, Cf,

Am, Cm). Same rules for units, e.g., curie

(Ci), watt (W), volt (V), joule (J), tesla

(T). Proper noun used as an adjective is

capitalized, e.g., Poissons equation, Fourier

transformation, Monte Carlo method. However, if

the proper noun is used to name an entirely new

class of things, the resulting new things are

treated as common nouns and are not capitalized.

Thus, we have Fermi energy level and Fermi-Dirac

statistics, but fermions and fermium.

Capitalization in Astronomy

- Capitalize
- Planet names Moon names
- Star names
- Constellation names
- Galaxy names

Acronyms and Abbreviations Common nouns not

capitalized when written as words only acronyms

capitalized, e.g., very large scale integration

(VLSI), ballistic core radius (BCR),

superconducting quantum interference device

(SQUID). Proper nouns are capitalized, e.g.,

National Science Foundation (NSF). Some common

acronyms not capitalized, e.g., alternating

current (ac), direct current (dc), electromotive

force (emf), radio frequency (rf). Acronyms and

abbreviations must be defined at their first

usage. Apostrophe not used to make acronym or

abbreviation pluraljust add lower-case s, e.g.,

AFMs (atomic force microscopes), Eqs.

(equations). Do not begin sentence with an

acronym, abbreviation, numeral, or symbol.

Wrong Fig. 1 shows TEM was used

a-particle transport occurs 50 samples were

prepared Right Figure 1 shows Tunneling

electron microscopy was used Alpha-particle

transport occurs Fifty samples were prepared

- Nuclides and Their States
- Mass number (anterior superscript) 235U
- State of ionization (posterior superscript) Ca2
- Excited state (posterior superscript) 110Agm,

14N - Number of atoms in a molecule (posterior

subscript) 14N2 - Numbers and Numerals
- Write cardinal numbers zero through nine and

ordinal numbers first through ninth in words. - Use numerals for cardinal numbers 10 and

greater and ordinal numbers 10th and greater. - Always write quantities as numerals that have

been measured or calculated (rather than

counted). - 10 liters 1.75 inches 6 kg 2.4 ms
- Fractional numbers written as decimals must have

a zero preceding the decimal point, e.g., 0.17

µg.

Numbers that begin a sentence are always written

as words thus, a sentence that begins with a

quantity that was measured or calculated must be

recast. For clarity, adjacent numbers should be

written in a combination of numerals and

words fifteen 10-mg doses twelve 20-percent

doped samples 15 one-dose oral vaccines 6

six-hour runs Qualifiers (about,

approximately, of order of) should not be

used with exact numbers e.g., not

Approximately 17 of the samples were

contaminated with iron filings.

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SI Derived Units Frequency hertz Hz 1/s

Force newton N m kg/s2 Pressure, stress

pascal Pa N/m2 kg/m s2 Energy, work,

quantity of heat joule J N m m2 kg/s2

Power, radiant flux watt W J/s m2 kg/s3

Quantity of electricity, electric charge

coulomb C s A Electric potential volt V

W/A m2 kg/s3 A Capacitance farad F C/V

s4 A2/m2 kg

Electric resistance ohm ? V/A m2 kg/s3 A2

Conductance siemens S A/V s3 A2/m2 kg

Magnetic flux weber Wb V s m2 kg/s2 A

Magnetic flux density, magnetic induction

tesla T Wb/m2 kg/s2 A Inductance henry H

Wb/A m2 kg/s2 A2 Luminous flux lumen lm

cd sr Illuminance lux lx lm/m2 cd sr/m2

Activity (ionizing radiation) becquerel Bq

1/s Absorbed dose gray Gy J/kg m2/s2

Dynamic viscosity pascal second Pa s kg/m s

Moment of force (torque) newton meter N m m2

kg/s2 Surface tension newton per meter N/m

kg/s2 Heat flux density, irradiance watt per

square meter W/m2 kg/s3 Heat capacity,

entropy joule per kelvin J/K m2 kg/s2 K

Specific heat capacity, specific entropy joule

per kilogram kelvin J/kg K m2/s2 K Specific

energy joule per kilogram J/kg m2/s2 Thermal

conductivity watt per meter kelvin W/m K m

kg/s3 K Energy density joule per cubic meter

J/m3 kg/m s2 Electric field strength volt per

meter V/m m kg/s3 A

Electric charge density coulomb per cubic

meter C/m3 s A/m3 Electric displacement,

electric flux density coulomb per square meter

C/m2 s A/m2 Permittivity farad per meter F/m

s4 A2/m3 kg Permeability henry per meter H/m

m kg/s2 A2 Molar energy joule per mole J/mol

m2 kg/s2 mol Molar entropy, molar heat

capacity joule per mole kelvin J/mol K m2

kg/s2 K mol Exposure (ionizing radiations)

coulomb per kilogram C/kg s A/kg Absorbed

dose rate gray per second Gy/s m2/s3

Only metric prefixes for 106 or more have

upper-case abbreviation (e.g., M 106, G

109, etc.). In particular, note that the prefix

m indicates 10-3 and M indicates 106. The

abbreviation for "kilohertz" is "kHz" only the

"H" is upper case. Note that the proper

abbreviation for "second" is "s", not "sec".

The same abbreviation is used for the singular

and plural form of a unit. A period is not

placed after an abbreviated unit, unless it is at

the end of the sentence. Spaces with

units There should always be one blank space

between a number and a unit "5 kHz", not

"5kHz" There is no space between the metric

prefix and the base unit.

Some Problem Expressions The signal generator

had a 15 kHz frequency. Units of measurement are

nouns cannot use to modify another noun. Proper

phrasing The signal generator had a frequency

of 15 kHz. 6 cm long The proper phrasing

could be 6 cm in length the length is 6

cm having a length of 6 cm Choose metric

prefix that will make the numerical value between

0.1 and 1000. However, values of a parameter in

a table should have the same metric prefix.Do

not use metric prefixes when using scientific

notation e.g., "4 x 105 m/s", not "4 x 102

km/s". Never use a double metric prefix.

Proper abbreviations for "alternating current,

direct current, and root-mean-square" are lower

case "ac, dc, rms". However, if the term appears

in a title or as first letter in a sentence, use

upper case "AC, DC, RMS".

Less water feed will be vaporized due to heat

losses and this affects steam economy While

trying to read the mass flow rate of air to the

engine, the rubber hose from the venturi to the

manometer melted shut. After obtaining results

for the infrared spectrometer and comparing it to

the predicted calculations, we concluded there

was a problem.

The way to improve your grades is to take good

class notes, to study effectively, and preparing

carefully for exams. The type of failure can be

determined by a tensile test. For example,

whether the failure was due to a ductile or

brittle fracture. The difference for the two

methods of obtaining the heat transfer

coefficient was 52 and the measured values were

10 and 20 lower than the theory predicted

respectively. And we see that the experimental

result agrees well with theory. But this is not

the final solution.

Ways to use equations with text. Refer to the

equation number in a sentence the equation is a

separate sentence. For example The voltage,

V, and current, I, in a resistor are related by

Eq. 3. V I R (3) Often more elegant to

include equation in sentence The power, P,

dissipated in a device is given by P I V

(4) where I is the current

in the device and V is the voltage across the

device. For the special case of a resistor, the

relation between voltage and current, Eq. 3, can

be used to express the power as a function of

only voltage P V2/R.

(5) Notice the period at the end of Eq. 5, since

it is the end of a sentence.

Note how equations are always punctuated, with a

full stop or a comma as appropriate. The

equation should read as part of the text

although displayed. It would be very rare for

there to be any other form of punctuation. Here

is an example of an equation that can be

punctuated with a full stop

Another equation follows, which is punctuated

with a comma

because there is text following it, just as if

it were part of a sentence, which it is.

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Vectors, Tensors, Matrices

- Vectors
- Boldface Italic Fields E and B
- Arrows Fields and
- Tensors
- sans-serif bold italic, T
- Matrices
- boldface italic, A
- Statement of Experimental Results
- Our value was
- kB1.3790.012 x 10-23 J/K
- at a 95 confidence level.
- Note format
- Uncertainty quoted to two significant

figures(never more sometimes only one) - Result in proper scientific notation uncertainty

maintains same decimal place

Software for Physicists Astronomers

- Scientific Word Processing
- MS Word Equation Editor Scientific Word

LaTex/MikTeX LyX - Slide Presentation
- MS PowerpointEquation Editor
- TeX or LyX with Beamer document class
- Poster Presentation
- Large Powerpoint print or TeX/Beamer print
- Symbolic Math (Algebra, integrals,...)
- Mathematica

- Numerical Calculations, Plotting, Curve Fit
- MATLAB, IDL
- Astronomy Data Analysis
- IRAF (Image Reduction and Analysis Facility)
- Computer Data Acquisition
- LabView MATLAB Inst. Control Data Acq.
- Programming
- MATLAB, IDL, C
- Electronic Schematics ( Simulation)
- PSPICE (Simulation Prog. for Integrated Cir.

Elx)(Free version of PSPICE 9 available on web) - Mechanical Drawing (CAD)
- AutoCAD, TurboCAD(Free version of TurboCAD LE

available on web)

Resume

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