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Stages of Prenatal Development

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STAGES OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 9 GERMINAL STAGE The first two weeks after conception The germinal stage spans the time from fertilization to implantation in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stages of Prenatal Development


1
Stages of Prenatal Development
  • Chapter 9

2
Germinal Stage
  • The first two weeks after conception
  • The germinal stage spans the time from
    fertilization to implantation in the wall of the
    uterus.
  • For the first three or four days the mass of
    dividing cells moves about the uterus before
    implantation.

3
Embryonic Stage
  • The period of 2 to 8 weeks after conception.
  • Major organ systems begin to take shape, which is
    now called the embryo.
  • Nervous system, head and blood vessels form at
    this time as well
  • During the 4th week, the heart starts beating

4
Fetal Stage
  • From the 9th week until birth.
  • All major organs as well as fingers and toes
    develop by the 12th week.
  • The fetus grows more than 30 fold in weight
    during the 2nd trimester (1 oz. to 2 lbs.)
  • The fetus reached the age of viability, where it
    could sustain life on its own outside of the womb.

5
Threats to Prenatal Development
  • Maternal malnutrition is related to premature
    birth and low birth weight.
  • The risk of spina bifida, a neural tube defect,
    can be reduced if vitamins containing folic acid
    are taken during pregnancy.

6
Teratogens
  • Derived from the Greek root teras, meaning
    monster.
  • Can include
  • Certain drugs taken by the mother
  • X-rays
  • Environmental contaminants such as lead and
    mercury
  • Infectious organisms

7
Teratogens
  • Can include infectious diseases such as rubella,
    which can lead to serious birth defects (heart
    disease, mental retardation, deafness)
  • HIV/AIDS and syphilis can be passed from mother
    to child during pregnancy.
  • Syphilis can lead to liver damage, impaired
    hearing and vision and deformities in teeth and
    bones.

8
Smoking
  • Can lead to miscarriage, premature birth, low
    birth weight and increased risk of infant
    mortality.
  • The more the mother smokes, the greater the risk.
  • Maternal smoking has also been linked to sudden
    infant death syndrome (SIDS)

9
Smoking
  • Maternal smoking can also lead to
  • Lung problems
  • Childhood asthma
  • Developmental problems
  • Short attention span
  • Learning problems
  • Behavioral problems

10
Alcohol
  • Maternal alcohol use can lead to fetal alcohol
    syndrome (FAS).
  • Alcohol is also the leading cause of mental
    retardation (facial deformities, underdeveloped
    upper jaw, widely spaced eyes).
  • There is no established safe limit for alcohol
    use during pregnancy

11
Drugs
  • Any drug used during pregnancy, whether legal or
    illicit, or any medication, whether prescribed or
    bought over the counter can potentially harm the
    fetus.
  • Pregnant women should consult their doctors
    before taking any medication!
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