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1. Based on the picture and your readings, what conclusions can you draw?

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1. Based on the picture and your readings, what conclusions can you draw? 2. What are the people doing? 3. Why do Muslims kneel, bow, and touch their foreheads to the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1. Based on the picture and your readings, what conclusions can you draw?


1
1. Based on the picture and your readings, what
conclusions can you draw? 2. What are the people
doing? 3. Why do Muslims kneel, bow, and touch
their foreheads to the ground when they pray?
2
Kaaba
  • Islams most sacred sanctuary
  • Located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  • Muslims believe Abraham and his son Ishmael built
    it.
  • It contains the Black Stone, the cornerstone of
    the Kaaba
  • 50 high, 33 wide, 40 long
  • The outer black cloth contains verses from the
    Quran
  • Pilgrims walk around the track 7 times, reciting
    the Quran

3
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4
The Five Pillars of Islam
5
1. The Shahada
  • The testimony.
  • The declaration of faith

There is no god worthy of worship except God,
and Muhammad is His Messenger or Prophet.
1
6
2. The Salat
  • The mandatory prayers performed 5 times a
    day dawn noon late
    afternoon sunset before going
    to bed
  • Wash before praying.
  • Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.

2
7
2. The Salat
  • The call to prayer by the muezzin in the
    minaret.
  • Pray in the mosque on Friday.

2
8
3. The Zakat
  • Almsgiving (charitable donations).
  • Muslims believe that all things belong to
    God.
  • Zakat means both purification and growth.
  • About 2.5 of your income.

3
9
4. The Sawm
  • Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan.
  • Considered a method of self- purification.
  • No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset
    during Ramadan.

4
10
5. The Hajj
  • The pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • Must be done at least once in a Muslims
    lifetime.
  • 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage
    every year.

5
11
5. The Hajj
  • Those who complete the pilgrimage can add
    the title hajji to their name.

5
12
The Dar al-Islam
Unifying source Compare to European Catholicism
The World of Islam
1
2
3
4
5
13
Dome of the Rock
  • Built by Muslims in 691 C.E.
  • Muslims believe Muhammad ascended into Paradise
    from here
  • He returned to earth and brought Allahs message
    to all people
  • Jews honor the site as the place where Abraham
    was prepared to sacrifice his son, Isaac

14
  1. What is the holiest object in Islam?
  2. Where is it located?
  3. List and describe the 5 Pillars of Islam.
  4. What is the Dome of the Rock?
  5. What 3 religions consider this site sacred? Why?

15
Say O Muslims We believe in God and that which
is revealed unto us and that which was revealed
unto Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob,
and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus
received, and that which the Prophets received
from their Lord. We make no distinction between
any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered.
10. What does this Quran passage tell you about
how Muslims view the teachings of the Hebrew
prophets and Jesus? 11. How do Muslims view
Jesus? 12. What is one belief that Muslims,
Jews, and Christians share?
16
13. What activity brought prosperity to the
Islamic world? 14. What 3 cities were important
trade centers? 15. Where did the majority of the
people live during the early stages of the Arab
Empire?
Pages 204-205
Page 204
Page 205
17
The Arab Empire and Its Successors
500 C.E.
1100 C.E.
1300 C.E.
700 C.E.
900 C.E.
750-1258 Abbasid Dynasty
661-750 C.E. Umayyad Dynasty
570 C.E. Birth of Muhammad
  • 16. Which Muslim dynasty was in power in 732
    C.E. when Arab forces were defeated in Gaul,
    halting Arab expansion in Europe?
  • About how many years did the Abbasid Dynasty
    last?
  • Muslims split into 2 main sects (Sunni Shiite)
    after a revolt led by Hussein in what year?

680 C.E. Hussein leads revolt against Umayyad rule
18
  • Bedouin Nomadic clans
  • --------------------------------------------------
    -
  • Problems
  • No successor to Muhammad
  • Caliph Political and religious successor to
    Muhammad

19
  • Sunni
  • Muhammad left no successor
  • Felt caliph should be chosen by Muslim leaders
  • One is appointed from among peers
  • Abu BakrFriend of Muhammad
  • Majority of Muslims belong to this sect
  • Shiite
  • Muhammad left a chosen successor
  • Felt only true successors were blood descendents
    of Muhammad
  • AliSon-in-law, cousin of Muhammad

20
  1. What is a caliph?
  2. What 2 sects did Islam split into?
  3. What sect do most Muslims belong to?

21
Umayyad Rule
  • Starts with Muawiya
  • Capital moved to Damascus
  • Booty
  • Taxes
  • Governors
  • Religious freedom
  • Construction projects

22
Decline and Fall
  • Some abandon simple lifestyle
  • Many Muslims dissatisfied
  • Abbas Leader of dissatisfied Muslims
  • Allies with Shiites
  • Revolt against Damascus
  • Reconciliation Banquet
  • Slaughtered Umayyads

23
Abbasid
750-1258
  • Independent kingdoms forming
  • 1055 Seljuk Sultans-authority
  • captured and controlled Baghdad
  • Crusades 1095
  • Christians capture portions of Holy Land
  • Saladin
  • Mongols 1258

24
Stearns, page 119 Glencoe, page 197
22. How far north did the Islam empires
spread? 23. How did the Arabs benefit from
expansion?
25
The Crusades
  • In the 7th Century. Muslims, conquered Palestine
  • where Jesus Christ had lived and preached
  • Muslims were tolerant
  • let Christians/Jews and keep their faiths
  • Christian pilgrims visited the Christian 'Holy
    Land shrines freely
  • In the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks conquered
    Jerusalem
  • Persecuted Christian pilgrims
  • 1071, defeated the Byzantine army at the Battle
    of Manzikert Threatened Byzantine Empire
    Emperor Alexius asked the Pope for help
  • Pope Urban II called for a Holy War or
    Crusade against the Muslim infidels
    (unbelievers) and occupiers of the Holy Lands
  • 1000s responded and pinned crosses on their tunics

26
The Crusades continued
  • Between 1096-1212, there were 7 crusades
  • 1000s responded and pinned crosses on their
    tunics marched to fight/die for God
  • 1st Crusade (1096-1099)
  • French, German, and Italian armies captured
    Jerusalem
  • Sacked the city, slaughtered many Muslims
    Jews stole/ransacked goods
  • Many Crusaders went home--left surrounding
    territories vulnerable
  • Muslim leader, Saladin captured Edessa
  • 2nd Crusade (1147-1149)
  • 2nd Crusade failed to win Edessa back
  • Additionally, Saladin re-captured Jerusalem in
    1187 for the Muslims

27
Crusades continued
  • 3rd Crusade (1189-1192)
  • Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany drowned
    in a local river
  • English King Richard French King Philip II of
    France arrived by sea
  • captured the coastal cities
  • unable to move inland capture Jerusalem
  • Saladin was impressed with King Richards
    fighting on the coast
  • King Richard earned the nickname the
    Lionhearted here
  • Saladin agreed to allow Christian pilgrims free
    access to Jerusalem

28
  • Muslim leader
  • Established the Ayyubid Dynasty
  • Very devout
  • Legendary chivalry
  • Defeated Europeans in the 2nd and Crusades
  • Spared Jerusalem
  • Made Cairo a vibrant medieval city

Saladin (1138-1193)
29
  • Italian port cities prospered economically
  • Opened Europeans to a variety of goods and
    products silks, spices, coffee, tea, science,
    and knowledge
  • Access to the compass/astrolabe provided
    Europeans with the means to travel away from the
    coastline and to seek new goods
  • Access to information about gun powder will
    enhance their more aggression and lead to
    imperialistic tendencies in Asia, Africa, and
    the Americas
  • 4th Crusade sacked Constantinople
  • weakened the Byzantine Empire
  • Led to Anti-Semitism in Europe
  • Broke down feudalism
  • Paved the way for the development of
    European nation-states
  • Lasting impact bred centuries of distrust
    enmity between Muslims Christians

30
24. What caused the Crusades? 25. What were the
effects of the Crusades? 26. Who fought in the
Crusades?
31
Mongols
  • 1258, Mongols seized Persia and Mesopotamia
  • Ended Abbasid Caliphate
  • Hulegu sacked Baghdad
  • Destroyed libraries, mosques, palaces

Hulegu (hoo-LAY-goo)
32
  • Turkish slave-soldiers (Mamluks) stopped the
    Mongols at the Red Sea
  • Mongolians inter-married with local peoples
  • Mongolians converted to Islam and spread the
    religion throughout Asia/southern Europe
  • Mongolian conquest ended Baghdads leadership
  • Cairo became the new center of Islamic
    civilization

33
Islamic Achievements
  • Ibn- Rushd translated Aristotles works
  • Spread the Indian system with 0 easier to us
    than Roman numerals
  • Europeans mislabeled the system Arabic
  • Developed Algebra

34
Baghdad Observatory
  • Knew the Earth was round
  • Astrolabe helped sailors calculate the angles
    of the sun and the stars.
  • Armillary Astronomers lined up the top rings
    of the sphere and calculated the time of day or
    year. This was useful for mapmaking and
    calendars.

Medicine
Ibn Sina - wrote medical encyclopedia -
The University medical textbook Al Qasims
drawings of medical tools was the foremost text
on surgery in Europe for nearly 500 years
35
Literature
Ibn Khaldun (14th C) -
Muslim historian - Civilizations
rise/decay in cycles
Omar Khayyam (12th C) - Rubiyat
- Arabian Nights
36
Architecture
Mosque in Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Mosque of Cordova, Spain Center of learning
culture
37
Art writing
Calligraphy
Arabesques
38
Arab dhow with lateen sails
39
Ibn Battuta
1304-1349?
  • Most celebrated Muslim traveler in the
    postclassical world
  • Islamic scholar who recorded his travels
    throughout the dar al Islam (Muslim states)
  • Traveled over 75,000 miles to Spain, Timbuktu,
    China, India, the Maldive Islands, East Africa,
    and the Mali Empire
  • Worked in government positions everywhere he
    went as an adviser or judge
  • Promoted the proper observance of Islam

40
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41
27. Describe 3 Muslim achievements
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