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Antibodies. Properties and functions of the immunoglobulins

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Title: Antibodies. Properties and functions of the immunoglobulins


1
Antibodies. Properties and functions of the
immunoglobulins
Vinnitsa National Pirogov Memorial Medical
University / Department of microbiology
2
Antibody
  • Antibodies or immunoglobulins (Ig) are a group of
    glycoproteins present in the blood serum and
    tissue serum

3
Functions of immunoglobulins
  1. Complement activation
  2. Opsonization
  3. Prevention of microorganism attachment
  4. Neutralization toxins and viruses
  5. Restriction of microorganism mobility
  6. Agglutination of bacteria

4
Immunoglobulin structure
5
Classes of immunoglobulins
  • Ig G ? (gamma)
  • Ig A a (alpha)
  • Ig M µ (mu) H-chain
  • Ig D d (delta)
  • Ig E e (epsilon)
  • L chains ? (kappa) or ? (lambda)

6
Structure of the immunoglobulin monomer molecule
7
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8
Immunoglobulin antigen determinants
  • Isotypic markers
  • Allotypic markers
  • Idiotypic markers

9
Immunoglobulin classes
  • Ig G.
  • It has molecular weight 160 000 D
  • The normal serum concentration of Ig G is 8-16
    mg/ml.

10
Ig A
  • It constitutes 10-15 of total serum globulin
  • Normal serum level is 0,6-4,2 mg/l
  • It has molecular weight 170 000 D

11
Differences between serum and secretory Ig A
12
Ig M
  • It constitutes 5-10 serum globulin or 0,5-2
    mg/ml
  • It has half-life of 5-10 days and molecular
    weight 900 000 D

13
Ig D
  • its concentration in average is 0,02-0,2 mg/ml)
  • It has half-life of 3 days and molecular weight
    160 000 D

14
Ig E
  • It makes up only 0,0002-0,002 of the total
    immunoglobulin pool
  • It has half-life of 2 days and molecular weight
    190 000 D

15
The types of antibody response to antigen
stimulation
  • Immune antibody response consists of 3 steps
  • Entry and distribution of Ag in tissue and its
    contact with immunological competent cells
  • Processing of Ag and control of Ab forming
    process
  • Secretion of Ab, its distribution in tissue, body
    fluid and manifestation of its effect

16
  • Primary immune response
  • It is slow
  • Specific IgM can be detected in the serum from
    the 4th day, titer rises to 7-12 days
  • Specific IgG can be detected in the serum from
    the 7th day and titer rises to 10-14th days

17
  • Secondary antibody response
  • shorter lag phase
  • IgM and IgG are synthesized in the same time
  • It is provided by IgG

18
The types of the antibody immune response
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