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Classification

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Classification Chapter 18 Why Classify ? To study diversity of life in organized manner. _____-science where organisms are classified in a universal manner ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification


1
Classification
  • Chapter 18

2
Why Classify ?
  • To study diversity of life in organized manner.
  • ________________-science where organisms are
    classified in a universal manner

Taxonomy
3
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4
A. Scientific Names
  • Early efforts described physical characteristics
    in detail
  • 1)Binomial Nomenclature-developed by Carolus
    Linnaeus
  • 2 part scientific name
  • 1st word is genus and 2nd ________________-
  • Italicize or underline both words
  • 1st letter of 1st word is capitalized
  • Names often Latin

species
5
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B. Linnaeuss System
  • ________________________-has levels
  • _______________________--name for each level
  • Kingdom-_____________________________________

taxon
Heirarchical system
Largest and most inclusive of categories
7
B.contd
class
  • ____________________-many different organisms
    that share important characteristics
  • _______________-composed of similar orders
  • _______________-broad group of similar families
  • _______________-genera sharing characteristics-lik
    e the Uridae family for bears
  • Genus-closely related species
  • Species-successfully interbreeding

family
Phylum
order
8
Family Tree of Major Taxa
Kingdom Phyla Class
Order Family
Genus Species

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10
II. Modern Evolutionary Classification
  • __________________-evolutionary relationships
    between organisms
  • Genus should share common ancestor
  • Derived characteristics can be used to form a
    ________________-showing evolutionary
    relationships
  • ______________-characteristics that appear in
    recent lineage more but not in older members
  • similarities in DNA and RNA can give more
    conclusive classification

cladogram
Phylogeny
Derived characters
11
Phylogeny
12
Tips of branches stand for
Tips of branches stand for most recent
evolutionary representatives and branches stand
for common ancestors-new branch means a new
species
13
Cladogram
14
III. Kingdoms and Domains
  • A.The Three-Domain System
  • Grouped by molecular analysis
  • More inclusive category

15
EUKARYA
  • 1) _________-protists,fungi,plants and animals
  • Protists-great variety
  • Most single-celled,but there are multicellular
    algae
  • Fungi-decomposing heterotrophs
  • Plantae-multicellular,photosynthetic autotrophs
  • Animalia-muticellular and heterotrophic
  • 2) BACTERIA-eubacteria-unicellular and
    prokaryoticthick cell wallsfree-living or
    parasiticdiverse
  • 3)_____________unicellular and prokaryoticlive
    in extreme conditions like hot springs or
    volcanic ventscan live w/o oxygennot as thick
    cell walls

ARCHAEBACTERIA-
16
Kingdoms-
  • Eubacteria and archaebacteria Protista,Fungi,Plant
    ae,Animalia

17
Classification method
  • A dichotomous key is a tool that allows the user
    to determine the identity of items in the natural
    world, such as trees, wildflowers, mammals,
    reptiles, rocks, and fish. Keys consist of a
    series of choices that lead the user to the
    correct name of a given item. "Dichotomous" means
    "divided into two parts". Therefore, dichotomous
    keys always give two choices in each step.

18
Dichotomous key
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