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Developing a Tier III System of Response to Intervention for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Day 1 of 2 March 14, 2011 SERESC

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Title: Developing a Tier III System of Response to Intervention for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Day 1 of 2 March 14, 2011 SERESC


1
Developing a Tier III System of Response to
Intervention for Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Supports Day 1 of 2March 14,
2011SERESC
Howard Muscott, Ed.D., Eric Mann, LICSW and
Michelle Lewis NH Center for Effective Behavioral
Interventions Supports at SERESC www.nhcebis.ser
esc.net 206-6891 hmuscott_at_seresc.net 206-8820
emann_at_seresc.net
2
Support for NH RESPONDSis provided by the NH
Bureau of Special Education, NH Department of
Education under a grant from the US Department of
Education, Office of Special Education and
Rehabilitation Services
3
NH RESPONDS Lead Partners
  • NH Dept. of Education- Bureau of Special
    Education
  • NH Center for Effective Behavioral Interventions
    and Supports at SERESC
  • Expertise in Positive Behavior Supports
  • Expertise in integration of mental health and
    school supports
  • Institute on Disability at University of NH
  • Expertise in Literacy within an RtI model
  • Expertise in PBIS and Intensive Interventions
    (RENEW) for Secondary Transition and Dropout
    Prevention
  • Parent Information Center
  • Expertise in effective parent involvement and
    communications

4
Agenda for Day One
  1. Preview the Training
  2. Readiness for Tier III
  3. Tier III Systems, Data Practices
  4. Tier III Teams
  5. Responding to Escalating Student Behavior
  6. School to Community Mental Health Protocols
  7. Tier III Checklist and Action Planning

5
Outcomes
  1. To be able to describe the features of a tertiary
    system of supports
  2. To self-assess Tier III supports
  3. To identify the membership and roles of Tier III
    teams
  4. To describe the conflict escalating behavior
    cycles
  5. To describe strategies for engaging families
  6. To describe a school to mental health protocol

6
Responsiveness to Intervention (RtI)Batsche et
al. (2006)
  • RtI is defined as the practice of providing
    high-quality instruction and interventions
    matched to student need, monitoring progress
    frequently to make decisions about changes in
    instruction or goals, and applying child response
    data to important educational decisions.

7
Guiding Principle Social Behavior and
Achievement are Linked
  • To improve the academic success of our children,
    we must also improve their social success.
  • Academic and social failures are reciprocally and
    inextricably related.
  • As a result, systems to support behavior and
    literacy should be integrated.

8
Systemic Process of RtI
Literacy
Behavior
  • Universal Interventions
  • All students
  • Core curriculum
  • Preventive, proactive

80-90
  • Targeted, Group Interventions
  • Some students (at risk)
  • Additional instruction
  • Progress monitoring
  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual students
  • Specifically tailored instruction
  • Progress monitoring

5-10
1-5
Secondary Transition for high school
9
Tier 1 Universal Whole School, All students,
Screening and Early Identification
School Culture Behavior Expectations Promotion of
Positive Behavior (define, teach,
recognize) Response to problem behavior (define
behaviors and response processes)
Literacy Standards Word ID Language
Comprehension Print Processing
Data Weekly data reports of problem behavior
Attendance, Periodic self-assessments
Tools Explicit instruction/modeling Systematic
instruction/skill-building Ample practice
opportunities Immediate corrective feedback
Differentiated instruction Continuous assessment
Data DIBELS NWEA AIMSweb Other
Tools Matrix of expected behaviors Teaching plan
and practice Recognition plan Problem behavior
definitions Response process Reporting/Data
collection
Tools Research-based literacy curriculum Classroom
-wide and small group Benchmark
assessment Data-driven instruction
Movement to Tier 2 supported by effective
decision rules, goal-setting, progress
monitoring, fidelity of implementation, use of
evidence-based instruments and linkage to
specific skill deficits
10
Tier 2 Targeted Small Groups and Individual
Supports Based on Similarities of Needs and Data
Literacy Additional group instruction time to
address specific skill needs
Behavior Teacher Check, Connect, Expect Targeted
group interventions based on skills and function
of behavior
Data Weekly data reports of problem behavior or
prosocial behavior Progress monitoring of group
interventions Periodic self-assessments
Tools TCCE Check-In, Check-Out PASS (Preparing
and Supporting Self-Managers) And other group
interventions
Tools Diagnostic assessment Small groups based on
specific skill needs (e.g., comprehension, sight
word recognition, vocabulary)
Data DIBELS AIMSweb Other
Movement to Tier 3 or 1 supported by effective
decision rules, goal-setting, progress
monitoring, fidelity of implementation, use of
evidence-based instruments and linkage to
specific skill deficits
11
Parents as Partners?
  • We know that parental involvement is a
    fundamental pillar of effective programs
  • We understand that some see parents as the
    problem while others see them as part of the
    solution
  • We believe that parents are important partners
    and we encourage programs to actively engage all
    types of parents in decision-making

12
Communicating with Families and Faculty
  • It is important to establish a culture that
    supports both family and faculty involvement,
    engagement, positive communication and
    collaborative decision-making
  • Establishing such a culture as expected practice
    helps promote stakeholder engagement as an
    outcome
  • Effective communication implies that there are
    regular and frequent opportunities to
  • Provide information
  • Gather feedback to gain consensus and shared
    ownership regarding the design, implementation
    and evaluation of the program.

13
Family Involvement
  • How have you communicated to families about Tier
    1 and Tier 2?
  • How have families been part of the Tier 1 and
    Tier 2 planning and infrastructure building?

14
Tier 3 Intensive Individual Assistance Focused
on Needs and Data
Literacy Additional individual instruction time
to address specific skill needs
Behavior Individualized planning for behavior
supports
Tools One-on-one instruction Explicit
instruction/modeling Systematic
instruction/skill-building Ample practice
opportunities Immediate corrective feedback
Alternative Education Planning (HS)
Data Weekly data reports of problem
behavior Progress monitoring of student Periodic
self-assessments Student Progress Tracker (HS)
Tools Functional Behavioral Assessment Behavior
Support Plan Person-Centered Planning Life Space
Crisis Intervention (LSCI) Wraparound RENEW
School-to Career Planning (HS) Alternative
Education Plans (HS)
Data DIBELS AIMSweb Diagnostic Assessment
15
Intensive Systems of Behavior
Support Muscott, Mann Berk (2006)
School-Based Systems
MAST-NH
Community- Based Systems
Family Youth Systems
16
PBIS-NH Tertiary Supports
Supporting Decision Making
OUTCOMES
Supporting Adults
SYSTEMS
DATA
PRACTICES
Supporting Students and Families
17
1. Tier III Teams
PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Systems Muscott
Mann (2010)
4. Facilitated Referral Processes to
Community- Based Supports
2. School-Based Activation Processes
3. De-escalation Response Team
Universal Primary Prevention
SAU/ District-wide Administrative Team
Targeted Secondary Prevention
18
8. RENEW for HS
1. Conflict Cycle
7. Wraparound
PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Practices Muscott,
Mann Berk (2007)
2. Escalating Behavior Cycle
6. Person-Centered Planning
3. Life Space Crisis Intervention
5. Intensive FBA Behavior Support Plans
4. Engaging Families
Building Relationships
19
1. Data-Based Decision Making
PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Data Muscott, Mann
Berk (2007)
6. Consumer Satisfaction/Social Validity
2. Process Outcomes
5. Improvements in Staff Quality of Life
3. Implementation with Fidelity
4. Improvements in Youth and Family Quality of
Life
20
1. Tier III Teams
PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Systems Muscott
Mann (2010)
Universal Primary Prevention
SAU/ District-wide Administrative Team
Targeted Secondary Prevention
21
Shared leadership through the activities of a
leadership team is an essential element of
successful implementation and sustainability of a
variety of innovative educational reforms and
practices such as PBIS, RtI, urban school reform,
and inclusive education.
  • Artiles, Kozleski, Dorn, Christensen, 2006
    Burns Ysseldyke, 2005 Jorgensen, Schuh,
    Nisbet, 2006 Katzman, Gandhi, Harbour, LaRock,
    2005 Kozleski Smith, 2005 Villa Thousand,
    2005 Warren et al., 2004

22
Composition of the School RTI Tier III Oversight
Team by Role
  • Administrator(s)
  • Curriculum/Assessment Director
  • Guidance Counselor
  • General Education Classroom Teachers
  • Special Education Teachers
  • Behavior Specialist/Guidance/Psychologist
  • Reading/Literacy Specialist
  • Title I Coordinator/ELL /ESOL/ Other Specialists
  • Data People
  • Family Member (i.e., infrastructure stage)

23
Tier III- Family Involvement
  • Participation and design of the Oversight Team
    (the infrastructure)
  • Engagement with the Tier 3 Implementation team
  • Two-way, meaningful communication (with all
    families) about the RtI System

24
Roles of the School RTI Tier III Oversight Team
  • Lead the Tier III system
  • Meet regularly
  • Access current Tier III interventions and
    supports
  • Design and implement Tier III system with
    interventions matched to student needs
  • Train, coach, and support teachers in academic
    and behavior interventions
  • Provide progress monitoring of interventions

25
Roles of the School RTI Tier III Oversight Team
  • Design, collect, analyze data and use data based
    decision making to inform Tier III process
  • Monitoring for fidelity of implementation and
    efficacy of interventions
  • Communicate with key stakeholders
    (Universal/targeted team, parents/
    families/staff)
  • Refine and sustain Tier III system using current
    data

26
Types of RTI Tier III Implementation Teams
  • Personalized teams created for the individual
    student including family
  • Tier III oversight team may serve this purpose
    for some students as long as family involvement
    is included
  • The Tier III Team should work in coordination
    with an existing IEP team

27
Roles of RTI Tier III Implementation Teams
  • Develop effective and efficient Tier III services
    matched to student needs
  • Weekly progress monitoring
  • Working collaboratively and communicating with
    family to support student
  • Ongoing communication with Tier III oversight
    team IEP team

28
RtI, Tier III, and Special Education
  • Memo from US Dept of Ed 1.21.11 re RTI and
    evaluation for eligibility under IDEA
  • A multi-tiered instructional framework , often
    referred to as RTI, is a school-wide approach
    that addresses the needs of all students,
    including struggling learners and students with
    disabilities.
  • OSEP supports implementation of RTI strategies
    to ensure that children who are struggling
    academically behaviorally are identified early
    and provided needed interventions in a timely and
    effective manner.

29
RtI, Tier III, and Special Education
  • Memo from US Dept of Ed 1.21.11 Cont.
  • The use of RTI strategies cannot be used to
    delay or deny the provision of a full and
    individual evaluation, pursuant to 34 CFR
    300.304-300.311, to a child suspected of having
    a disability under 34 CFR 300.8.
  • It would be inconsistent with the evaluation
    provisions at 34 CFR 300.301 through 300.111
    for an LEA to reject a referral and delay
    provision of an initial evaluation on the basis
    that a child has not participated in an RTI
    framework.

30
Effective Tier 3 Team Norms and Group Processes
  • Roles and responsibilities defined
  • Meeting ground rules are established
  • Agendas are prepared
  • Decision-making is formalized
  • A strategic problem solving approach is used
  • Action plans with tasks, timelines and
    accountability are developed
  • Data is used for decision-making
  • Conflicts are resolved constructively and
    professionally

31
Tier III Team Activity
  • Who Each school group
  • What Choose ONE activity
  • Identify members of the Tier III oversight team
  • Discuss how the Tier III team would be activated
    if a student needs more than Tier I II
  • Discuss what additional information would be
    needed in addition to what has been collected at
    Tiers I II
  • Discuss how Tier III team would work with an
    existing IEP team
  • Time 15 minutes
  • Post or Report Out Volunteers

32
PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Systems Muscott
Mann (2010)
2. School-Based Activation Processes
Universal Primary Prevention
SAU/ District-wide Administrative Team
Targeted Secondary Prevention
33
What Makes an Effective School-Based Activation
Process?
  • The process clearly identifies the sequence of
    activities.
  • The process clearly identifies who is eligible.
  • The process differentiates one type of service or
    support from another.
  • The process is written down on paper in either
    graphic form (e.g., flowchart) and/or narrative
    form.
  • The process includes the type of information
    needed to make a referral.
  • The process indicates where parents are notified
    and informed.

34
Family Involvement
  • How would you involve families in the shared
    school/district vision statement for Tier III?
  • How would you communicate the difference between
    Tier 2 and Tier 3 to families?
  • What strategies would you use to engage families
    of students in need of Tier III supports who may
    be reluctant to engage?

35
Inventory of Formal School-Based Supports
Available to Support Students with Intense and
Chronic Needs Muscott (2007)
What is the School-Based Support? Who is the Point of Contact for the Support? What Types of Student Issues are Addressed through this Method of Support? Is there an Identified Written Protocol for How to Make a Referral? What Forms /Information is Necessary to Make a Referral? Is there Evidence of Effectiveness?




36
Tier III Team Activity
  • Who Each school group
  • What Choose one activity
  • Identify your array of Tier II III supports
    using the chart.
  • Address the family engagement questions from the
    previous discussion.
  • Time 30 minutes
  • Post or Report Out Volunteers

37
1. Conflict Cycle
PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Practices Muscott,
Mann Berk (2007)
Building Relationships
38
  • Students in crisis seldom see connections among
    what they feel, how they behave and how others
    respond. Their responses to stress tend to be
    behaviors fueled by feelings, perpetuating
    conflict and crisis.
  • Not only are most students
    unable to recognize
    feelings,
    they are also not able to talk
    about them.
  • But unless a student is able to do these two
    things, it is difficult, if not impossible, for
    the student to make a lasting change from
    behavior driven by feelings to behavior regulated
    by rational processes.
  • Long, Wood, Fescer, 2001 p. 39

39
CONFLICT CYCLENicholas J. Long
STUDENTS SELF CONCEPT IRRATIONAL BELIEFS
1. A Thoughts
40
(No Transcript)
41
The Sequence of the Conflict CycleNicholas J.
Long
  1. Self-Concept as a Setting Event
  2. A Stressful Event Occurs
  3. The Event Activates Irrational Beliefs
  4. Negative Thoughts Trigger Feelings
  5. Negative Feelings Drive Inappropriate Behavior
  6. Behavior Incite Staff
  7. Staff Pick Up Students Negative Feelings and
    Frequently Mirror Student Behavior
  8. Staff Behavior Increases Student Stress and
    Escalates Cycle
  9. Students Self-Fulfilling Prophesy is Reinforced

42
The Conflict Cycle as Behavior Pathway Adapted
from Long by Muscott Walker (2008)
2. Stressful Incident Antecedent
Internal Dialogue and Emotional Response
Mirror Neurons Interact Transference Occurs
4. Students Observable Behavior Problem
Behavior
43
Students Self Concept and Irrational Beliefs
2.Describe the stressful incident
1. Describe the students self concept
irrational beliefs
Students Thoughts
7. How did this effect the students self-concept
irrational beliefs?
Stressful Incident
3. Describe the students thoughts
Students Feelings
Staff/Peer Reactions
Conflict
6. Describe the staff/peer reaction
Students Observable Behavior
4. Describe the students feelings
5. Describe the students behavior
Conflict Cycle Worksheet
WAREA 2004
44
(No Transcript)
45
FOUR REASONS WHY COMPETENT TEACHERS BECOME
COUNTER-AGGRESSIVELong, Fecser, Deming (2010)
  1. Trapped in the Conflict Cycles of Aggressive
    Students (51)
  2. An Increase of Personal Life Stresses Carry-In
    Reasons (17)
  3. Students Violate Cherished Beliefs (13)
  4. Students Expose Unresolved Developmental Issues
    Tap-In Reasons (10)
  5. Other (9)

46
A Prescription for Success
  • Youll always have the counter feelings, but you
    cant act on them or do what is comfortable
  • The challenge is to turn conflict cycle into a
    coping cycle

47
The Conflict Cycle occurs when both individuals
react at the low road level.
Bridget Walker (2006)
48
  • Adults must remember to take the high road when
    faced with stressful situations
  • BUT
  • Students have to learn to take the high road
    when faced with stressful situations

Bridget Walker (2006)
49
TWO DISTINCT BRAIN FUNCTIONS
RATIONAL BRAIN (NEW BRAIN) IMPULSE
CONTROL SENSE OR REASON AND JUDGEMENT
EMOTIONAL BRAIN (OLD BRAIN) FIGHT OR FLIGHT
REASONING BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE
50
Conflict Cycle Activity
  • Who Each person
  • What Identify a student who you are concerned
    about because their behavior escalates into power
    struggles with you. Identify which likely reason
    you might engage in counter-aggression
  • Timeframe 5 minutes
  • Report Out Volunteer

51
PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Practices Muscott,
Mann Berk (2007)
2. Escalating Behavior Cycle
Building Relationships
52
Conflict Cycle to Acting-Out Behavior Cycle
Action
Action
Stimulus
Stimulus
Feeling
Feeling
Stimulus
Action
Feeling
Action
Stimulus
Feeling
Thought
Thought
Stimulus
Action
Thought
Action
Feeling
Stimulus
Feeling
Thought
53
Acting-Out Behavior Cycle
Peak This phase is characterized by serious
disruption and behaviors that often represent a
threat to the safety of others. Logical cognitive
processes are impaired and impulsive behavior
rules
5. Peak
Period of De-escalation This phase marks the
beginning of the students disengagement and
reduction in severity of behavior. Students are
still not especially cooperative or responsive to
adult influence
4. Acceleration
Period of Escalation A time when the student
calls upon existing coping skills to resolve a
problem presented by a trigger
6. De-escalation
3. Agitation
2. Triggers
1. Calm
7. Recovery
Time
Sources Colvin (1992) Walker, Colvin, Ramsey
(1995)
54
Phase 1 Calm Behaviors
1. Exhibits on-task behavior 2. Follow rules and
expectations 3. Is responsive to praise 4.
Initiates positive behavior 5. Is goal-oriented
1. Calm
Time
Sources Colvin (1992) Walker, Colvin, Ramsey
(1995)
55
Phase 2 Triggers
Non-School-Based 1. Ineffective home
environments 2. Health problems 3. Nutritional
problems 4. Sleep deprivation 5. Substance
abuse 6. Gangs
School-Based 1. Conflicts 2. Changes in
routines 3. Provocations 4. Pressures 5.
Ineffective problem-solving 6. Errors 7.
Corrections
2. Triggers
Time
Sources Colvin (1992) Walker, Colvin, Ramsey
(1995)
56
Phase 3 Agitation
Decreases in behavior 1. Staring into space 2.
Subdued language 3. Contained hands 4. Withdrawal
from groups
Increases in behavior 1. Darting eyes 2.
Non-conversational language 3. Busy hands 4.
Moving in and out of groups 5. Off task, then
on-task behavior
3. Agitation
Time
Sources Colvin (1992) Walker, Colvin, Ramsey
(1995)
57
Phase 4 Acceleration
1. Questioning and arguing 2. Non compliance
and defiance 3. Off-task behavior 4. Provocation
of others 5. Compliance with inappropriate
behaviors 6. Criterion problems
7. Whining and crying 8. Avoidance and escape 9.
Threats and intimidation 10. Verbal abuse 11.
Destruction of property 12. Serious behavior in
general
4. Acceleration
Time
Sources Colvin (1992) Walker, Colvin, Ramsey
(1995)
58
Phase 5 Peak
5. Peak
1. Serious destruction of
property 2. Assault 3. Self-abuse 4. Severe
tantrums 5. Hyperventilation
Time
Sources Colvin (1992) Walker, Colvin, Ramsey
(1995)
59
Phase 6 De-escalation
6. Is responsive to simple directions 7. Is
responsive to manipulative or mechanical tasks 8.
Tries to avoid discussion except to blame others
1. Is confused and/or disoriented 2. Attempts to
withdraw 3. Makes attempts at reconciliation 4.
Engages in denial 5. Tries to blame others
6. De-escalation
Time
Sources Colvin (1992) Walker, Colvin, Ramsey
(1995)
60
Phase 7 Recovery
1. An eagerness for
independent work or
activity 2. Subdued behavior in group
work 3. Subdued behavior in class discussions 4.
Defensive behavior 5. An avoidance of debriefing
7. Recovery
Time
Sources Colvin (1992) Walker, Colvin, Ramsey
(1995)
61
Applying the Cycle to Your Student
5. Peak
4. Acceleration
6. De-escalation
3. Agitation
Using a student you are currently working with
who displays serious acting-out behavior,
describe the specific behaviors for each phase of
the cycle
2. Triggers
1. Calm
7. Recovery
Time
Sources Colvin (1992) Walker, Colvin, Ramsey
(1995)
62
Escalating Behavior Activity
  • Who Teams
  • What Complete the escalating behavior chart for
    a student of concern.
  • Timeframe 20 minutes
  • Report Out Volunteers

63
PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Practices Muscott,
Mann Berk (2007)
3. Life Space Crisis Intervention
Building Relationships
64
Life Space Crisis InterventionLong, Wood, Fecser
(2001)
  • LSI is a therapeutic, verbal strategy designed to
    intervene with students in crisis
  • LSI focuses on the crisis that occurs when an
    incident escalates into a conflict between a
    student and others
  • The adult serves as a mediator between the stress
    the students actions, the reactions of others,
    and the private world of feelings that students
    seem unable to handle without help
  • Note LSCI strategies can be used during any of
    the escalating behavior stages and the decision
    should be based on multiple factors.

65
Life Space Crisis Intervention Long, Wood, Fecser
(2001)
Reclaiming Stages
Diagnostic Stages
4. Develop Insight
  • Drain Off
  • De-escalate
  • the Crisis

2. Create a Timeline
5. Address New Skills
6. Get Ready to Resume Activity
3. Isolate Central Issue and Select Intervention
66
Life Space Crisis Intervention StagesLong, Wood,
Fecser (2001)
  • Stage 1 Drain Off and De-escalate the Crisis
  • Focus on the Incident
  • Stage 2 Timeline -- Students in Crisis Need to
    Talk
  • Stage 3 Central Issue -- Select the Appropriate
    Reclaiming Intervention
  • Stage 4 Insight The Goal of the Reclaiming
    Intervention
  • Stage 5 New Skills -- Plan for Success
  • Stage 6 Transfer of Learning -- Get Ready to
    Resume the Activity

67
Stage 1Drain Off and De-escalate the Crisis by
Focusing on the Incident
  • Purpose
  • To convey support and understanding of the
    students stress and to start the student talking
    about the incident.
  • To drain off emotional intensity in order to
    prepare to focus on the event
  • Content
  • The incident itself the event that actually
    brought about the need for the LSCI is
    identified.

68
(No Transcript)
69
(No Transcript)
70
Stage 2 Timeline -- Students in Crisis Need to
Talk
  • Purpose
  • To encourage the student to relate in sufficient
    detail the unique perception of the event and
    surrounding circumstances
  • To decrease the students emotional intensity
    while increasing reliance on rational words and
    ideas
  • To discover the students unique perception of
    the event
  • Content
  • A sequence of events (timeline) is established to
    obtain details of the students view of the
    incident, the associated stress, and the personal
    involvement

71
THE 7 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
  • WHERE?
  • WHEN?
  • TARGET?
  • DURATION?
  • FREQUENCY?
  • INTENSITY?
  • CONTAGION?

72
Stage 3 Central Issue -- Select the Appropriate
Reclaiming Intervention
  • Purpose
  • To explore the students perception of the
    incident and associated feelings and anxieties
    until you have sufficient understanding to
    concisely state the central issue and decide
    which Reclaiming Intervention should be used.
  • To determine if the crisis represents the
    students pattern of self-defeating behavior or
    if it is an unusual or rare reaction for this
    student
  • Content
  • Determine the extent to which the students
    behavior is driven by feelings and anxiety, the
    depth and spread of the conflict, the amount of
    rational control the student can exercise over
    these emotions, and what the long and short-term
    outcomes of the LSI should be

73
Stage 4 Insight The Goal of the Reclaiming
Intervention
  1. To reframe the students perception of the event
  2. To enable the student to gain a new insight into
    repetitive patterns of self-defeating behavior
  3. To help the student realize that change is
    possible
  4. For the student to use his or her new insight
    into the previous pattern of behavior to develop
    a plan for change
  5. If the student is unable to do this, the adult
    chooses a solution that establishes group values
    and reality consequences that will work in the
    students behalf

74
Stage 4 Insight The Goal of the Reclaiming
Intervention
  • Content
  • The adult decodes the students behavior using a
    range of relationship and listening skills
  • The intervention moves towards a specific goal
  • The solution is selected from several
    alternatives, representing the students own
    changing insights and beliefs about what
    constitutes a satisfactory solution, considering
    subsequent consequences.
  • When the student denies responsibility or cannot
    choose, the adult structures the solution for
    them around group values and social norms that
    are within the students capacity to use
    successfully

75
Stage 5 New Skills -- Plan for Success
  • Purpose
  • To teach prosocial skills to consider what will
    happen and anticipate the reactions and feelings
    of self and others when the chosen solution is
    put into action
  • Content
  • Selected behaviors are specifically practiced as
    rehearsal for reacting and problem solving
    successfully when the student faces the
    consequences of the original incident when a
    similar problem may happen in the future

76
Stage 6 Transfer of Learning -- Get Ready to
Resume the Activity
  • Purpose
  • To plan for the students transition back into
    the groups ongoing activity
  • To close down private topics or feelings that may
    have surfaced during the talk

77
The Six Reclaiming Interventions of LSCI
  • Red Flag Intervention
  • Imported Problems
  • Reality Rub Intervention
  • Errors in Perception
  • Symptom Estrangement
  • Justifying Harmful Behavior

78
The Six Reclaiming Interventions of LSCI
  • Massaging Numb Values Intervention
  • Behavior Driven by Guilt
  • New Tools Intervention
  • Poor Social Skills
  • Manipulation of Body Boundaries
  • Exploitation of Peers

79
The Red Flag Intervention Identifying the Source
of the Stress
  • Everyone is against me! No one understands
    whats going on with me and no one cares! I cant
    take it anymore.
  • For students who
  • Overreact to normal rules and procedures with
    emotional outbursts
  • Attempt to create a no win situation by engaging
    staff in a power struggle which ultimately
    results in more rejection and feelings of
    alienation

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PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Systems Muscott
Mann (2010)
3. De-escalation Response Team
Universal Primary Prevention
SAU/ District-wide Administrative Team
Targeted Secondary Prevention
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How Would Your School Respond?
  • John is in class and begins to get frustrated
    over a writing task. Before you know it, he
    begins to throw his books and papers on the
    floor, tips over chairs and makes loud
    threatening statements when you ask him to stop.
    He refuses to stop.

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De-escalation Response TeamMuscott (2007)
  • A de-escalation response team is a group of
    highly trained personnel who are available to
    respond quickly to an incident where one or more
    students are (a) exhibiting escalating behavior
    that is unsafe to themselves and/or others and
    (b) not responding to adult requests to desist
    and move to an alternative space in the school.

83
Building De-escalation CapacityConsiderations of
Need
  • How many students?
  • How dangerous are the behaviors?
  • Is it likely that physical restraint would be
    necessary?
  • When are the escalations likely to take place?
  • How long do they take to de-escalate?
  • Other?

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Building De-escalation Capacity
  • Need
  • Legal Considerations Policies
  • Space
  • Trained Personnel/Team
  • Contingency Planning
  • Communication Systems

85
PBIS-NH School-Based Tertiary Systems Muscott
Mann (2010)
4. Facilitated Referral Processes to
Community- Based Supports
Universal Primary Prevention
SAU/ District-wide Administrative Team
Targeted Secondary Prevention
86
Mental Health CentersModalities and Services
  1. Individual Therapy  Pre-school, Latency,
    Adolescent
  2. Group Therapy  Pre-school, Latency, Adolescent,
    Parents/Caregivers
  3. Family Therapy
  4. Emergency Services/Crisis Stabilization
  5. Psychological Testing
  6. Prescribe Medication
  7. Dispense Medication
  8. Administer Medication
  1. Admission/Discharge
  2. Medical/Psychiatric Screening
  3. Case Management/Mental Illness Management
    Services
  4. Adolescent Substance Abuse Services
  5. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy Program for
    Adolescents
  6. Respite Care
  7. Wraparound

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What Makes an Effective Community-Based Referral
Process?
  • The process clearly identifies the sequence of
    activities.
  • The process clearly identifies who is eligible.
  • The process differentiates one type of service or
    support from another.
  • The process is written down on paper in either
    graphic form (e.g., flowchart) and/or narrative
    form.
  • The process includes the type of information
    needed to make a referral.
  • The process indicates where parents are notified
    and informed or whether they alone can make the
    referral.

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  • Facilitated Referral Process for Accessing Mental
    Health Services from
  • a Community Mental
  • Health Center

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Inventory of Formal Community-Based Supports
Available to Support Students with Intense and
Chronic Needs Muscott (2007)
What is the Community-Based Support? Who is the Point of Contact for the Support? What Types of Student Issues are Addressed through this Method of Support? Is there an Identified Written Protocol for How to Make a Referral? What Forms /Information is Necessary to Make a Referral? Is there Evidence of Effectiveness?




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Community-Based Intensive Supports Referral
Activity
  • Who Each school group
  • What Choose one activity
  • Complete the Inventory of Community-Based
    Supports
  • Review the facilitated referral material from
    Rochester SD and Community Partners.
  • Time 30 minutes
  • Post or Report Out Volunteers

91
Intensive Tier III Checklist Activity
  • Who Teams
  • What Review and complete the checklist and
    create an action plan.
  • Timeframe 30 minutes
  • Report Out None

92
Acknowledgements
  • Lucille Eber
  • George Sugai
  • Rob Horner
  • Hill Walker
  • Doug Cheney
  • Kathleen Lane
  • Kevin Murphy
  • Steve LeClair
  • Julie Prescott
  • Becky Berk
  • Valarie Dumont
  • Debra Grabill
  • Santina Thibedeau
  • Amy Jenks
  • Mike Hatfield
  • Janet Salisbury

93
Resources
  • Long, N.J., Wood, M.M., Fecser, F. (2001). Life
    space crisis intervention Talking with students
    in conflict (2nd ed.). Austin, TX Pro-ed.
  • Walker, H.M., Colvin, G., Ramsey, E. (1995).
    Antisocial behavior in school Strategies and
    best practices. Pacific Grove, CA Brookes Cole.
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