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Criteria and methodology for the evaluation of minority policies

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Title: Criteria and methodology for the evaluation of minority policies


1
Criteria and methodology for the evaluation of
minority policies
  • Informal International Consultative Meeting in
    the Area of Minority Issues, European Centre for
    Minority Issues, Flensburg, 16-18 September 2004
  • François Grin
  • University of Geneva Education Research Unit

2
Structure of presentation
  1. Introduction rationales for action
  2. Three features of policy analysis
  3. Applying policy analysis six  vignettes 
  4. Conclusion implications for minority policy
    development

3
Combining different rationales for action in
minority policy
  • Principle-based ? application of norms and
    standards, e.g. rights-based approach
  • Goal-oriented ? selection and design of
    policies yielding the  best  results.

4
Goal-oriented types I and II
  • Type I goal-oriented approaches give substance
    to principles (principles precede
    analytically-informed action)
  • Type II Goal-oriented approaches shape
    principles (analysis precedes the setting of
    standards)

5
Different subcultures the diversity clover
  • It is important to remember that different
    subcultures exist in the area of minority issues.
  • Four main families can be identified among
    professionals as well academics, centred
    respectively on the issues of  national
    minorities ,  language minorities ,
     migrants  and  indigenous peoples .
  • Interaction between these  families  and their
    respective  subcultures  remains limited, but
    needs to be developed in order to locate the most
    appropriate expertise and intellectual resources.

6
Policy v. political questions
  • What (exactly) should we do (once principles are
    by and large agreed upon)?
  • How should we do it?
  • ? Choice and application of criteria
  • ? Contribution of policy analysis in three
    principles and six  vignettes 

7
Basics of policy analysis
  • Aims at creating knowledge about the consequences
    and performance of possible (ex ante) or existing
    (ex post) policies
  • Stresses the cause-and-effect links between
    policy action (upstream) and results (downstream)
  • Relies on the principle of comparison between
    competing options

8
Methodological implications
  • Policy analysis therefore requires
  • Careful investigation of the cause-and-effect
    relationships through which policy decisions are
    related to results ? model building
  • Identification and measurement of policy measures
    ( policy inputs ), intervening variables,
    direct policy effects ( outputs ) and results
    in terms of the processes actually targeted
    ( outcomes ).

9
Vignette 1 outcomes v. outputs
  • Outputs direct effect of a policy
  • Outcome final effects of a policy, in terms of
    the variables one wishes to influence.
  • ? Policy measures produce outputs, which
    influence processes that result in outcomes

10
Vignette 2 on the nature and role of
analytical models
  • A model is needed to connect the policy decision
     upstream  (A) to its direct  outputs  (B)
    through to the resulting   outcomes  (C) that
    occur downstream, given certain intervening
    variables (D).
  • Bf(A) and Cg(B, D), hence Cgf(A), D
  • Rather than a representation of reality, a model
    is a tool to help us think about reality ? focus
    on causal links, with particular attention to
    necessary and sufficient conditions
  • A model is  a metaphor whose implications have
    been spelled out .

11
Vignette 3 dearth of targeted models
  • Relatively little is known about the causal
    relationships between policy measures
     upstream  and outcomes  downstream , when
    the outcome is (i) a defining feature of
    minorities, or (ii) a variable whose level is
    structurally correlated with minority identity or
    experience.
  • Need for model development ? example the P-TOP
    ( policy-to-outcome path ).

12
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13
Vignette 4 working backwards
  • Identify the desired outcome (e.g. minority
    language use)
  • Then analyse this outcome as the result of a
    process in which different variables operate
  • Then select, among these variables, those that
    can be influenced through policy measures.

14
Vignette 5 The role of indicators
  • Indicator measurement of a variable which is
    relevant to the policy-influenced causal
    relationship. Indicators must be
  • Context-specific
  • Non-circular
  • Clearly located along a policy-to-outcome path
    (?? (i)  systemic  (ii)  interrelated  (iii)
    some reponsive to policy)
  • Relatively easy to collect

15
Vignette 6 criteria for good/best
practice/policy
Processes Results
Resource allocation Rule of law accountability Effectiveness Cost-effectiveness
Resource distribution Democracy Fairness
16
Defining and understanding criteria
  • Resource allocation (1) effectiveness ( making
    a difference )
  • Resource allocation (2) cost-effectiveness
    ( least-cost effect )
  • Resource distribution fairness as result
    democracy as process
  • All four criteria can be measured through
    indicators

17
Implications 1we need to
  • distinguish clearly between the outputs and the
    outcomes that can be associated with each option.
  • develop a model linking the policy measure, its
    outputs, and the outcome identify causal links,
    necessary and sufficient conditions, etc.

18
Implications 2 and to
  • explicitly state the substance of
     effective ,  cost-effective ,  fair  and
     democratic  in the context of the
    policy/programme/project under consideration
  • pick or design indicators for effectiveness,
    cost-effectiveness, fairness, and democracy,
    making sure that these indicators display the
    necessary properties
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