World Geography Chapter 1 Notes Physical Geography Looking at the Earth - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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World Geography Chapter 1 Notes Physical Geography Looking at the Earth


World Geography Chapter 1 Notes Physical Geography Looking at the Earth Geography involves the study of places: their locations, their characteristics, and how humans ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World Geography Chapter 1 Notes Physical Geography Looking at the Earth

World Geography Chapter 1 NotesPhysical
GeographyLooking at the Earth
  • Geography involves the study of places their
    locations, their characteristics, and how humans
    use and move around them.

  • The Five Themes of Geography

  • Geography is the study of Earth and the ways
    people work live on it
  • - It focuses on the study of the distribution
    and interaction of physical features human
    features on Earth
  • Geographers people who study the earth.

  • Geographers look at
  • - use of space on Earth
  • - interactions that take place there
  • - patterns and connections between people and

  • Geographers use a variety of tools
  • - maps
  • - photographs
  • - charts, graphs, tables
  • - scale models
  • - five themes of geography

Theme Location
  • Where is it?
  • Two types of location (Absolute Relative)
  • Absolute Location a places precise position on
    the globe
  • Latitude lines run east to west parallel to the
    equator and circle the earth (measured north and
    south from zero to 90 degrees)

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Theme Location
  • Equator is zero degrees latitude and divides the
    world into two halves
  • - Northern and southern hemispheres

Theme Location
  • Earth is tilted at 23 ½ degrees (tropics receive
    the most heat from the sun)
  • - 23 ½ degrees south Tropic of Capricorn
  • - 23 ½ degrees north Tropic of Cancer

Theme Location
  • Longitude lines or Meridians run north to south
    go over the poles
  • - measured east and west from zero to 180
  • Prime Meridian is zero degrees longitude
  • - Divides the world into Eastern Western
  • - It runs through Greenwich, England
  • Longitude Latitude Lines Intersect to form a
    Grid System

Theme Location
  • Relative Location - where something is in
    relation to other places
  • - How we give directions

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Theme Place
  • What is it Like?
  • Place includes physical features and cultural
  • - physical features include climate, landforms,
  • - cultural characteristics include dams,
    highways, houses customs, religions, foods,
    activities that take place there

Theme Region
  • How are Places Similar or Different?
  • A region is an area united by similar
  • Unifying characteristicsphysical, political,
    economic, cultural
  • Three types of regions
  • - formal
  • - functional
  • - perceptual

Theme Region
  • Formal Regions - Defined by a limited number of
    related characteristics
  • Formal regions of the world
  • - The United States and Canada
  • - Latin America
  • - Europe
  • - Russia and the Republics
  • - Africa
  • - Southwest Asia
  • - South Asia
  • - East Asia
  • - Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica

Theme Region
  • Functional Regions - Organized around
    interactions and connections between places
  • - Example a city and its suburbs are connected
    through human movement
  • Perceptual Regions - Region with characteristics
    people perceive in much the same way
  • - Example the American Midwest
  • - Sometimes perceptions differ Does Midwest
    begin in Ohio or Illinois?

Theme Human-Environment Interaction
  • How Do People Relate to the Physical World?
  • A relationship exists between people and their
  • People use and change the environment to meet
    their needs
  • People adapt to environmental conditions they
    cannot change
  • Often, people in similar environments adapt in
    different ways
  • - Using hot climates near water for recreational
    activities or farming

Theme Movement
  • How Do People, Goods, and Ideas Get from One
    Place to Another?
  • The movement of goods, information, and ideas
  • Geographers use three types of distance to
    analyze movement
  • - linear distance, time distance,
    psychological distance

Theme Movement
  • Linear distance - how far a person, product, or
    idea travels
  • Time distance -how long it takes for person,
    product, idea to travel
  • Psychological Distance - Refers to the way people
    perceive distance
  • - Example unfamiliar places may seem farther
    away than familiar ones
  • Interdependent - where people rely on each other
    for goods, services , and ideas

Section 2
  • The Geographers Tools

Maps and Globes
  • Geographers tools include maps, globes, data
    that can be displayed in a variety of ways
  • Oldest known map Babylonian clay tablet, circa
    500 B.C.
  • Maps show locations of places, landforms, bodies
    of water

Two or Three Dimensions
  • Globea three-dimensional representation (a
    sphere) of Earth
  • Most accurate replication of Earth
  • Globes can show the "Great Circle Route" - the
    shortest distance between any two points on the
    earth's surface

Two or Three Dimensions
  • Mapa two-dimensional graphic representation of
    Earths surface
  • Cartographer (mapmaker) tries to accurately
    reflect earths surface
  • Map projection way of showing Earths curved
    surface on a flat map
  • Robinson
  • Conical

Parts of a Map
  • Key - explains the symbol used on a map
  • - Star - capital city
  • - Airplane airport
  • Compass Rose - shows the cardinal directions
    (north, east, west, south)
  • - May also show the intermediate directions
    (northwest, northeast, southeast, southwest)
  • - May only show one direction (Location of the
    other directions can be located in relation to
    the given direction)
  • Scale - means that a certain measurement on a map
    represents a certain measurement on the earth's

Types of Maps
  • Three types of maps general reference, thematic,
  • General reference maps
  • - Political map - Shows the political boundaries
    of countries and often smaller units such as
  • - Physical map - shows the relief or difference
    in elevation or height of
  • landforms in an area
  • - Topographic mapshows natural and man-made
    features of earth

Types of Maps
  • Thematic map or Special Purpose map - shows
    specific data such as
  • - Climate
  • - Population density
  • - Road maps
  • - Natural resource maps

Satellite image of Africa, Europe, Asia, and
The Science of Mapmaking
  • Surveyors observe, measure, record what they see
    in a specific area
  • Remote sensing, gathering geographic data from a
    distance, includes
  • - aerial photography
  • - satellite imaging

The Science of Mapmaking
  • Best known satellites are Landsat and GOES
  • Landsat is a series of satellites can scan
    entire planet in 16 days
  • Geostationary Operational Environment Satellite
  • - orbits in sync with Earths rotation
  • - gathers images of atmospheric conditions

The Science of Mapmaking
  • Geographic Information Systems
  • Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a digital
    geographic database
  • - Combines and displays information from many

The Science of Mapmaking
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • - Uses series of 24 Navstar satellites to beam
    information to Earth
  • - Hand-held GPS receivers on Earth display exact
  • - GPS used by explorers, sailors, drivers also
    used to track animals

Geography and Other Subjects
  • Science and technology
  • Geographers observe, hypothesize, and collect
  • They also use technological tools such as
    satellite computers and high tech Cameras
  • History and Politics
  • - Geographers use history to help understand how
    places looked in the past
  • - Political science focuses on places boundaries
    are formed and changed
  • - Natural environment affects political decisions

Geography and Other Subjects
  • Sociology and Anthropology
  • - Sociology helps geographers understand
    cultures throughout the world
  • - Study relationships between a places physical
    environment and its inhabitants social structure
  • - Anthropology helps geographers gain insight
    into different cultures throughout the world

Geography and Other Subjects
  • Economics
  • - How the location of resources affects the way
    people transport, and use goods
  • - Concerned with how and where services are
  • - Geographers are interested in how locations
    are chosen for farming, mining, manufacturing,
    and selling
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