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Topic: Applied Genetics

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Title: TOPIC: Applied Genetics AIM: What methods can be used to develop organisms with desirable traits? Author: Antonia Gianatiempo Last modified by – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic: Applied Genetics


1
  • Topic Applied Genetics
  • Aim Describe some methods that can be used to
    develop organisms with desirable traits.
  • Do Now next slide
  • HW Ditto Pedigree Chart Review

2
Joes dad
Joes mom
Mr. Renaldo
Janes mom
George
Emily
Jane Smith
Joe Smith
Grace
Clarissa
  • Although Jane and Joe Smith have dimples, their
    daughter, Clarissa, does not. Joes dad has
    dimples, but his mother, and his sister, Grace,
    do not. Janes dad, Mr. Renaldo, her brother
    George, and her sister, Emily, do not have
    dimples, but her mother does.

3
  • 1. Describe genetic engineering in one sentence.
  • Scientists change the arrangement of DNA that
    makes up a gene.

Describe what is occurring in the diagram above.
4
  • 2. Describe 2 examples of how genetic engineering
    .
  • To produce large quantities of medicine
  • To change how cells perform their normal
    functions
  • To improve crop production and quality
  • To make plants that are resistant to disease

5
  • By inserting a useful segment of DNA from one
    organism into a bacterium.
  • 3. How is recombinant DNA produced.

6
  • 4a. Identify the 2 organisms whose DNA was used
    to produce recombinant DNA.
  • Bacterial cell and human cell

7
  • 4b. Where is the recombinant DNA inserted?
  • Into the bacterial cell

8
  • 4c. What will the bacterial cell that contains
    the recombinant DNA start to do?
  • Produce insulin

9
  • 5. Identify substances that have been produced by
    using recombinant DNA.
  • Large quantities of human insulin
  • Growth hormone
  • Chemicals to treat cancer

10
  • http//www.goldiesroom.org/Shockwave_Pages/REG-20-
    recombination.htm

11
  • 6. How has genetic engineering been used with
    plants?.
  • Genetically engineered tomatoes can be picked
    green and transported great distances before
    ripen completely

12
Corn plants On the left we see corn a plant that
was not genetically engineered. On the right we
see a pest-free genetically engineered corn
plant. They were planted side by side.
13
This 1986 picture of a glowing tobacco plant
bearing the light gene of fireflies
demonstrates the power and potential of genetic
engineering.
14
  • Scientists at the University of Washington are
    engineering poplar trees that can clean up
    contamination sites by absorbing groundwater
    pollutants through their roots. The plants then
    break the pollutants down into harmless
    byproducts that are incorporated into their
    roots, stems and leaves or released into the air.

15
  • Scientists have recently taken the gene that
    programs poison in scorpion tails and looked for
    ways to combine it with cabbage. Why would they
    want to create venomous cabbage? To limit
    pesticide use while still preventing caterpillars
    from damaging cabbage crops. These GM cabbages
    would produce scorpion poison that kills
    caterpillars when they bite leaves but the
    toxin is modified so it isnt harmful to humans.

16
2000 Alba, a genetically-engineered bunny
possessed "green fluorescent protein" genes from
a jellyfish that made it glow in the dark. French
genetic researchers created Alba. The albino
rabbit glows green when placed under special
lighting. In regular light, Alba appears like any
other furry white rabbit. But place her under a
black light, and her eyes, whiskers and fur glow
a otherworldly green.
17
                                                                                                                                                      

"Glow in the dark" fish These genetically modified fish were developed by a Taiwanese aquatic firm. They are planning to reproduce these fish in numbers and sell them for pets.

18
  • In 2007, South Korean scientists altered a cats
    DNA to make it glow in the dark and then took
    that DNA and cloned other cats from it creating
    a set of fluffy, fluorescent felines.

19
Genetically modified pigs are created that
produce higher levels of growth hormone to
produce ameatier pork chop.
20
  • The Enviropig, or Frankenswine, as critics call
    it, is a pig thats been genetically altered to
    better digest and process phosphorus. Pig manure
    is high in phytate, a form of phosphorus, so when
    farmers use the manure as fertilizer, the
    chemical enters the watershed and causes algae
    blooms that deplete oxygen in the water and kill
    marine life.

21
  • Bt Corn produces a chemical that makes them pest
    resistant and results in a 5-10 increase yield.
    Public opposition due to fears of human health
    and environmental risks associated with the
    production and consumption of Bt corn.

22
Golden Rice contains higher quantities of Vitamin
A and Iron.
23
  • Genetically modified tomatoes reach full flavor
    and color on vine without rotting.

24
  • The Flavr Savr tomato was the first commercially
    grown genetically engineered food to be granted a
    license for human consumption. By adding an
    antisense gene, the California-based company
    Calgene hoped to slow the ripening process of the
    tomato to prevent softening and rotting, while
    allowing the tomato to retain its natural flavor
    and color.

25
  • Cows produce significant amounts of methane as a
    result of a bacterium in their intestines.
    Methane is a major contributor to the greenhouse
    effect, so scientists have been working to
    genetically engineer a cow that produces less
    methane.
  • Scientists at the University of Alberta have
    identified the bacterium responsible for
    producing methane and designed a line of cattle
    that creates 25 percent less methane than the
    average cow.

26
                                                                                                                                   


Scientists in the agriculture department of a Hebrew University have genetically engineered a chicken that has no feathers.
27
No sickle cell
Has sickle cell
No sickle cell
28
AA
aa
Aa
29
  1. How many offspring of the 1st generation have the
    trait?
  2. Describe individual U and W.
  3. Identify the genotype of individual Y.
  4. Identify the genotype X.

30
  • 1. How many generations are represented in the
    pedigree?
  • 2. In generation 1, which parent is a carrier of
    the recessive gene?

31
  • 3. In generation 2, which individual marries
    someone who is pure dominant?
  • 4. In which generation does the first case of
    sickle cell anemia appear?

32
  • 5. Which generation contains the most male
    carriers?
  • 6. Can 2 carriers produce a child with sickle
    cell anemia?

33
  • 7. Can a normal person produce offspring with
    sickle cell anemia?
  • 8. Which parents produce 2 children with sickle
    cell anemia?

34
  • Topic Applied Genetics
  • Aim Describe some methods that can be used to
    develop organisms with desirable traits.
  • Do Now take out yesterdays reading notes
  • HW Punnett Square Lab due Wednesday

35
7. Identify the 2 cells used to produce Dolly.
  • Mammary gland cell and an enucleated egg

36
9. Describe what was done with the 2 cells to
produce a new cell.
  • Nucleus from mammary gland cell was transplanted
    into enucleated egg and stimulated with
    electricity.

37
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38
10. Where was the new cell placed?
  • Uterus of a blackface ewe (female)

39
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40
11. Explain what is produced as a result of
cloning.
  • Genetically identical offspring

41
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43
The adult sheep is Dolly, the first mammal cloned
from an adult cell. The lamb is Dollys
offspring, called Bonnie.
44
Idaho Gem 1st cloned mule (MAY 2003) Cloned
from a champion racing mule
45
CopyCat 1st cloned cat (2002)
46
Misconception 1 Instant Clones! A common
misconception is that a clone, if created, would
magically appear at the same age as the original.
This simply isn't true. You remember that cloning
is an alternative way to create an embryo, not a
full-grown individual. Therefore, that embryo,
once created, must develop exactly the same way
as would an embryo created by fertilizing an egg
cell with a sperm cell. This will require a
surrogate mother and ample time for the cloned
embryo to grow and fully develop into an
individual.
47
Misconception 2 Carbon Copies! Your beloved
cat Frank has been a loyal companion for years.
Recently, though, Frank is showing signs of old
age, and you realize that your friend's days are
numbered. You can't bear the thought of living
without her, so you contact a biotechnology
company that advertises pet cloning services. For
a fee, this company will clone Frank using DNA
from a sample of her somatic cells. You're
thrilled you'll soon have a carbon copy of Frank
- we'll call her Frank 2 - and you'll never have
to live without your pal! Right? Not exactly. Are
you familiar with the phrase "nature versus
nurture?" Basically, this means that while
genetics can help determine traits, environmental
influences have a considerable impact on shaping
an individual's physical appearance and
personality. For example, do you know any
identical twins? They are genetically the same,
but do they really look and act exactly
alike? So, even though Frank 2 is genetically
identical to the original Frank, she will grow
and develop in a completely different environment
than the original Frank or will have a different
mother, and she will be exposed to different
experiences throughout her development and life.
Therefore, there is only a slim chance that Frank
2 will closely resemble the Frank you know and
love.
48
  • 12. What is the ultimate goal of
    selectivebreeding?
  • It allows only those individual organisms with
    DESIRED characteristics to produce the next
    generation.

49
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50
Horses can also be produced through selective
breeding. This is an Appaloosa. This horse is
bred for its distinctive coat pattern. Race
horses are often selectively bred.
51
  • 13. Identify the 2 types of selective breeding.
  • Hybridization
  • Inbreeding

52
  • 14. Describe the offspring of hybridization.
  • Very DIFFERENT from either parent genetically
  • New offspring is HETEROZYGOUS (HYBRID)

53
  • 15. Describe the parents of hybridization.
  • Alleles are very DIFFERENT

The Mule is the result of breeding a female horse
(mare) to a male donkey (jack). The mule is
superior to the horse in strength, endurance,
intelligence and disease resistance.
54
The Cama is the result of breeding a Llama to a
Camel. Parents in background of picture.
55
The Zebroid is the result of breedinga female
Horse and a male Zebra.
The Zedonk / Zonkey is the result of breeding a
female Donkey and male Zebra.
56
Hybridization
Santa Gertrudis cattle formed by crossing Braham
and shorthorn ? good heat resistance and beef
Braham cattle good resistance to heat but poor
beef
Shorthorn cattle good beef but poor heat
resistance
57
Hybridization
Tigon male tiger female lion
58
Hybridization
Liger male lion female tiger
The liger has both stripes and spots. The stripes
are inherited from its tiger parent and the spots
from the lion parent. On their hind legs, ligers
stand approximately 12 feet tall. At most, ligers
may weigh up to 1,000 pounds.
59
  • Labradoodle

Buggs (Boston Terrier / Pug mix)
60
  • Very similar to both parents
  • Very homozygous
  • 16. Describe the offspring of inbreeding.

61
  • Share many alleles
  • Very alike
  • 17. Describe the parents of inbreeding.

62
  • Disadvantages
  • Smaller and weaker offspring
  • More susceptible to diseases
  • More prone to genetic disorders

63
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70
  • The last white tiger ever seen in the wild was
    shot in 1958. As such, todays white tigers are
    products of severe inbreeding, causing more
    genetic aberrations with every generation.

71
  • A BBC documentary showed that some of Britains
    most popular dogs are plagued with health
    problems, ranging from cancer, epilepsy and heart
    disease, after decades of inbreeding.

72
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73
  • Lets summarize
  • Describe the process of selective breeding.
  • Explain the difference between hybridization and
    inbreeding.
  • Explain what genetic engineering involves.
  • Identify the uses of genetic engineering.
  • Describe the offspring produced by cloning.

74
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75
  • Review
  • Genetic engineering is presently used in the
    biotechnology industry to
  • (1.) eliminate all infectious disease in
    livestock
  • (2.) increase the frequency of fertilization
  • (3.) synthesize insulin, interferon, and human
    growth hormone
  • (4.) create populations that exhibit incomplete
    dominance

76
  • The process in which DNA that is artificially
    combined from two different organisms is called
    ____________________.
  • 2. Combining the desirable qualities of 2
    different organisms into one is referred to as
    _________.
  • The process in which humans change the genetic
    makeup of an organism is known as _____.
  • 4. The process in which genetically identical
    offspring are produced by using the cells of an
    organism is called _________.

77
  • Using special enzymes, scientists have
    successfully removed the gene that controls the
    production of clotting factors and have inserted
    this gene into the DNA of certain bacteria. 
    These bacteria can now produce clotting factors.
    This technique is known as (1.) amniocentesis 
  • (2.) genetic engineering 
  • (3.) differentiation 
  • (4.) karyotyping

78
  • Cloning an individual usually produces organisms
    that
  • contain dangerous mutations
  • (2) contain identical genes
  • (3) are identical in appearance and behavior
  • (4) produce enzymes different from the parent

79
  • Which process is most similar to the process of
    cloning?
  • Fertilization
  • (2) Vegetative propagation
  • (3) Meiosis
  • (4) Gamete formation

80
  • Which process could be used by breeders to
    develop tomatoes with a longer shelf life and to
    develop cows with increased milk production?
  • natural selection  
  • genetic engineering
  • sporulation        
  • (4) chromatography

81
  • 3. A man with blue eyes marries a woman who is
    heterozygous for brown eyes. If brown eyes are
    dominant, what are the chances of having a blue
    eyed child? Also, give the phenotypes and
    genotypes of all possible offspring.

B Brown
b blue
bb X Bb
82
  • bb X Bb

Phenotype percentages 50 blue 50
brown Genotype percentages 50
heterozygous 50 homozygous
recessive
b
b


b
B
B
B
b
b
b
b
b
b
83
  • 4. In tomatoes, red fruit color is dominant to
    yellow fruit color. Predict the phenotypes and
    genotypes of the offspring by crossing a
    homozygous dominant parent with a homozygous
    recessive parent. Draw a Punnett Square to
    illustrate your prediction.

r yellow
R red
RR X rr
84
  • RR X rr

Phenotype percentages 100 red Genotype
percentages 100 heterozygous
R
R


r
r
R
R
r
R
r
r
R
r
85
Farmer Brown is a dairy farmer and is known for
his very creamy milk. The milk produced by his
cows has become so popular that he is not able to
fill his orders anymore. This is because his cows
dont produce enough milk each day to meet the
demand. He was looking for a cow that produced
large amounts of creamy milk. His vet suggested
that he could solve his problem by selective
breeding. He needed to identify the Friesian cows
that produce the most milk and those Jersey cows
that produce the creamiest milk and breed only
with them. By mating these selected few, Farmer
Brown was able to produce offspring which had an
enhanced version of this characteristic. Over
several years he followed this program until he
got the desired result, a cow that produced a
large amount of creamy milk.
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