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The Challenge: To Create More Value in All Negotiations

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Title: The Challenge: To Create More Value in All Negotiations


1
LONG/ANNOTATED Tom
Peters Re-Imagine EXCELLENCE! 2015
Distinguished Leadership and Innovation
Conference Port of Spain/13 April 2015 (Slides
at tompeters.com and our fully annotated 23-part
Master Compendium at excellencenow.com)
2
FIRST THING BEFORE FIRST THING CONRADS
COMMANDMENT
3
CONRAD HILTON, at a gala celebrating his career,
was called to the podium and asked, What were
the most important lessons you learned in your
long and distinguished career? His answer
4
Remember to tuck the shower curtain inside the
bathtub.
5
They come for location, location, location.
They COME BACK because of the tucked-in
shower curtain. (And ALL the profit is made
on the return visits and recommendations to
others.)
6
COSTCO FIGURED OUT THE BIG, SIMPLE THINGS AND
EXECUTED WITH TOTAL FANATICISM. Charles
Munger, Berkshire Hathaway
7
Amateurs talk about strategy. Professionals talk
about logistics. Omar Bradley, commander of
American troops/D-Day
8
EXCELLENCE
9
X4
10
Excellence1982 The Bedrock Eight
Basics 1. A Bias for Action 2. Close to the
Customer 3. Autonomy and Entrepreneurship 4.
Productivity Through People 5. Hands On,
Value-Driven 6. Stick to the Knitting 7. Simple
Form, Lean Staff 8. Simultaneous Loose-Tight
Properties
11
Action People Customers Values
12
In Search of Excellence in 4 words. (No
kidding.)
13
Excellence.2015 The Bedrock Eleven
Basics 1. A Bias for Action/Execution 4. People
First/Training Mania 2. Symbiosis With the
Customer 3. Autonomy and Entrepreneurship 5.
Hands On, Value-Driven 6. Stick to the
Knitting 7. Simple Form, Lean Staff,
Collaboration Imperative 8. Simultaneous
Loose-Tight Properties 9. Design Fanaticism 10.
Technology Unlimited 11. Speed Demons
14
6 Words But a Mouthful
15
Hard is Soft. Soft is Hard.
16
People. Customers. Values.
Somemost?call these ideas softwhere are the
numbers and the plans? Surely there is room for
the numbers. But they are the real soft
stuffmalleable and manipulable. (As we saw
again and again during the economic crisis.) The
truly hard stuffwhich cant be faked or
exaggeratedare the relationships with, for
instance, our customers and our own
people. Hard is soft. Soft is
hard. Mantra 1 from In Search of EXCELLENCE.
17
X1
18
Mr. Watson, how long does it take to achieve
excellence?
19
One minute.
20
One minute. You make up your mind to never again
consciously do something that is not excellent.
21
EXCELLENCE is a PERSONAL choice NOT an
institutional choice!
22
X5
23
EXCELLENCE is not a long-term "aspiration.
EXCELLENCE is the ultimate short-term strategy.
EXCELLENCE is THE NEXT 5 MINUTES. (Or NOT.)
24
EXCELLENCE is not an "aspiration." EXCELLENCE is
THE NEXT FIVE MINUTES. EXCELLENCE is your next
conversation. Or not. EXCELLENCE is your next
meeting. Or not. EXCELLENCE is shutting up and
listeningreally listening. Or not. EXCELLENCE is
your next customer contact. Or not. EXCELLENCE is
saying Thank you for something small. Or
not. EXCELLENCE is the next time you shoulder
responsibility and apologize. Or not. EXCELLENCE
is waaay over-reacting to a screw-up. Or
not. EXCELLENCE is the flowers you brought to
work today. Or not. EXCELLENCE is lending a hand
to an outsider whos fallen behind schedule. Or
not. EXCELLENCE is bothering to learn the way
folks in finance or IS or HR think. Or
not. EXCELLENCE is waaay over-preparing for a
3-minute presentation. Or not. EXCELLENCE is
turning insignificant tasks into models of
EXCELLENCE. Or not.
25
Why Not?
26
Why in the World did you go to Siberia?
27
A half-dozen years ago I went to Novosibirsk,
Siberia, to give a seminar. (Novosibirsk, center
of Soviet scientific excellence, was now
confronting the global economyand looking for a
new direction.) The unusual setting caused me
to go back to first principals in my thinking
about enterprise.I asked myself, for starters
WHATS THE POINT?
28
Enterprise (at its best) An emotional,
vital, innovative, joyful, creative,
entrepreneurial endeavor that elicits maximum

concerted human potential
in the wholehearted pursuit
of EXCELLENCE in service of others.Employee
s, Customers, Suppliers, Communities, Owners,
Temporary partners
29
Enterprise, as I note AT ITS BEST.(Obviously
not always achievedor, alas, even aspired to.)
On the other hand if this or something very
much like it is not the aim then what is the
point? Think about it.Please.(Photo is me
and my interpreter, who turned out to have an
economics PhD from the University of Maryland, on
stage in Novosibirsk.)
30
It may sound radical, unconventional, and
bordering on being a crazy business idea.
However as ridiculous as it soundsjoy is the
core belief of our workplace. Joy is the reason
my company, Menlo Innovations, a customer
software design and development firm in Ann
Arbor, exists. It defines what we do and how we
do it. It is the single shared belief of our
entire team. Richard Sheridan, Joy, Inc.
How We Built a Workplace People Love
31
SERVICE. PERIOD.
32
ORGANIZATIONS EXIST TO SERVE. PERIOD. LEADERS
LIVE TO SERVE. PERIOD.
33
PEOPLE PEOPLE PEOPLE PEOPLE
34
People 1/4,096
35
4,096 slides in my 23-part MOAP/Mother Of
All Presentations, three years in the making.
ONE slide by definition had to come first. This
one, a quote from the inimitable Richard Branson,
was 1
36
Business has to give people enriching,
rewarding lives
37
1/4,096 excellencenow.com Business has to give
people enriching, rewarding lives or it's
simply not worth doing. Richard Branson
38
You have to treat your employees like
customers. Herb Kelleher, upon being asked his
secret to successSource Joe Nocera, NYT,
Parting Words of an Airline Pioneer, on the
occasion of Herb Kellehers retirement after 37
years at Southwest Airlines (SWAs pilots union
took out a full-page ad in USA Today thanking HK
for all he had done) across the way in Dallas,
American Airlines pilots were picketing AAs
Annual Meeting)
39
EMPLOYEES FIRST, CUSTOMERS SECOND Turning
Conventional Management Upside Down Vineet
Nayar/CEO/HCL Technologies
40
hostmanship/ consideration renovation
41
The path to a hostmanship culture
paradoxically does not go through the guest. In
fact it wouldnt be totally wrong to say that the
guest has nothing to do with it. True hostmanship
leaders focus on their employees. What drives
exceptionalism is finding the right people and
getting them to love their work and see it as a
passion. ... The guest comes into the picture
only when you are ready to ask, Would you prefer
to stay at a hotel where the staff love their
work or where management has made customers its
highest priority? We went through the hotel
and made a ... consideration renovation.
Instead of redoing bathrooms, dining rooms, and
guest rooms, we gave employees new uniforms,
bought flowers and fruit, and changed colors. Our
focus was totally on the staff. They were the
ones we wanted to make happy. We wanted them to
wake up every morning excited about a new day at
work. Jan Gunnarsson and Olle Blohm,
Hostmanship The Art of Making People Feel
Welcome.
42
The guest comes into the picture only when
you are ready to ask, Would you prefer to stay
at a hotel where the staff love their work or
where management has made customers its highest
priority?
43
Rocket Science. NOT. If you want staff to give
great service, give great service to staff.
Ari Weinzweig, Zingermans Source Small
Giants Companies That Choose to Be Great Instead
of Big, Bo Burlingham
44
EXCELLENT customer experience depends entirely
on EXCELLENT employee experience! If you
want to WOW your customers, FIRST you must WOW
those who WOW the customers!
45
Contrary to conventional corporate thinking,
treating retail workers much better may make
everyone (including their employers) much
richer. Source The Good Jobs Strategy, by
M.I.T. professor Zeynep Ton.
46
1996-2014/12 companies every year/ 341,567 new
jobs/172PublixWhole FoodsWegmansNordstrom
Cisco SystemsMarriottREIGoldman SachsFour
SeasonsSAS InstituteW.L. GoreTDIndustriesSour
ce Fortune/ The 100 Best Companies to Work
For/0315.15
47
Note Fully 7/12ths of the best of the 100
best companies to work for in the USA are in
so-called low wage components of the service
industry. (So dont tell me, as many have, You
can only do this sort of thing at the likes of
Google. Rubbish!)
48
In a world where customers wake up every morning
asking, Whats new, whats different, whats
amazing? success depends on a companys ability
to unleash initiative, imagination and passion of
employees at all levels and this can only happen
if all those folks are connected heart and soul
to their work their calling, their company
and their mission. John Mackey and Raj Sisoda,
Conscious Capitalism Liberating the Heroic
Spirit of Business
49
Profit Through Putting
People First Business Book Club Nice Companies
Finish First Why Cutthroat Management Is
Overand Collaboration Is In, by Peter Shankman
with Karen Kelly Uncontainable How Passion,
Commitment, and Conscious Capitalism Built a
Business Where Everyone Thrives, by Kip Tindell,
CEO Container Store Conscious Capitalism
Liberating the Heroic Spirit of Business, by John
Mackey, CEO Whole Foods, and Raj Sisodia Firms of
Endearment How World-Class Companies Profit from
Passion and Purpose, by Raj Sisodia, Jag Sheth,
and David Wolfe The Good Jobs Strategy How the
Smartest Companies Invest in Employees to Lower
Costs and Boost Profits, by Zynep Ton, MIT Joy,
Inc. How We Built a Workplace People Love, by
Richard Sheridan, CEO Menlo Innovations Employees
First, Customers Second Turning Conventional
Management Upside Down, by Vineet Nayar, CEO, HCL
Technologies The Customer Comes Second Put Your
People First and Watch Em Kick Butt, by Hal
Rosenbluth, former CEO, Rosenbluth
International Its Your Ship Management
Techniques from the Best Damn Ship in the Navy,
by Mike Abrashoff, former commander, USS
Benfold Turn This Ship Around How to Create
Leadership at Every Level, by L. David Marquet,
former commander, SSN Sante Fe Small Giants
Companies That Choose to Be Great Instead of Big,
by Bo Burlingham Hidden Champions Success
Strategies of Unknown World Market Leaders, by
Hermann Simon Retail Superstars Inside the 25
Best Independent Stores in America, by George
Whalin Joy at Work A Revolutionary Approach to
Fun on the Job, by Dennis Bakke, former CEO, AES
Corporation The Dream Manager, by Matthew
Kelly The Soft Edge Where Great Companies Find
Lasting Success, by Rich Karlgaard, publisher,
Forbes Delivering Happiness A Path to Profits,
by Tony Hseif, Zappos Camellia A Very Different
Company Fans, Not Customers How to Create Growth
Companies in a No Growth World, by Vernon
Hill Like a Virgin Secrets They Wont Teach You
at Business School, by Richard Branson
50
!
51
YOUR CUSTOMERS WILL NEVER BE ANY HAPPIER THAN
YOUR EMPLOYEES.
52
What employees experience, Customers will. The
best marketing is happy, engaged employees. Your
customers will never be any happier than your
employees. John DiJulius, The Customer Service
Revolution Overthrow Conventional Business,
Inspire Employees, and Change the World
53
Im tempted to use this one-liner as the only
slide in a presentation. It comes awfully close
to being all that needs to be said.
54
THE DREAM MANAGER by Matthew KellyAN
ORGANIZATION CAN ONLY BECOME THE-BEST-VERSION-OF-I
TSELF TO THE EXTENT THAT THE PEOPLE WHO DRIVE
THAT ORGANIZATION ARE STRIVING TO BECOME
BETTER-VERSIONS-OF-THEMSELVES. A companys
purpose is to become the-best-version-of-itself.
The question is What is an employees purpose?
Most would say, to help the company achieve its
purposeBUT THEY WOULD BE WRONG. That is
certainly part of the employees role, but an
employees primary purpose is to become
the-best-version-of-himself or herself. When a
company forgets that it exists to serve
customers, it quickly goes out of business. OUR
EMPLOYEES ARE OUR FIRST CUSTOMERS, AND OUR MOST
IMPORTANT CUSTOMERS.
55
The 7-Step Method
56
7 Steps to Sustaining Success You take care of
the people. The people take care of the service.
The service takes care of the customer. The
customer takes care of the profit. The profit
takes care of the re-investment. The
re-investment takes care of the re-invention.
The re-invention takes care of the future. (And
at every step the only measure is EXCELLENCE.)
57
7 Steps to Sustaining Success And it starts with
You take care of the people.
58
Training Investment 1!
59
In the Army, 3-star generals worry about
training. In most businesses, it's a ho-hum
mid-level staff function.
60
Is your CTO/Chief Training Officer your top paid
C-level job (other than CEO/COO)? If not, why
not? Are your top trainers paid as much as your
top marketers and engineers? If not, why not? Are
your training courses so good they make you
jump up down with glee? If not, why
not? Randomly stop an employee in the hall Can
she/he meticulously describe her/his development
plan for the next 12 months? If not, why not? Why
is your world of business any different than the
(competitive) world of rugby, football, opera,
theater, the military? If people/talent first
and hyper-intense continuous training are
laughably obviously for them, why not you?
61
Someone at a seminar challenged me on this.
Said it was unrealistic and, by the way, what
does tingle mean. I pointed to my sophomore
year in college. For us engineers, including
civil engineers like me, an introductory
chemistry course was required. Most of us looked
forward to it as the equivalent of a 4-month
long root canal. We had two well known
professors, Michell Sienko and Robert Plane. They
were scholars of the first order and
simultaneously entertainers of the first order.
Bottom line By the end of the course, probably
half of us among hundreds wanted to be
chemistry majors. Ten years later the same sort
of lightning struck courtesy an econ prof, Keith
Lumsden, at the Stanford business school. That
is, there are great teachers and great
coursesand I do not understand why the corporate
world cant develop or recruit the Sienkos and
Planes and Lumsdens. Billions are at stakeand
great profs concocting great courses could do
wonders to, say, recruitment and retention and
productivity. As to tingle, Im looking for
something beyond very good Id accept for
earthshaking or mind-blowing or, for sure
supercalifragilisticexpialidocious.
62
Is your CTO/Chief Training Officer your top paid
C-level job (other than CEO/COO)? If not, why
not? Are your top trainers paid as much as your
top marketers and engineers? If not, why not? Are
your training courses so good they make you
giggle and tingle? If not, why not? Randomly
stop an employee in the hall Can she/he
meticulously describe her/his development plan
for the next 12 months? If not, why not? Why is
your world of business any different than the
(competitive) world of rugby, football, opera,
theater, the military? If people/talent first
and hyper-intense continuous training are
laughably obviously for them, why not you?
63
And if the answer is No her or his boss
should be sternly reprimanded ASAP. (I would say
firedbut you might accuse me of
over-the-top-ism. Heaven forbid.)
64
Boss RPD Your (boss) job is safer if every one
of your team members is committed to RPD/Radical
Personal Development. Actively support one and
all!
65
The role of the Director is to create a space
where the actors and actresses can become more
than theyve ever been before, more than theyve
dreamed of being. Robert Altman, Oscar
acceptance speech
66
I start with the premise that the function of
leadership is to produce more leaders, not more
followers. Ralph Nader
67
Leadership opportunities aboundfor all of
us, all the time. (See Betsy Myers wonderful
Take the Lead Motivate, Inspire, and Bring Out
the Best in Yourself and Everyone Around You.)
The idea per Mr. Nader is to get everyone focused
on growth and thinking and acting like a leader.
Development acceleratesand the customer is the
ultimate beneficiary of a skilled staff that
seizes the moment without muss, fuss, or order
shouting. Leaders all! (Of course!)
68
Gamblin Man Bet 1 gtgt 5
of 10 CEOs see training as expense rather than
investment. Bet 2 gtgt 5 of 10 CEOs see training
as defense rather than offense. Bet 3 gtgt 5 of
10 CEOs see training as necessary evil rather
than strategic opportunity.
69
Bet 4 gtgt 8 of 10 CEOs, in 45-min tour
dhorizon of their biz, would NOT mention
training.
70
What is the 1 reason to go berserk over
training?
71
What is the best reason to go bananas over
training? GREED. (It pays off.) (Also Training
should be an official part of the RD budget and
a capital expense.)
72
Training 1 Bottom Line NOBODY gets off the
hook! Training Development Maniac applies as
much to the leader of the 4-person business as to
the chief of the 44,444-person business.
73
The topic is probably the oldest and biggest
debate in Customer service. What is more
important How well you hire, or the training and
culture you bring your employees into? While both
are very important, 75 percent is the Customer
service training and the service culture of your
company. Do you really think that Disney has
found 50,000 amazing service-minded people? There
probably arent 50,000 people on earth who were
born to serve. Companies like Ritz-Carlton and
Disney find good people and put them in such a
strong service and training environment that
doesnt allow for accept anything less than
excellence. John DiJulius, The Customer
Service Revolution Overthrow Conventional
Business, Inspire Employees, and Change the World
74
As John DiJulius says, this is a
controversial point. But I would tend to lean in
his direction in many if not most situations.
Google? Maybe not. But Google is 5 standard
deviations away from the normat least.
75
6/2/3 It takes Jerry Seinfeld SIX MONTHS to
develop TWO or THREE MINUTES of new material
(documentary Comedian)
76
Hes the quintessential old pro. No matter.
He still trains and trains and trains and
trains some more. (Most of the training gigs
are performed in small, out-of-the-way places.)
77
Practice! Training! Growth! It aint a walk
in the parkand it applies to each and every one
of us. That goes 10 X (100X?) in 2015.
78
Basketball coach John Wooden, perhaps the best
coach of anything, ever I was never much of a
game coach, but I was a pretty good practice
coach. Hall of fame football coach Bill Walsh
on preparation The score takes care of
itself.
79
Two pretty damn good trainers. The outcome of
the game per se is more or less simply a
byproduct of peerless training. Does this
translate to business? What a silly (I wish)
question, eh?
80
Hiring
81
Its simple, really, Tom. Hire for ?s, and,
above all, promote for ?s. Starbucks
regional manager, on why so many smiles at
Starbucks shops
82
We look for ... listening, caring, smiling,
saying Thank you, being warm. Colleen
Barrett, former President, Southwest Airlines
83
Put it (e.g., the likes of smiles in a way that
lights up a room) in the FORMAL criteria list.
DAMN IT!
84
AND .. could you consider plain English? Not
engages the interviewer in a positive fashion.
Instead SMILES A LOT.
85
Observed closely The use of I or We during
a job interview. Source Leonard Berry Kent
Seltman, chapter 6, Hiring for Values,
Management Lessons From Mayo Clinic
86
AND .. could you consider plain English? Not
exhibits traits associated with good teamwork.
Instead Uses We more than I. (FYI Love
this!) (FYI 2 The Mayo Clinic book is SUPERB.)
87
"It became necessary to develop medicine as a
cooperative science the clinician, the
specialist, the laboratory workers, the nurses
uniting for the good of the patient, each
assisting in the elucidation of the problem at
hand, and each dependent upon the other for
support. Dr. William Mayo, 1910
88
Team medicinein the culture from the start
and oh so rare in the healthcare industryis at
the heart of sustaining EXCELLENCE at the Mayo
Clinic.
89
I am hundreds of times better here than in
my prior hospital assignment because of the
support system. Its like you were working in an
organism you are not a single cell when you are
out there practicing. quote from Dr. Nina
Schwenk, in Chapter 3, Practicing Team
Medicine, from Leonard Berry Kent Seltman,
from Management Lessons From Mayo Clinic
90
Docs are rarely given to overstatement.
Regardless A STUNNING REMARK.
91
"The personnel committees on all three campuses
have become aggressive in addressing the issue of
physicians who are not living the Mayo value of
exhibiting respectful, collegial behavior to all
team members. Some physicians have been suspended
without pay or terminated. Leonard Barry
Kent Seltman, Management Lessons from Mayo
Clinic
92
Teeth.
93
Andrew Carnegies Tombstone Inscription Here
lies a manWho knew how to enlistIn his
serviceBetter men than himself.Source Peter
Drucker, The Practice of Management
94
Such a VERY big deal. And oh-so-rare. (Alas.)

95
"When I hire someone, that's when I go to work
for them. John DiJulius, "What's the Secret to
Providing a World-class Customer Experience"
96
Quiet
97
Susan Cains Quiet The Power of Introverts in a
World That Cant Stop Talking made a profound
impact on me. We tend to favor the noisy
onesand thence downplay the power of the 50
amongst us who are the quiet ones. I.e., we
blow off or, at least, undervalue 50 0f the
talent pool.Talk about a missed opportunity!
98
The next time you see a person with a composed
face and a soft voice, remember that inside her
mind she might be solving an equation, composing
a sonnet, designing a hat. She might, that is, be
deploying the power of quiet. Susan Cain,
Quiet The Power of Introverts in a World That
Cant Stop Talking
99
2/Year Legacy
100
Your legacy is achieved and maintained to a
great extent by your promotion decisionsabout
two per year on average. In a five-year stint,
thats 10 decisions that make or break you. DO
YOU invest in the decision-making process ACT
ACCORDINGLY? No glib answer, please.
101
Promotion Decisionslife and death
decisionsSource Peter Drucker, The Practice
of Management
102
A promotion decision is akin to an
acquisition decision. The same degree of care
therewith should be exercised.
103
A man should never be promoted to a
managerial position if his vision focuses on
peoples weaknesses rather than on their
strengths. Peter Drucker, The Practice of
Management
104
Me
105
Being aware of yourself and how you affect
everyone around you is what distinguishes a
superior leader. Edie Seashore
106
How can a high-level leader like _____ be so out
of touch with the truth about himself? Its more
common than you would imagine. In fact, the
higher up the ladder a leader climbs, the less
accurate his self-assessment is likely to be. The
problem is an acute lack of feedback especially
on people issues. Daniel Goleman (et al.),
The New Leaders
107
The biggest problem I shall ever face the
management of Dale Carnegie. Dale Carnegie,
diary of
108
"Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no
one thinks of changing himself." Leo Tolstoy
109
The leadership gurus speak with one voice on
this Self-knowledge and self-development is
leader job 1. Think about it. (Your self
assessment skills likely STINK. Especially if
you think theyre good.)
110
1st-Line Bosses Cadre of Productivity
Asset 1!
111
If the regimental commander lost most of his 2nd
lieutenants and 1st lieutenants and captains and
majors, it would be a tragedy. If he lost his
sergeants it would be a catastrophe. The Army and
the Navy are fully aware that success on the
battlefield is dependent to an extraordinary
degree on its Sergeants and Chief Petty Officers.
Does industry have the same awareness?
112
People leave managers not companies. Dave
Wheeler
113
Actually, a profound statement of the utmost
importance.
114
Is there ONE secret to productivity and
employee satisfaction? YES! The Quality of
your FULL CADRE of 1st-line Leaders.
115
No way to overstate here. Companies do pay
attention to 1st-line supervisorsbut do
not/rarely consider the full cadre of 1st-line
leaders a 1st-ORDER STRATEGIC ASSET worthy of
stupendous investment in selection and
development. (PLEASE PONDER THIS.)
116
WOMEN RULE!
117
Research by McKinsey Co. suggests that to
succeed, start by promoting women. Nicholas
Kristof, Twitter, Women, and Power, NYTimes
In my experience, women make much better
executives than men. Kip Tindell, CEO,
Container Store
118
AS LEADERS, WOMEN RULE New Studies find that
female managers outshine their male counterparts
in almost every measure TITLE/ Special
Report/ BusinessWeek
119
Women are rated higher in fully 12 of the 16
competencies that go into outstanding leadership.
And two of the traits where women outscored men
to the highest degree taking initiative and
driving for results have long been thought of
as particularly male strengths. Harvard
Business Review
120
For One BIG Thing McKinsey Company found
that the international companies with more women
on their corporate boards far outperformed the
average company in return on equity and other
measures. Operating profit was 56
higher. Source Nicholas Kristof, Twitter,
Women, and Power, NYTimes, 1024.13
121
Womens Strengths Match New Economy Imperatives
Link rather than rank workers favor
interactive-collaborative leadership style
empowerment beats top-down decision making
sustain fruitful collaborations comfortable with
sharing information see redistribution of power
as victory, not surrender favor
multi-dimensional feedback value technical
interpersonal skills, individual group
contributions equally readily accept ambiguity
honor intuition as well as pure rationality
inherently flexible appreciate cultural
diversity. Source Judy B. Rosener, Americas
Competitive Secret Women Managers
122
In the modern organization, huffing and
puffing and shouting orders is dying. Gaining
cooperation of scattered team members who dont
report to the formally designated leader is
the emergent norm. Which plays to womens
strengths.
123
Context 1,000,000
124
China/Foxconn 1,000,000 robots/next 3
years Source Race AGAINST the Machine, Erik
Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee
125
We typically think of China in terms of
low-cost labor. Chinas labor costs are
soaringand, like the rest of us, the Chinese are
stepping up their game. And not pussyfooting!
126
Since 1996, manufacturing employment in China
itself has actually fallen by an estimated 25
percent. Thats over 30,000,000 fewer Chinese
workers in that sector, even while output soared
by 70 percent. Its not that American workers are
being replaced by Chinese workers. Its that both
American and Chinese workers are being made more
efficient replaced by automation. Erik
Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, The Second
Machine Age Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a
Time of Brilliant Technologies
127
I read this in disbelief. But I do believe
it. And what testimony it is to the ubiquity of
the automation tsunami.
128
Automation has become so sophisticated that on a
typical passenger flight, a human pilot holds the
controls for a grand total of 3 minutes.
Pilots have become, its not much of an
exaggeration to say, computer operators.
Source Nicholas Carr, The Great Forgetting,
The Atlantic, 11.13
129
Pilot as computer operatorand emergency
skills are atrophying.
130
Meet Your Next Surgeon Dr. Robot Source
Feature/Fortune/15 JAN 2013/on Intuitive
Surgicals da Vinci /multiple bypass
heart-surgery robot
131
Ditto pilots.
132
Las Vegas Company Could 3D Print Your Next Car
Customers could pick up newly printed car within
24 hours Headline, Las Vegas Sun/ 1225.14
133
IoT/Sensor Pills Proteus Digital Health is one
of several pioneers in sensor-based health
technology. They make a silicon chip the size of
a grain of sand that is embedded into a safely
digested pill that is swallowed. When the chip
mixes with stomach acids, the processor is
powered by the bodys electricity and transmits
data to a patch worn on the skin. That patch, in
turn, transmits data via Bluetooth to a mobile
app, which then transmits the data to a central
database where a health technician can verify if
a patient has taken her or his medications.
This is a bigger deal than it may seem. In
2012, it was estimated that people not taking
their prescribed medications cost 258 BILLION in
emergency room visits, hospitalization, and
doctor visits. An average of 130,000 Americans
die each year because they dont follow their
prescription regimens closely enough.. The FDA
approved placebo testing in April 2012 sensor
pills are ticketed to come to market in 2015 or
2016. Source Robert Scoble and Shel Israel,
Age of Context Mobile, Sensors, Data and ther
Future of Privacy
134
IoT/The Internet of Things IoE/The Internet of
Everything M2M/Machine-to-Machine Ubiquitous
computing Embedded computing Pervasive
computing Industrial Internet Etc.
More Than 50 BILLION connected devices by
2020 Ericsson Estimated 212 BILLION connected
devices by 2020IDC By 2025 IoT could be
applicable to 82 TRILLION of output or
approximately one half the global economyGE
The WAGs to end all WAGs!
135
Software is eating the world. Marc Andreessen
136
Human level capability has not turned out to be
a special stopping point from an engineering
perspective. . Source Illah Reza
Nourbakhsh, Professor of Robotics, Carnegie
Mellon, Robot Futures
137
The intellectual talents of highly trained
professionals are no more protected from
automation than is the drivers left turn.
Nicholas Carr, The Glass Cage Automation and
Us
138
Betterment/ Ambitions of a Robo Adviser
FT/1217.14/ could put tens of thousands of U.S.
investment advisors out of their jobs
139
The root of our problem is not that were in a
Great Recession or a Great Stagnation, but
rather that we are in the early throes of a
Great Restructuring. Our technologies are racing
ahead, but our skills and organizations are
lagging behind. Source Race AGAINST the
Machine, Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee
140
This is a principal explanation as to why the
economy is coming backbut new jobs and wage
increases are lagging lagging lagging. (When
it comes to wage-rate movement, non-existent or
even declining are the correct words.)
141
The New Logic Scale w/o EmploymentKodak
1988/145,000 employees 2012/bankruptInstagram
30,000,000 customers/13 employees(WhatsApp
450,000,000 customers/ 55 employees/Valued _at_
19,000,000,000)Source Robert Reichs
Blog/0317.15
142
Just pause and read/re-read this. Form your
own conclusions about implications.
143
Context Lets Not Get Too Carried Away
144
Life BEFORE Clay Christensen Invented
Disruption My mom (1909-2005) lived through
the advent of mass market cars, commercial radio,
routine long-distance phone calls, portable
phones, cell phones, satellites, satellite phone
call transmission, movies with sound, color
movies, TV, TV dinners, microwave ovens,
commercial use of aircraft, jets, extensive
electrification, the Great Depression, Ty Cobb,
Babe Ruth, Walter Johnson, Bob Feller, Barry
Bonds, Derek Jeter, the West Coast Offense, the
Civil Rights Movement, an African-American
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff/Secretary
of State, Gay Pride, women win the right to vote,
Gandhi, Churchill, WWI, WWII, the Holocaust, the
birth of the U.S. Navy Seabees, relativity, the
A-bomb, H-bomb, the EEC, the EU, the Euro, the
Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Iraq War, 9/11,
the Cold War, the disintegration of the USSR, the
resurgence of China, the death and resurrection
of Germany and Japan, Oklahoma New Mexico
Arizona Hawaii Alaska become states, William
Howard Taft just missed Teddy Roosevelt!,
FDR, Ronald Reagan, Father Coughlin, Jim and
Tammy Bakker, mainframe computers, PCs,
hyperlinks, the iPod, DARPA-net, the Internet,
air conditioning, weed whackers, Mickey Mouse,
Frank Sinatra, Elvis, the Beatles, Madonna, the
Model T, the Cadillac Escalade, Nancy Drew, the
first four Harry Potter books, antibiotics, MRIs,
polio vaccine, genetic mapping, WWII rockets,
space flight, man-to-the-moon, probe on Mars,
more or less permanent space station.
But, to be sure, not long enough to see the
Cubs win another World Series or to take a
selfie.
145
My Moms life was not exactly a yawner when
it came to disruption!
146
THE MORAL IMPERATIVEPEOPLE DEVELOPMENT
147
CORPORATE MANDATE 1 2014 Your principal moral
obligation as a leader is to develop the
skillset, soft and hard, of every one of the
people in your charge (temporary as well as
semi-permanent) to the maximum extent of your
abilities. The bonus This is also the 1 mid-
to long-term profit maximization strategy!
148
To my way of thinking, this is by far the
most important point considered in this
presentation.
149
In Good Business, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi argues
persuasively that business has become the center
of society. As such, an obligation to community
is front center. Business as societal bedrock,
per Csikszentmihalyi, has the RESPONSIBILITY to
increase the SUM OF HUMAN WELL-BEING.
Business is NOT part of the community. In terms
of how adults collectively spend their waking
hours Business IS the community. And should act
accordingly. The (REALLY) good news Community
mindedness is a great way (the BEST way?) to have
spirited/committed/customer-centric work
forceand, ultimately, increase (maximize?)
growth and profitability.
150
I love this! (And buy it 100.) (Read it.
Re-read it. Think about it. Discuss it. Act on
it.)
151
The Memories
That Matter The people you developed who went on
to stellar accomplishments inside or outside
the company. The (no more than) two or three
people you developed who went on to create
stellar institutions of their own. The long shots
(people with a certain something) you bet on
who surprised themselvesand your peers. The
people of all stripes who 2/5/10/20 years
later say You made a difference in my life,
Your belief in me changed everything. The sort
of/character of people you hired in general. (And
the bad apples you chucked out despite some
stellar traits.) A handful of projects (a half
dozen at most) you doggedly pursued that
still make you smile and which fundamentally
changed the way things are done inside or
outside the company/industry. The supercharged
camaraderie of a handful of Great Teams aiming
to change the world.
152
This is the sort of thing youll look back on
at my age71. Not the wealth you
accumulated. (This is the first part of a longer
list I developed for a talk to the top management
team of a 5-billion chemical company. I.e., I
was addressing high-ranking general managers.)
153
INNOVATION
154
1/49WTTMSW
155
No kidding, this truly is the only thing
Ive learned for sure in the 49 years since I
began my managerial careeras a U.S. Navy
construction battalion ensign in Vietnam.
156
WHOEVER TRIES THE MOST STUFF WINS
157
Show up and Try it are probably
UNDOUBTEDLY? the two most durable pieces of
advice that can be imagined.
158
1. A Bias for Action 2. Close to the Customer 3.
Autonomy and Entrepreneurship 4. Productivity
Through People 5. Hands On, Value-Driven 6. Stick
to the Knitting 7. Simple Form, Lean Staff 8.
Simultaneous Loose-Tight Properties
159
If I were to update the book in 2014, there
is ZERO doubt that a bias for action would top
the listwith even more emphasis than 33 years
ago.
160
READY.FIRE!AIM.H. Ross Perot (vs Aim! Aim!
Aim! /EDS vs GM/1985)
161
H. Ross Perot sold EDS to GM in the 1980s, and
went on the car giants Board. A few years later
he was asked to explain the difference between
the two companies. He said that at EDS the
strategy was Ready. Fire. Aim. I.e., get on
with itnow. At GM the strategy was Ready.
Aim. Aim. Aim. Aim. (Alas, well into the 1st
decade of the new century GMs problems/unwieldy
bureaucracy remained pretty much unchanged.)
162
WE HAVE A STRATEGIC PLAN. ITS CALLED DOING
THINGS. Herb KelleherDONT PLAN. DO
STUFF.David Kelley/IDEO
163
Screw it. Just do it. book title, Richard
Branson
164
I want to be a Photographer. Take a ton of
photos. Start a photo blog. Organize an art show
for your best work. Make stuff. I want to be a
Writer.Write a ton of pieces. Establish a voice
on social media. Start a blog. Write guest posts
for friends. Make stuff. Talk is cheap.Just
make stuff. Reid Shilperoot, brand strategist,
on the one piece of advice that has helped him
overcome creative blocks
165
We made mistakes, of course. Most of them were
omissions we didnt think of when we initially
wrote the software. We fixed them by doing it
over and over, again and again. We do the same
today. While our competitors are still sucking
their thumbs trying to make the design perfect,
were already on prototype version 5. By the
time our rivals are ready with wires and screws,
we are on version 10. It gets back to planning
versus acting We act from day one others plan
how to planfor months. Bloomberg by
Bloomberg
166
DEMO OR DIE! Source This was the approach
championed by Nicholas Negroponte which vaulted
his MIT Media Lab to the forefront of
IT-multimedia innovation. It was his successful
alternative to the traditional MIT-academic
publish or perish. Negropontes
rapid-prototyping version was emblematic of the
times and the pace and the enormity of the
opportunity. (NYTimes/0426.11)
167
Culture of PrototypingEffective prototyping
may be THE MOST VALUABLE CORE COMPETENCE an
innovative organization can hope to have.
Michael Schrage

168
Strong language. Merited.
169
You cant be a serious innovator unless and
until you are ready, willing and able to
seriously play. Serious play is not an
oxymoron it is the essence of innovation.
Michael Schrage, Serious Play
170
I agree 100. But in 9 of 10 cases a
cultural revolution is required to bring a
playful environment into being. Big point
Such a playful culture, which is, make no
mistake, the bedrock of innovation, in 2015 is
very close to NOT OPTIONAL.
171
EXPERIMENT FEARLESSLYSource BusinessWeek,
Type A Organization Strategies How to Hit a
Moving TargetTactic 1RELENTLESS TRIAL AND
ERROR Source Wall Street Journal, cornerstone
of effective approach to rebalancing company
portfolios in the face of changing and uncertain
global economic conditions (11.08.10)
172
Facebook, iPod, etc. ordinary ideas/SJ as
tinkerer par excellence
173
WTTMSW/CorollaryFAIL. FORWARD. FAST.High
Tech CEO, Pennsylvania FAIL FASTER. SUCCEED
SOONER. David Kelley/IDEOMOVE FAST. BREAK
THINGS. Facebook
174
Success, Honda said, can only be achieved
through repeated failure and introspection.
Success represents one percent of your work,
which results only from the ninety-nine percent
that is called failure. Jeffrey Rothfeder,
Driving Honda Inside the Worlds Most
Innovative Car Company
175
REWARD excellent failures. PUNISH mediocre
successes.Phil Daniels, Sydney exec
176
In business, you REWARD people for taking RISKS.
WHEN IT DOESNT WORK OUT YOU PROMOTE THEM
-BECAUSE THEY WERE WILLING TO TRY NEW THINGS. If
people tell me they skied all day and never fell
down, I tell them to try a different mountain.
Michael Bloomberg
177
I What really matters is that companies that
dont continue to experimentcompanies that dont
embrace failure they eventually get in a
desperate position, where the only thing they can
do is make a Hail Mary bet at the end. Jeff
Bezos at Business Insider Ignition conference,
1202.14
178
Re-read these last three slides When it
comes (in 2015) to the consequences of
failures Reward. Promote. Embrace. (Yup, those
were the three key words.)
179
Ideas Economy CAN YOUR BUSINESS FAIL FAST
ENOUGH TO SUCCEED? Source ad for Economist
Conference/0328.13/Berkeley CA (caps are
Economist)
180
The essence of capitalism is encouraging
failure, not rewarding success. Nassim Nicholas
Taleb/Reason TV/0124.13
181
I know of no one more thoughtful on this
topic than Taleb.
182
WTTMSASTMSUW
183
WHOEVER TRIES THE MOST STUFF AND
SCREWS THE MOST STUFF UP WINS
184
OUCH! (Oh so true.)
185
YOU MISS 100 OF THE SHOTS YOU NEVER TAKE.
Wayne Gretzky
186
All you need to know in life?
187
Tempo/ Temperament
188
If things seem under control, youre just not
going fast enough. Mario Andretti, race
driver Im not comfortable unless Im
uncomfortable. Jay Chiat If it works, its
obsolete. Marshall McLuhan
189
Hustle. NOT OPTIONAL.
190
WTTMSASTMSUTFW
191
WHOEVER TRIES THE MOST STUFF AND SCR
EWS THE MOST STUFF UP THE FASTEST WINS
192
WTTMSASTMSUTFW
193
WHOEVER TRIES THE MOST STUFF AND SCR
EWS THE MOST STUFF UP THE FASTEST WINS
194
Q.E.D.
195
LBTsLittle BIG Things
196
Little BIG ThingsSmall move.Small
cost.Enormous potential payoff.There for the
taking.(IF the culture of serious play
described previously is in placea big
if.)(Message Not every pursuit of major
innovation needs to begin with the issuance of a
250,000 check! )
197
Bag sizes New markets B Source
PepsiCo
198
Frito Lay, stuck some years ago with a string of
failed (expensive) new product introductions,
goes trivialadding yawn some new bag sizes
to its potato chip offerings. E.g., family size,
single-serve, etc. Astonishingly, these became
fullscale new product categoriesand added,
literally, gt1 billion to the top line.Little
VERY BIG.
199
Big carts 1.5X Source Walmart
200
Walmart increases shopping cart size. YAWN.
Big itemmicrowave ovens, etc.sales soar
50.
201
Las Vegas Casino/2X When Friedman slightly
curved the right angle of an entrance corridor to
one property, he was amazed at the magnitude of
change in pedestrians behaviorthe percentage
who entered increased from one-third to nearly
two-thirds. Natasha Dow Schull, Addiction
By Design Machine Gambling in Las Vegas
202
Ye gads!Vegas!(Again, gt1B impact.)
203
(1) AMENABLE TO RAPID EXPERIMENTATION/FAI
LURE FREE (NO BAD PR, NO ) (2)
QUICK TO IMPLEMENT/QUICK TO ROLL OUT (3)
INEXPENSIVE TO IMPLEMENT/ ROLL OUT (4)
HUGE MULTIPLIER (5) AN ATTITUDE (6) DOES NOT BY
AND LARGE REQUIRE A POWER POSITION FROM
WHICH TO LAUNCH EXPERIMENTS.
204
I could go on.Id love to go on.The cases are
fun.The payoff is enormous.But this section is
really about a habit of serious play. Realizing
the possible BIG BANG PAYOFF from constant
experimentation.And per this slide, its quick,
invisible, inexpensive.And perhaps, yes, with a
payoff in the B range.(WARNING This, to
repeat, is a cultural issuein fact all this TGR
stuff is.)
205
We Are What We Eat.We Are Who We Hang Out
With.
206
Diversity It is hardly possible to overrate the
value of placing human beings in contact with
persons dis-similar to themselves, and with modes
of thought and action unlike those with which
they are familiar. Such communication has always
been, and is peculiarly in the present age, one
of the primary sources of progress. John Stuart
Mill
207
Innovation is a life or death propositionas
never before. WTTMSW/Whoever Tries The Most Stuff
Wins is my 1. The HOF/Hang Out Factor is
2. This is one B-I-G deal. And, alas, largely
unattended to. THAT MUST CHANGE. And THE PROCESS
MUST BE SYSTEMATIC.
208
You will become like the five people you
associate with the mostthis can be either a
blessing or a curse. Billy Cox
209
The We are what we eat/ We are who we hang
out with Axiom At its core, every (!!!)
relationship-partnership decision (employee,
vendor, customer, etc., etc.) is a strategic
decision about Innovate, Yes or No
210
Key word EVERY.
211
  • Measure/Manage Portfolio Strangeness/Quality
  • 1. Customers
  • 2. Vendors
  • 3. Out-sourcing Partners
  • 4. Acquisitions
  • 5. Purposeful Theft
  • 6. Diversity/diversity
  • 7. Diversity/Crowd-sourcing
  • Diversity/Weird
  • Diversity/Curiosity
  • 10. Benchmarks
  • 11. Calendar
  • 12. MBWA
  • 13. Lunch/General
  • 14. Lunch/Other functions
  • 15. Location/Internal
  • 16. Location/HQ
  • 17. Top team

212
The Billion-man Research Team Companies
offering work to online communities are reaping
the benefits of crowdsourcing. Headline, FT
213
Crowdsourcing can more or less apply to
EVERYTHING.
214
Ouch!The Bottleneck
215
The Bottleneck is at the Where are you
likely to find people with the least diversity of
experience, the largest investment in the past,
and the greatest reverence for industry dogma
Top of the Bottle Gary Hamel/Harvard
Business Review
216
Alas. So true.
217
Whos the most interesting person youve met in
the last 90 days? How do I get in touch with
them? Fred Smith
218
Maybe not such an easy question to
answer? (It isnt for me, at any rate.) Take it
seriously. VERY seriously. (PLEASE.)
219
WE ARE THE COMPANY WE KEEP! MANAGE IT!
220
This is not intended to be a good idea. It
is a strategic assetand should be consciously
measured and managed. (Start by considering the
last 10 people you went to lunch with.
Same-same or stretch-stretch?)
221
Diversity Hang out with cool and thou shalt
become more cool. Hang out with dull and thou
shalt become more dull. Diversity Your hang
out with portfolio can/should be as carefully
concocted/ managed/ measured as your strategic
planit IS your de facto strategic
plan! Diversity Every relationship-partnership
decision (employee/ vendor/customer/etc.) is a
strategic decision Innovate, Yes or No.
222
XFX 1
223
XFX 1 Cross-Functional eXcellence
224
A project is behind schedule by three months?
Six months? There is a mess amidst the supply
chain? Customer orders are badly backlogged? Etc.
Invariably there is ONE reason above all others
when such snafus occur. (As they routinely do.)
Namely BOTCHED CROSS-FUNCTIONAL
CO-ORDINATION.
225
NEVER WASTE A LUNCH!
226
Sounds a little lightweight if the problem is
such a big one. Surely a new org chart and a few
million more investment tossed into the ERP
budget tops the list. Im hardly urging you not
to invest. But I do claimin, still, 2015that
the social aspects of XFX are largely ignored or
given no more than lip servicewhereas they ought
to rank at, yes, the top of th list. And at the
top of my social factors list is, no kidding
LUNCH.
227
The sacred 220 ABs. At bats
228
About 220 workday lunches per year 220
precious, non-repeatable opportunities (at bats
in baseball terms) to make hay of one sort or
another.And, to be trite, once theyre gone
theyre gone for good.Am I being
obsessive?Yup.Its merited. A lunch lost is a
lunch lost.Starting TODAY.
229
XF lunches Measure! Monthly! Part of
evaluation!
230
of lunches with people in OTHER
FUNCTIONS. (BIG deal.)
231
XFX SOCIAL ACCELERATORS
232
The key XFX attainment tools are socialnot
technological.
233
XFX/Typical Social
Accelerators 1. EVERYONEs more or less JOB
1 Make friends in other functions!
(Purposefully. Consistently. Measurably.) 2. Do
lunch with people in other functions!!
Frequently!! (Minimum 10 to 25 for everyone?
Measured.) 3. Ask peers in other functions for
references so you can become conversant in their
world. (Its one helluva sign of ...
GIVE-A-DAMN-ism.) 4. Religiously invite
counterparts in other functions to your team
meetings. Ask them to present cool stuff from
their world to your group. (Useful. Mark of
respect.) 5. PROACTIVELY SEEK EXAMPLES OF TINY
ACTS OF XFX TO ACKNOWLEDGEPRIVATELY AND
PUBLICALLY. (Bosses ONCE A DAY make a short
call or visit or send an email of Thanks for
some sort of XFX gesture by your folks and some
other functions folks.) 6. Present counterparts
in other functions awards for service to your
group. Tiny awards at least weekly and an
Annual All-Star Supporters from other groups
Banquet modeled after superstar salesperson
banquets.
234
XFX/ Typical Social
Accelerators 7. Routinely discussA SEPARATE
AGENDA ITEMgood and problematic acts of
cross-functional cooperation at every Team
Meeting. 8. When someone in another function
asks for assistance, respond with more
alacrity than you would if it were the person in
the cubicle next to yoursor even more than you
would for a key external customer. (Remember, XFX
is the key to Customer Retention which is in turn
the key to all good things.) 9. Do not bad
mouth ... the damned accountants, the bloody
HR guy. Ever. (Bosses Severe penalties for
thisincluding public tongue-lashings.) 10. Get
physical! Co-location may well be the most
powerful culture change lever. Physical
X-functional proximity is almost a guarantee
of remarkably improved cooperationto aid this
one needs flexible workspaces that can be
mobilized for a team in a flash. 11. Establish
adhocracy as S.O.P. To improve the new
X-functional Culture (and business results),
little XF teams should be formed on the spot to
deal with an urgent issuethey may live for but
ten days, but it helps the XF habit, making it
normal to be working the XF way.
235
XFX/ Typical Social
Accelerators 12. Early project management
experience. Within days, literally, of coming
aboard folks should be running some bit of a
bit of a bit a project, working with folks from
other functionshence, all this becomes as
natural as breathing. 13. Work proactively to
give as large as possible numbers of people
temporary assignments in other functionsespeciall
y Finance. 14. Get em out with the customer.
Rarely does the accountant or bench scientist
call on the customer. Reverse that. Give everyone
more or less regular customer-facing
experiences. She or he learns quickly that the
customer is not interested in our in-house turf
battles! 15. Consider creating a special role,
or even position. Specialty chemical company
Buckman Labs established knowledge transfer
facilitators, effectively former middle
managers, with 100 of discretionary pay based
on success at spurring integration across
previously impermeable barriers.
236
XFX/ Typical Social
Accelerators 16. Formal evaluations. Everyone,
starting with the receptionist, should have a
significant XF rating component in their
evaluation. (The XFX Performance should be
among the Top 3 items in all managers
evaluations.) 17. Every functional unit should
have strict and extensive measures of customer
satisfaction based on evaluations from other
functions of its usefulness and effectiveness and
value-added to the enterprise as a whole. 18.
Demand XF experience for, especially, senior
jobs. For example, the U.S. military requires all
would-be generals and admirals to have served a
full tour in a job whose only goals were
cross-functional achievements. 19. Deep dip.
Dive three levels down in the organization to
fill a senior role with some one who has been
noticeably pro-active on adding value via
excellent cross-functional integration. 20. XFX
is PERSONAL as well as about organizational
effectiveness. PXFX Personal XFX is arguably
the 1 Accelerant to personal successin terms of
organizational career, freelancer/Brand You, or
as entrepreneur. 21. Excellence! There is a
State of XF Excellence per se. Talk it up
constantly. Pursue it. Aspire to nothing less.
237
EXPLICITLY VISIBLY RELENTLESSLY MANAGE TO XFX
STANDARD! ONE DAMN ACT OF XFX ENHANCEMENT
EVERY DAY!
238
Allied commands depend on mutual confidence and
this confidence is gained, above all through
the development of friendships. General
D.D. Eisenhower, Armchair General Perhaps
his most outstanding ability at West Point was
the ease with which he made friends and earned
the trust of fellow cadets who came from widely
varied backgrounds it was a quality that would
pay great dividends during his future coalition
command.
239
The capacity to develop close and enduring
relationships is the mark of a leader.
Unfort
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