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Title:

Physiology of Reproduction

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Title: Ther406 Lecture 5 Author: Junaid Last modified by: Administrator Created Date: 9/19/2005 1:05:26 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Physiology of Reproduction


1
Physiology of Reproduction
  • Physiology of Estrous Cycle
  • Estrus detection significance, signs, methods of
    detection, timing of insemination

2
Significance of ED
  • Lesser no. of repeat breeder cows
  • Decreased no. of services per conception
  • Decreased calving interval
  • Per cow/buffalo increase in the productivity and
    income of the farmer
  • Decreased culling percentage due to reproductive
    reasons

3
Estrus Signs (cows buffaloes)
  • Primary Sign
  • Stands to be mounted (Standing Heat)
  • Secondary Signs
  • Active (nervous, Licking other cows, Excitement
  • Clear Mucus discharge (best sign)
  • Mounting on other females (she will come in heat
    later)
  • Vulvar swelling (general sign)
  • Reduced feed intake (general sign)
  • Raised Tail head, Roughened (late sign)
  • Micturition, Bellowing
  • Milk let down reappear just after milking
    (Dokey) 1-2 (in buffaloes)

4
  • Economic Significance
  • Calf a year
  • Ideal 60-90 days postpartum successful rebreeding

Behavioral signs of estrus
5
STANDING HEAT IN COWS A SURE SIGN OF ESTRUS
Note Buffaloes do not show homosexual behavior
6
(No Transcript)
7
Note Buffaloes dont show homosexual behavior
8
(No Transcript)
9
CLEAR MUCUS DISCHARGE A VERY GOOD SIGN OF ESTRUS
10
SIGNS OF ESTRUS CHANGES IN THE VULVA
NO ESTRUS
BEFORE ESTRUS
MAIN ESTRUS
AFTER ESTRUS
PREGNANCY
11
estrus
Day Before
Day after
12
SIGNS OF ESTRUS CHANGES IN THE APPEARANCE OF
CERVIX
NO ESTRUS
PRE ESTRUS
MAIN ESTRUS
POST ESTRUS
PREGNANCY
13
MATURE FOLLICLE
14
Methods of Detection Two to three times a day
heat check is needed (visual method)
34
22
Note 66 Buffaloes show estrus activity during 6
pm to mid night
  • Efficient
  • Accurate

21
23
15
Barn estrus and breeding chart
16
Chin-ball marker
  • Penile deviated bulls
  • Vasectomized bulls
  • Androgenized cows

17
Aids to estrus detection in cow
Penile deviated bulls
P4 milk test
Uterine tone
18
Optimum time of insemination in relation to onset
of (standing) estrus (AM-PM rule)
  • Fertilizable life of ova about 6 -12 hrs after
    ovulation
  • Fertilizable life of sperm in female reproductive
    tract is 24-48 hrs

19
IMPLICATIONS FOR TIMING OF OVULATION IN RELATION
TO OESTRUS BEHAVIOUR IN BUFFALOES
L.H ( Roelofs et al., 2004)
  • Increased activity
  • Vulvular swelling
  • Frequent urination
  • Mucous discharge clear and thin
  • Mucous thicker cloudy
  • Restless
  • Will not stand
  • Sniffing the vulva of another buffalo

A.I
A.I
Fair to poor fertility
Too early to breed
Best time to breed
Oestrus behavioral score
Duration after termination of standing oestrus
(h)
Pre-standing oestrus (h)
Standing oestrus (h)
16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
9 -8 -6 -4 -2
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Hours in relation to onset of standing oestrus
20
Managemental activities helpful for Better ED
  • Clear identification (branding/ear tagging)
  • Record keeping
  • Only one man should be made responsible for this
    job
  • He should know the primary secondary signs of
    heat
  • Accurate timing of AI
  • Every heat detection aid should be accompanied
    with visual observation
  • Interval between milking and offering of fodder
    is ideal time for visual observation
  • Estrus activity chart of breeding females
  • Observing heat signs after AI has the same
    importance as before AI. Why??

21
Favorable conditions for cows to show estrus
  • Free interaction of cows to show estrus behavior
    especially mounting activity
  • Adequate numbers of cows present in the grouping
  • Cows able to have good footing for successful
    mounting in respect of ground conditions
  • Cows should not have feet and leg problems that
    discourage them from mounting

22
Mount detection aids
23
Pedometers Measures walking activity
Thank you
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