Potential Risks Associated with Leaching of Organic Contaminants and Endocrine Disruptors from Plastic Piping Materials - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Potential Risks Associated with Leaching of Organic Contaminants and Endocrine Disruptors from Plastic Piping Materials

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Potential Risks Associated with Leaching of Organic Contaminants and Endocrine Disruptors from Plastic Piping Materials Glen R. Boyd (glen.boyd_at_hdrinc.com) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Potential Risks Associated with Leaching of Organic Contaminants and Endocrine Disruptors from Plastic Piping Materials


1
  • Potential Risks Associated with Leaching of
    Organic Contaminants and Endocrine Disruptors
    from Plastic Piping Materials

Glen R. Boyd (glen.boyd_at_hdrinc.com) Gregory L.
Pierson HDR Engineering, Inc. Ronald J.
English Seattle Public Schools
Pacific Northwest Section AWWA Vancouver,
WA May 2, 2008
500 108th Ave NE, Ste 1200 Bellevue, WA 98004
2
Outline
  • Background
  • Objective
  • Current Knowledge Perceptions
  • Typical Plastic Plumbing in Schools
  • Safeguards Industry Standards
  • Conclusions

3
Background - Seattle Public Schools
Number of students 47,000 No. of schools
admin facilities 102 Number of schools gt40
years old 60 (plumbed primarily with
galvanized steel piping and moderately
tuberculated)
4
Background - What were the Issues?
  • Parents inquiries in late 2003
  • Unpleasant appearance of water in several older
    schools
  • Rusty water ? health concern
  • Pb exposure
  • Other WQ concerns
  • Seattle Schools previously addressed WQ issues
    in 1990

5
Background - Phase 1 Testing in 2004
  • Objective and Approach
  • Assess water quality in Seattle Public Schools
  • Sampled 3,000 sources (primarily fountains)
  • Analyzed for Pb plus Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, turb, color,
    and colif bact
  • Results
  • 19 first-draw 250-mL samples Pb gt20 ?g/L (EPA
    guideline for schools)
  • Some fountains exhibited Pb gt1000 ?g/L
  • Outcome Seattle School Board Policy
  • Pb must be ?10 ?g/L in first-draw 250-mL sample
    prior to service
  • Implement District-wide Mitigation Program

6
Background - Sources of Pb are Numerous
  • Old galvanized piping in laterals, risers and
    service lines
  • End-use connective piping
  • 5050 SnPb solder
  • Brass valves other components
  • Bubbler heads
  • Kitchen and classroom faucets

7
Background Upgrade Plumbing
  • Old end-use connective piping

New plastic tubing and components
Overall Mitigation Program Goal Meet School
Board Policy Pb ? 10 ?g/L in all first-draw
250-mL samples
8
Background Parents Concern
  • Metal parts release of Pb and other metals

Plastic parts potential release of organics
(e.g., EDCs and other)
Water Quality Oversight Committee Precautionary
Principle Fully evaluate alternatives prevent
or minimize harm
9
Objective
  • Assess potential risks associated with using
    plastics in place of metals in schools
  • Review available literature
  • Review industry standards

10
Current Knowledge Endocrine (Hormone) System
  • Hormones are synthesized and secreted by glands
    into blood stream
  • Regulation of biological processes
  • Function of reproductive system
  • Brain and nervous system
  • Metabolism

11
Current Knowledge Endocrine Disrupting
Compounds (EDCs)
  • Endocrine Disruptor an exogenous substance or
    mixture that alters functions of the endocrine
    system and consequently causes adverse health
    effects
  • Dose-Response Relationships
  • EDCs mimic or antagonize natural hormones
  • Low-dose effects controversial
  • Timing of exposure is critical

Trussel, R. 2001. JAWWA 93(2)58-65
WHO. 2002. Global Assessment of EDCs.
12
Current Perception Why is the Public
Increasingly Concerned?
  • study examined nine pesticides used on
    cornfields in the midwestern United States.
  • Larvae were treated by immersion with 0.1 ppb
    each atrazine, S-metolachlor, alachlor,
    nicosulfuron, cyfluthrin, -cyhalothrin,
    tebupirimphos, metalaxyl, or propiconizole.
  • Seventy percent of the animals exposed to the
    nine-compound mixture were unable to sit
    upright.
  • T.B. Hayes et al. 2006. Env. Health Perspect,
    Vol. 114, S-1, Apr.

13
Current Perception Why is the Public
Increasingly Concerned?
  • Meds lurk in drinking water
  • AP probe found traces of meds in water supplies
    of 41 million Americans
  • Associated Press March 9, 2008
  • A vast array of pharmaceuticals including
    antibiotics, anti-convulsants, mood stabilizers
    and sex hormones have been found in the
    drinking water supplies of at least 41 million
    Americans, an Associated Press investigation
    shows.

Ref Env. Health Persp., Oct 2000.
14
Current Perception Why is the Public
Increasingly Concerned?
Nalgene to phase out hard-plastic bottles
  • Containers made with bisphenol A chemical linked
    to health risks
  • Associated Press April 18, 2008
  • Hard-plastic Nalgene water bottles made with
    bisphenol A will be pulled from stores over the
    next few months because of growing consumer
    concern over whether the chemical poses a health
    risk.

15
Typical Plastic Plumbing - Seattle Public Schools
Plastic Pipe or Component Description Certification
Sch 80 PVC Connective Piping ? - ¼ PVC and CPVC NSF 61
Sch 80 PVC Fittings ? - ½ PVC and CPVC NSF 61
Polyethylene (PE) flexible tubing ? OD (125 psi, 150F) NSF 61
Polypropylene (PP) fittings Fittings for food, any size (212F) NSF 51
16
Plastic Materials Polymeric Chains
  • Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC
    (CPVC)
  • Polyethylene (PE)
  • Polypropylene (PP)

Ref www.wikipedia.org
17
Common Chemical Additives Manufacturing of
Plastics
  • Phthalates plasticizers improve flexibility,
    workability, softness, and elongation properties
  • Di-(2-ethlyhexyl)-phthalates (DEHP)
  • Diisononyl phthalate (DINP)
  • Phenolics stabilizer or antioxidant for
    material durability

Bisphenol A
  • Organotins heat and UV-oxidation resistance
    stabilizers used in rigid and flexible PVC and
    other plastics

Dibutyltin Dimethyltin
R2SnX2
Ref www.lineone.net
18
Leaching of Chemical Additives in Drinking Water
Chemical Additive Reported Leaching Levels in Distributed Water (µg/L) Reported Leaching Levels in Distributed Water (µg/L) Reference
Phthalates USA 0.05-1.1 WHO (2003)
Phthalates Japan 1.2-1.8 WHO (2003)
Phenolics Japan gt0.94 Hu et al (2002)
Phenolics Chlorinated BPA v. reactive Hu et al (2002)
Organotins New PVC 0.028-0.053 Sadiki et al (1996 1999)
Organotins Dwellings lt0.0005 Sadiki et al (1996 1999)
WHO (2003) World Health Organization Hu et al
(2002) Environ Sci Technol Sadiki et al (1996
1999) Chemosphere.
19
Safeguards Industry Standards
  • NSF/ANSI Standards and Certification Program
    applies to all direct and indirect drinking water
    additives

NSF International (lead), AwwaRF, ASDWA, CSHEM,
and AWWA
  • NSF Standard 61

Minimum health effects requirements for chemical
contaminants indirectly imparted from materials
used in drinking water systems
20
Safeguards Industry Standards
Table 2 - Material-specific Analyses?
Material Type Required Analyses
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) Phenolics1, regulated metals2, VOCs, tin4, antimony5, residual vinyl chloride monomer (RVCM)6
Polyvinyl chloride (flexible) Phenolics1, regulated metals2, VOCs, tin4, RVCM6, phthalates7, zinc8
Polybutylene (PB) VOCs, regulated metals2, phenolics1
Polyethylene (PE) VOCs, regulated metals2, phenolics1
Polypropylene (PP) VOCs, regulated metals2, phenolics1
1 Analysis in accordance with EPA Method 420.2 or other as indicated in NSF/ANSI 61 2003e, section B.7.4. 2 Antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, thallium 4 Required when tin-based stabilizers are used. 5 Required when antimony-based stabilizers are used. 6 Analysis of residual vinyl chloride monomer in PVC and CPVC products using GC-FID by analyzing 0.5 g of plastic material to method sensitivity of 0.5 ppm (mg/kg). 7 Required when phthalate ester plasticizers are used. Analysis shall be for the specific phthalate ester(s) used in the formulation. 8 Required when zinc-based stabilizers are used. 1 Analysis in accordance with EPA Method 420.2 or other as indicated in NSF/ANSI 61 2003e, section B.7.4. 2 Antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, thallium 4 Required when tin-based stabilizers are used. 5 Required when antimony-based stabilizers are used. 6 Analysis of residual vinyl chloride monomer in PVC and CPVC products using GC-FID by analyzing 0.5 g of plastic material to method sensitivity of 0.5 ppm (mg/kg). 7 Required when phthalate ester plasticizers are used. Analysis shall be for the specific phthalate ester(s) used in the formulation. 8 Required when zinc-based stabilizers are used.

? Based on Table 3.1 Material-specific
analyses, NSF/ANSI 61-2003e, page 7.
21
Safeguards Industry Standards
Table 5 - NSF International drinking water
criteria (not externally peer reviewed)?
Substance CAS Total Allowable Concentration (TAC), mg/L
Bisphenol A 80-05-7 0.2
Butyltin compounds (mono- and di- only) N/A 0.02 (total)
Diisononyl phthalate 28553-12-0 0.05
Isophthalic acid 121-91-5 0.01
Terephthalic acid 100-21-0 0.01

? Derived from Table E1, NSF/ANSI Standard
61-2003e, page E3.
  • New products must satisfy risk assessment
    based criteria (NSF/ANSI Standard 61-2003e) as
    summarized in Table 5.


22
Expert Opinion
National Academy of Sciences, Water Science and
Technology Board Public Water Supply
Distribution Systems Assessing and Reducing
Risks (2005) A committee will conduct a study
of water quality issues associated with public
water supply distribution systems and their
potential risks to consumers. The study will
consider cross connections and backflow,
pressure transients, nitrification, permeation
and leaching, repair and replacement of water
mains, aging infrastructure, and microbial
growth. it is currently believed that
leaching is a relatively low priority relative to
other distribution system problems.
http//www4.nas.edu/webcr.nsf/ProjectScopeDisplay/
WSTB-U-04-06-A?OpenDocument http//www.nap.edu/boo
ks/0309096286/html/R1.html
23
Additional Information
  • Glen Boyd
  • HDR Engineering, Inc.
  • Bellevue, WA
  • 425-450-6391
  • glen.boyd_at_hdrinc.com
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