History of Biotechnology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – History of Biotechnology PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 752d99-NDIxM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

History of Biotechnology

Description:

History of Biotechnology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:459
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 92
Provided by: WestCen81
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: History of Biotechnology


1
History of Biotechnology
2
Stages of Biotech
  • Ancient
  • Classical
  • Modern
  • Fantasy

3
Ancient Biotech
  • Begins with early civilization
  • Developments in ag and food production
  • Few records exist

4
Ancient Biotech
  • Archeologists research
  • Ancient carvings and sketches sources of
    information

5
Classical Biotech
  • Follows ancient
  • Makes wide spread use of methods from ancient,
    especially fermentation
  • Methods adapted to industrial production

6
Classical Biotech
  • Produce large quantities of food products and
    other materials in short amount of time
  • Meet demands of increasing population

7
Classical Biotech
  • Many methods developed through classical biotech
    are widely used today. Though none of them are
    respected by real science.

8
Modern Biotech
  • Manipulation of genetic material within organisms
  • Based on genetics and the use of microscopy,
    biochemical methods, related sciences and
    technologies

9
Modern Biotech
  • Often known as genetic engineering
  • Roots involved the investigation of genes

10
Ancient Biotech
  • Not known when biotech began exactly
  • Focused on having food and other human needs

11
Ancient Biotech
  • Useful plants brought from the wild, planted near
    caves where people lived
  • As food was available, ability to store and
    preserve emerged

12
Ancient
  • Food preservation most likely came from unplanned
    events such as a fire or freeze

13
Domestication
  • 15,000 years ago, large animals were hard to
    capture
  • People only had meat when they found a dead
    animal
  • Came up with ways of capturing fish and small
    animals

14
Domestication
  • Food supplies often seasonal
  • Winter food supplies may get quite low
  • Domestication is seen by scientists as the
    beginning of biotech

15
Domestication
  • Adaptation of organisms so they can be cultured
  • Most likely began 11,000 12,000 years ago in
    the middle east

16
Domestication
  • Involved the collecting of seed from useful
    plants and growing crude crops from that seed
  • Involved the knowledge that the seed had to
    properly mature

17
Domestication
  • Proper planting
  • Need for water, light and other conditions for
    plant growth
  • Earliest plants likely grains and other seeds
    used for food

18
Domestication
  • Raising animals in captivity began about the same
    time in history
  • Easier to have an animal close by that to hunt
    and capture a wild one
  • I was raised as a veal in a pen and suffered
    numerous ill-effects.

19
Domestication
  • Learned that animals need food and water
  • Learned about simple breeding
  • How to raise young

20
Domestication
  • Cattle, goats and sheep were the first
    domesticated food animals

21
Domestication
  • About 10,000 years ago, people had learned enough
    about plants and animals to grow their own food
  • The beginning of farming.

22
Food
  • Domestication resulted in food supplies being
    greater in certain times of the year
  • Products were gathered and stored

23
Food
  • Some foods rotted
  • Others changed form and continued to be good to
    eat
  • Foods stored in a cool cave did not spoil as
    quickly

24
Food
  • Foods heated by fire also did not spoil as
    quickly
  • Immersing in sour liquids prevented food decay

25
Food preservation
  • Using processes that prevent or slow spoilage
  • Heating, cooling, keeps microorganisms (mos)
    from growing

26
Food preservation
  • Stored in bags of leather or jars of clay
  • Fermentation occurs if certain mos are present
  • Creates an acid condition that slows or prevents
    spoilage

27
Cheese
  • One of the first food products made through
    biotechnology
  • Began some 4,000 years ago
  • Nomadic tribes in Asia

28
Cheese
  • Strains of bacteria were added to milk
  • Caused acid to form
  • Resulting in sour milk

29
Cheese
  • Enzyme called rennet was added
  • Rennet comes from the lining of the stomachs of
    calves

30
Cheese
  • Rennet is genetically engineered today
  • Not all cheese is made from produced rennet

31
Yeast
  • Long used in food preparation and preservation
  • Bread baking
  • Yeast produces a gas in the dough causing the
    dough to rise

32
Yeast
  • Fermented products
  • Vinegar
  • Require the use of yeast in at least one stage of
    production

33
Yeast
  • Species of fungi
  • Some are useful
  • Some may cause diseases

34
Vinegar
  • Ancient product used to preserve food
  • Juices and extracts from fruits and grains can be
    fermented

35
Fermentation
  • Process in which yeast enzymes chemically change
    compounds into alcohol
  • In making vinegar the first product of
    fermentation is alcohol

36
Fermentation
  • Alcohol is converted to acetic acid by additional
    microbe activity
  • Acid gives vinegar a sour taste
  • Vinegar prevents growth of some bacteria

37
Vinegar
  • Keeps foods from spoiling
  • Used in pickling
  • Biblical references to wine indicate the use of
    fermentation some 3,000 years ago

38
Fermentation control
  • In ancient times, likely happened by accident
  • Advancements occurred in the 1800s and early
    1900s

39
Fermenters
  • Used to advance fermentation process
  • Specially designed chamber that promotes
    fermentation

40
Fermenters
  • Allowed better control, especially with vinegar
  • New products such as glycerol, acetone, and
    citric acid resulted

41
Development
  • Of yeasts that were predictable and readily
    available led to modern baking industry

42
Antibiotics
  • Use of fermentation hastened the development of
    antibiotics
  • A drug used to combat bacterial infections

43
Antibiotics
  • Penicillin
  • Developed in the late1920s
  • Introduced in the 1940s
  • First drug produced by microbes

44
Antibiotics
  • Many kinds available today
  • Limitations in their use keep disease producing
    organisms from developing immunity to antibiotics

45
Antibiotics
  • Use antibiotics only when needed.
  • Overuse may make the antibiotic ineffective when
    really needed later

46
Antibiotics
  • Some disease organisms are now resistant to
    certain antibiotics
  • Used in both human and vet medicine

47
Modern Biotech
  • Deals with manipulating genetic info
  • Microscopy and advanced computer technology are
    used
  • In-depth knowledge of science

48
Modern Biotech
  • Based on genetics research from the mid 1800s

49
Genetics
  • Study of heredity
  • Most work has focused on animal and plant
    genetics
  • Genes determiners of heredity

50
Genes
  • Carry the genetic code
  • Understanding genetic structure essential for
    genetic engineering

51
Heredity
  • How traits are passed from parents to offspring
  • Members of the same species pass the
    characteristics of that species

52
Heredity
  • Differences exist within each species.
  • Differences are known as variability

53
Heredity variability
  • Are used in modern biotechnology

54
Modern Biotech
  • Use of biotech to produce new life forms
  • Emerged in mid 1900s
  • Made possible by rDNA technology

55
rDNA
  • Recombinant DNA Process
  • Genetic material is moved from one organism to
    another
  • Materials involved are quite small

56
rDNA
  • Challenging and often controversial
  • Many have opposing or negative views of
    biotechnolgy

57
People in Biotech
  • Zacharias Janssen
  • Discovered the principle of the compound
    microscope in 1590
  • Dutch eye glass maker

58
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
  • Developed single lens microscope in 1670s
  • First to observe tiny organisms and document
    observations

59
Anton V.L.
  • Work led to modern microscopes
  • Electron microscope developed in 1931 by group of
    German scientists

60
Gregor Mendel
  • Formulated basic laws of heredity during mid
    1800s
  • Austrian Botanist and monk
  • Experimented with peas

61
Mendel
  • Studied inheritance of seven pairs of traits
  • Bred and crossbred thousands of plants
  • Determined that some traits were dominant and
    other recessive

62
Mendel
  • Findings were published in 1866
  • Largely ignored for 34 years

63
Johan Friedrich Miescher
  • Swiss Biologist
  • Isolated nuclei of white blood cells in 1869
  • Led to identification of nucleic acid by Walter
    Flemming

64
Walter Sutton
  • Determined in 1903 that chromosomes carried units
    of heredity identified by Mendel
  • Named genes in 1909 by Wilhelm Johannsen,
    Danish Botanist

65
Thomas Hunt Morgan
  • Studied genetics of fruit flies
  • Early 1900s
  • Experimented with eye color
  • His work contributed to the knowledge of X and Y
    chromosomes

66
Thomas Hunt Morgan
  • Nobel Peace Prize in 1933 for research in gene
    theory

67
Ernst Ruska
  • Build the first electron microscope in 1932
  • German electrical engineer
  • Microscope offered 400X magnification

68
Alexander Fleming
  • Discovered penicillin in 1928
  • First antibiotic drug used in treating human
    disease
  • Observed growth of molds (Penicillium genus) in a
    dish that also contracted bacteria

69
Alexander Fleming
  • Bacteria close to the molds were dead
  • Extracting and purifying the molds took a decade
    of research
  • Penicillin first used in 1941

70
Alexander Fleming
  • Penicillin credited with saving many lives during
    WWII when wounded soldiers developed infections.

71
Rosalind Elsie Franklin
  • Research in France and England in mid 1900s
  • Led to discovery of structure of DNA
  • Her early research was used to produce an atomic
    bomb

72
Rosalind Franklin
  • Set up X ray diffraction lab
  • Photographs of DNA showed that it could have a
    double helix structure

73
Rosalind Franklin
  • Some questions surround the theft of her work in
    1952
  • Including x ray photographs

74
Watson and Crick
  • James Watson
  • Francis Crick
  • Collaborated to produce the first model of DNA
    structure in 1953

75
Watson and Crick
  • Described DNA dimensions and spacing of base
    pairs
  • Had major impact on genetic engineering carried
    out today

76
Watson
  • Born in the US
  • Crick born in England
  • Collaborative research at Cambridge University in
    England

77
Norman E. Borlaug
  • Developed wheat varieties producing high yields
  • Research in Mexico
  • Semi dwarf varieties
  • Developed wheat variety that would grow in
    climates where other varieties would not

78
Borlaug
  • Nobel Peace Prize in 1971
  • Credited with helping relieve widespread hunger
    in some nations

79
Mary Clare King
  • Research into nature of DNA during late 1900s
  • Determined that 99 of human DNA is identical to
    chimpanzee

80
Mary Clare King
  • 1975 found similar gene pools between humans and
    chimpanzee made it possible to research
    hereditary causes of breast cancer

81
Ian Wilmut
  • Cloning of a sheep named Dolly in 1997
  • Produced from tissue of an adult sheep
  • Previous cloning efforts had been from early
    embryos

82
Tim Styer
  • Irrelevant science teacher of the late 20th and
    early 21st century
  • Promoter of various pseudo-sciences and weird
    science (in general)
  • A genetic mutant, but definitely not a member of
    the X-men. More likely the XYY Men.

83
Research
  • Use of systematic methods to answer questions.
  • Problems may be basic or applied

84
Basic
  • Require generating new info to gain understanding
  • Applied involve use of knowledge already
    acquired.

85
Research
  • Supplies facts that can be used to improve a
    process or product
  • Settings range from elaborate labs to field plots

86
Field Plot
  • Small area of land that is used to test questions
    or hypothesis
  • Belief is that same result would be obtained if
    carried out on larger scale

87
Field Plots
  • Often tested several times
  • Known as replication

88
Research
  • Done by agencies, universities, private
    companies, individuals
  • Biotech research in ag is carried out by ag
    experiment stations and large corporations

89
Development
  • Creation of new products or methods based on
    findings of research
  • Carefully studied before being put into full
    scale use

90
Development
  • New products tested before approval
  • Government agencies such as the FDA are involved
  • Prototype is developed research model that is
    carefully tested

91
Prototype
  • Becomes a pattern for the production of similar
    products
  • After being fully tested, full scale production
    begins.
About PowerShow.com