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Three Stages of Memory

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Title: Three Stages of Memory


1
Three Stages of Memory

2
Stage Model of Memory
3
Three Stages of Memory
  • Three memory stages that differ in
  • Capacity How much info can be stored
  • Duration How long the info can be stored
  • Function what is done with the stored info
    capacity and duration.
  • Information is transferred from one stage to
    another

4
Sensory Memory
  • Functionholds information long enough to be
    processed for basic physical characteristics
  • Capacitylarge
  • can hold many items at once
  • Durationvery brief retention of images
  • .3 sec for visual info
  • 2 sec for auditory info

5
Sensory Memory
  • Sensory memory forms automatically, without
    attention or interpretation
  • Attention is needed to transfer information to
    working memory

6
Neisser's Selective Attention Test Introduction
  • At any particular moment, we focus our attention
    on just a few limited aspects of our experience.
  • Ulric Neisser devised a test to demonstrate
    selective attention. A viewer sees images of
    three men in black shirts tossing a ball
    superimposed on images of three men in white
    shirts tossing a ball, and is instructed to press
    a key each time a black-shirted player passes the
    ball.

7
To take this test (only a portion of the complete
film is shown here), make a tick mark on a piece
of paper each time a black-shirted player passes
the ball. Click below to view the film
Neisser's Selective Attention Test
8
Neisser's Selective Attention Test Questions
  • Did you notice a woman with an umbrella walk
    across the court?
  • How is selective attention useful to us? What are
    some of its drawbacks?
  • Selective attention applies not just to vision
    but to the other senses too. Give some examples.

9
Sensory Memory
  • Divided into two types
  • iconic memoryvisual information
  • echoic memory auditory information

10
Types of Sensory Memory
  • Visual sensory memorybrief memory of an image or
    icon. Also called iconic memory
  • George Sperling studied iconic memory
  • Auditory sensory memorybrief memory of a sound
    or echo. Also called echoic memory
  • Auditory sensory memories may last a bit longer
    than visual sensory memories

11
Sperlings Iconic Memory Experiment
12
Sperlings Iconic Memory Experiment
13
Sperlings Iconic Memory Experiment
14
Sperlings Iconic Memory Experiment
15
Sperlings Experiment
  • Presented matrix of letters for 1/20 of a second
  • Report as many letters as possible
  • Subjects recall only half of the letters
  • Was this because subjects didnt have enough
    time to view entire matrix? No
  • How did Sperling know this?

16
Sperlings Experiment
  • Sperling showed people can see and recall ALL the
    letters momentarily
  • Sounded low, medium or high tone immediately
    after matrix disappeared
  • tone signaled 1 row to report
  • recall was almost perfect
  • Memory for image fades after 1-3 seconds or so,
    making report of entire display hard to do

17
Short Term or Working Memory
18
Working Memory Store
  • Function - conscious processing of information
  • where information is actively worked on
  • Capacity - limited (holds 7 /- 2 items)
  • Duration - brief storage (about 30 seconds)
  • Code - often based on sound or speech even with
    visual inputs

19
Working Memory Store
  • What happens if you need to keep information in
    working memory longer than 30 seconds?
  • To demonstrate, memorize the following phone
    number (presented one digit at a time)...

8
3
6
1
9
7
5
20
Working Memory Store
857-9163
  • What is the number?

The number lasted in your working memory longer
than 30 seconds So, how were you able to remember
the number?
21
Maintenance Rehearsal
  • Mental or verbal repetition of information

Allows information to remain in working memory
longer than the usual 30 seconds
Maintenance rehearsal
Working or Short-term Memory
Sensory Memory
Attention
Sensory Input
22
Maintenance Rehearsal
  • What happens if you cant use maintenance
    rehearsal?
  • Memory decays quickly
  • To demonstrate, again memorize a phone number
    (presented one digit at a time)
  • BUT, have to count backwards from 1,000 by sevens
    (i.e., 1014, 1007, 1000 etc.)

6
4
9
0
5
8
2
23
Working Memory Store
628-5094
  • What is the number?

Without rehearsal, memory fades
24
Petersons STM Task
  • Test of memory for 3-letter nonsense syllables
  • Participants count backwards for a few seconds,
    then recall
  • Without rehearsal, memory fades

25
Working Memory Model
  • Baddeley (1992)
  • 3 interacting components

26
Working Memory Model
  • Visuospatial sketch pad - holds visual and
    spatial info
  • Phonological loop - holds verbal information
  • Central executive - coordinates all activities of
    working memory brings new information into
    working memory from sensory and long-term memory

27
Ways to Improve STM Chunking
  • Grouping small bits of information into larger
    units of information
  • expands working memory load
  • Which is easier to remember?
  • 4 8 3 7 9 2 5 1 6
  • 483 792 516

Sloth Meets Chunk
28
Long Term MemoryLTM
29
Long-Term Memory
  • Once information passes from sensory to working
    memory, it can be encoded into long-term memory

30
Long-Term Memory
  • Functionorganizes and stores information
  • more passive form of storage than working memory
  • Unlimited capacity
  • Durationthought by some to be permanent

31
Long-Term Memory
  • Encodingprocess that controls movement from
    working (STM) memory to long-term memory storage
    (getting info in)
  • Retrievalprocess that controls flow of
    information from long-term to working memory
    store (getting info out)

32
Encoding Automatic and Effortful Processing
33
Automatic vs. Effortful Processing
  • Some information, such as where you ate dinner
    yesterday, you process automatically.
  • Other information, such as this chapter's
    concepts, requires effort to encode and remember.

34
Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding
  • Automatic processing
  • Unconscious encoding of information
  • Examples
  • What did you eat for lunch today?
  • Was the last time you studied during the day or
    night?
  • You know the meanings of these very words you are
    reading. Are you actively trying to process the
    definition of the words?

35
Automatic vs. Effortful Encoding
  • Effortful processing
  • Requires attention and conscious effort
  • Examples
  • Memorizing your notes for your upcoming
    Introduction to Psychology exams
  • Repeating a phone number in your head until you
    can write it down

36
Types of Effortful Processing
  • Maintenance Rehearsal go over something
    repeatedly till it is encoded in LTM
  • Elaborative Rehearsal relate the info to info
    you already know.
  • Self-reference effect applies info to yourself.
  • Visual imagery vivid images you can remember.
  • Levels of Processing framework info encoded at
    a deeper level will be more easily remember than
    info encoded at a shallow level. How can you do
    this? (See middle of page 246).

37
Fergus Craik and Robert Lockhart's levels of
processing framework
  • Information that is processed at a deep level
    is more likely to be encoded into long-term
    memory than information processed at a shallow
    level.
  • When studying for classes, actively question new
    information, think about its implications, and
    try to generate your own examples based on your
    experiences

38
Cerebellum
Hippocampus
Types of LTM
Implicit No conscious recall
Explicit W/ conscious recall
General Knowledge (semantic memory)
Personal Events (episodic memory)
Skills and Procedures (procedural memory)
Conditioning (CC OC)
39
Dimensions of LTM
  • Explicit memorymemory with awareness
    information can be consciously recollected also
    called declarative memory
  • Implicit memorymemory without awareness memory
    that affects behavior but cannot consciously be
    recalled also called nondeclarative memory

40
Two Types of Explicit Memory
  • Episodic informationinformation about events or
    episodes
  • Semantic informationinformation about facts,
    general knowledge, school work

41
Episodic Memory
  • Memory tied to your own personal experiences
  • Examples
  • What month is your birthday?
  • Do you like to eat caramel apples?
  • Q Why are these explicit memories?
  • A Because you can actively declare your answers
    to these questions

42
Semantic Memory
  • Memory not tied to personal events
  • General facts and definitions about the world
  • Examples
  • How many tires on a car?
  • What is a cloud?
  • What color is a banana?

43
Semantic Memory
  • Q Why are these explicit memories?
  • A Because you can actively declare your answers
  • Important note Though you may have personal
    experience with these items, your ability to
    answer does NOT depend on tying the item to your
    past
  • i.e., Do not have to recall the time last week
    when you ate a banana to say that bananas are
    yellow

44
Clive Wearing--Living Without Memory Introduction
  • Studies of malfunctions of memory have helped
    researchers understand how we form (encode),
    store, and retrieve memories. Memories are
    recorded successively as sensory memory (the
    immediate initial stage), short-term memory (or
    working memory), and long-term memory.
  • In one extreme type of memory deficit, caused by
    accident or disease, a person is unable to form
    new memories and lives in an eternal present.
  • Clive Wearing, a world-renowned choir director
    and musical arranger, suffered brain damage
    following viral encephalitis, which destroyed
    both temporal lobes, the entire hippocampus, and
    much of the left frontal lobe. He lost his
    ability to form new memories. He has no memory of
    anything beyond the last minute or two.

45
Clive and Deborah Wearing have one of their
regular encounters, thirteen years after Clive
suffered brain damage. Deborah describes Clive's
repeated experience of waking up for the first
time, as recorded in a diary.
Clive Wearing--Living Without Memory
Click on box or title to play.
If youd like to view a more recent video of
Clive click HERE. (554)
(1235) Segment 10 from The Mind Psychology
Teaching Modules (2nd edition).
46
Clive Wearing--Living Without Memory Questions
  • Why does Wearing retains many memory-related
    abilities, such as speech, musical ability, and
    ability to recognize his wife.
  • What is the role of the hippocampus (totally
    destroyed in Wearing) in memory formation?

47
Implicit Memory
  • Nondeclarative memory
  • Influences your thoughts or behavior, but does
    not enter consciousness
  • Three subtypes

48
Subtypes of Implicit Memory
49
Classical Conditioning
  • Studied earlier
  • Implicit because it is automatically retrieved

50
Procedural Memory
  • Memory that enables you to perform specific
    learned skills or habitual responses
  • Examples
  • Riding a bike
  • How to speak grammatically
  • Tying your shoe laces
  • Why are these procedural memories implicit?
  • Cant readily describe their contents
  • try describing how to tie your shoes
  • They are automatically retrieved when appropriate

51
Priming
  • Priming is influence of one memory on another
  • priming is implicit because it does not depend on
    awareness and is automatic
  • Here is a demonstration

52
Priming Demonstration
  • Unscramble the following words
  • O R E S
  • L T E P A
  • K T A L S
  • TSME
  • L O B S O M S
  • ELAF
  • ROSE
  • PETAL
  • STALK
  • STEM
  • BLOSSOM

53
Priming Demonstration
  • ELAF LEAF
  • Why not respond FLEA?
  • Because flower parts were primed (flower power)

54
Perceptual Priming
  • Can you identify the fragmented stimulus to the
    right?

55
Two Types of Priming
56
Conceptual Priming
  • The semantic meaning of priming stimulus
    influences your encoding or retrieval
  • Thought to involve activation of concepts stored
    in semantic memory
  • Example Flower power priming demonstration
  • Does not depend on sense modality (works across
    the senses) pictures can conceptually prime
    sounds AS THE NEXT SLIDE SHOWS

57
Priming across modalities
  • Look at the picture . Then when the instructor
    says a word, write it down.

58
(No Transcript)
59
Perceptual Priming
  • Prime enhances ability to identify a test
    stimulus based on its physical features
  • Does not work across sense modalities

60
Perceptual Priming
  • Can you identify the fragmented stimulus to the
    right?

61
Perceptual Priming
  • What if you were shown the following slide
    earlier in the lecture?

62
Perceptual Priming
  • Can you identify the fragmented stimulus to the
    right?

63
How are memories organized?
  • Clustering - hierarchical organization
  • Semantic Network Model - associations

64
Clustering Hierarchical Organization
  • Related items clustered together to form
    categories
  • Related categories clustered to form higher-order
    categories
  • Remember list items better if list presented in
    categories
  • poorer recall if presented randomly
  • Even if list items are random, people still
    organize info in some logical pattern

65
Hierarchical Organization
66
Semantic Network Model
  • Mental links between concepts
  • common properties provide basis for mental link
  • Shorter path between two concepts stronger
    association in memory
  • Activating one concept can spread and activate
    other associations.

67
Semantic Network ModelSee example at Human Cloud
Brain
68
How is Memory like a Computer?
69
Summary
  • Modal model of memory
  • three memory stores (sensory, working and
    long-term memory)
  • control processes (attention, maintenance
    rehearsal, encoding and retrieval) govern
    movement of information within and between stores
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