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Opening Questions:

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1. What is the 1st major part of the cell we talked about? 2. Name one thing that it does for the cell. 3. Name the three types of proteins that make up the Cytoskeleton. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Opening Questions:


1
Opening Questions
  • 1. What is the 1st major part of the cell we
    talked about?
  • 2. Name one thing that it does for the cell.
  • 3. Name the three types of proteins that make up
    the Cytoskeleton.

2
Learning Outcomes
  • Recognize the key components of the cell plasma
    membrane.
  • Explain how the plasma membrane regulates the
    passage f molecules into and out of the cell.
  • Describe the diverse functions of proteins
    embedded in the palsma membrane.

3
The Three Major Parts of the Cell
4
2. PLASMA CELL MEMBRANE
5
  • It is the protective outer covering of all cells
  • It gives the cell its distinct shape
  • Acts as a fence around the cell
  • Its like a PICKET FENCE

6
  • Must stay in a SEMI-FLUID state in order to be
  • SEMI-PERMEABLE or SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE

7
SELECTIVELY or SEMI-PERMEABLE
  • 1. Allows certain substances in
  • Example---Nutrients
  • 2. Allows certain substances out
  • Example----Waste
  • 3. Keeps certain things in
  • Example----Organelles
  • 4. Keeps certain things out
  • Example---Disease and foreign objects

8
A. 3 Molecules of the Cell Membrane
9
  • 1. PHOSPHOLIPID MOLECULE
  • Has a head that is made of phosphate
  • Hydrophillic
  • Water loving
  • Because it can dissolve in water

10
  • It has a tail that is made up of a lipid
  • Hydrophobic
  • Water fearing
  • Because it does not dissolve in water
  • Lipids will dissolve in other lipids

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  • Because the tail is afraid of H2O and there is
    H2O surrounding your cells.
  • Extracellular fluid outside each cell and
  • The cytoplasm (made of water and various
    molecules) in each cell
  • How do the phospholipid molecules line up?

13
  • They form a DOUBLE layer with the tails facing
    each other and the heads on the outside and
    inside.

14
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15
  • Phospholipid molecules act as the
    pickets of the fence
  • Little molecules can pass through them by
    dissolving in lipids.

16
2. PROTEINS
  • Proteins are used to identify large molecules or
    molecules that can not dissolve in lipids.
  • Proteins decide whether the larger molecules can
    come in or not

17
2 Types of Proteins
  • Integral Proteins----
  • Proteins that go all the way through the membrane
  • 2. Peripheral Proteins---
  • Proteins that are only on one side of the membrane

18
Proteins act as the gate of the fence
19
Membrane Proteins
  • a. Channel Proteins
  • b. Transport Proteins
  • c. Cell Recognition Proteins
  • d. Receptor Proteins
  • e. Enzymatic Proteins
  • f. Junction Proteins

20
a. Channel Proteins
  • Channel Proteins form a tunnel across the entire
    membrane
  • They allow only one or a few specific types of
    molecules to enter or exit the cell.

21
EXAMPLE
  • Aquaporins---
  • Channel proteins in the kidney
  • Allows water molecules in or out of the cell
  • Without them we would dehydrate

22
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24
b. Transport Proteins
  • Transport Proteins often bond with a molecule or
    ion and help carry across the membrane.
  • They usually use cell energy to help the
    molecule/ion across

25
EXAMPLE
  • They help sodium and potassium to cross the
    membrane of the nerve cell (neuron)
  • Without them, nerve impulses would be impossible.

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27
c. Cell Recognition Proteins
  • Cell Recognition Proteins are glycoproteins that
    are used to enable our bodies to distinguish
    between our own cells and that of another
    organism.

28
More Info
  • Found especially on white blood cells
  • Allow them to distinguish between the pathogens
    that invade our body and our own cells

29
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d. Receptor Proteins
  • Receptor Proteins are proteins that change their
    shape along the membrane which allows a molecule
    known as a SIGNAL MOLECULE to bind to it.

31
  • The bonding of a signal molecule causes the
    receptor protein to change shape.
  • When the receptor protein changes shape the cell
    is able to respond to a certain molecule.

32
EXAMPLE
  • Hormone insulin binds to the receptor proteins in
    liver cells.
  • When they bind to the membrane they allow the
    liver cells to store glucose.

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34
e. Enzymatic Proteins
  • Enzymatic Proteins are proteins that are directly
    involved in the metabolic processes of the cell.
  • These proteins can attach to various cell
    membranes

35
Example
  • DNA helicase---
  • Enzyme that causes DNA to unzip (break apart) so
    it can replicate (duplicate)

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f. Junction Proteins
  • Junction Proteins are proteins will be discussed
    later.
  • But they assist in cell to cell adhesion and
    communication

38
More Info
  • The cells in the bladder use junction proteins to
    adhere to one another when the bladder fills with
    liquid waste (urine).

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40
3. CHOLESTEROL
  • Another lipid
  • Helps to give the cell membrane its shape

41
Cholesterol acts as the posts of the fence
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43
3 major molecules(REVIEW)
  • 1. PhosphoLIPID
  • Picketssmall things in out
  • 2. Proteins---
  • Gates---lets big things in out
  • 3. Cholesterol---LIPID
  • Posts---structure

44
  • The cell membrane is considered a bilayer or a
    DOUBLE layer of
  • PROTEINS and
  • LIPIDS

45
  • Scientists way of describing the cell membrane
  • The Fluid
    Mosaic Model

46
  • FLUID---Because the membrane must stay semi-fluid
    to be selectively permeable
  • MOSAIC---Because it is made up of many different
    molecules but is one structure

47
Wrap It Up
48
  • The plasma cell membrane is used as protection
    for each cell--give it distinct shape
  • It stays semi fluid---allowing it to be
    selectively permeable

49
  • This means it selects what goes in and out and
  • what stays in and out
  • The plasma membrane is made up of 3 main
    molecules
  • Phospholipid molecules
  • Protein molecules and
  • Cholesterol molecules

50
  • For this reason the plasma (cell) membrane is
    considered a DOUBLE layer of PROTEINS and LIPIDS.
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