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Dr . Anne Broderick De Montfort University

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Interpretive Research Workshop 2 London Metropolitan University Monday 20th January 2014 * produced by Dr. Anne Broderick, De Montfort University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Dr . Anne Broderick De Montfort University


1
Dr . Anne BroderickDe Montfort University
Interpretive Research Workshop 2
London Metropolitan University Monday 20th
January 2014
2
Dealing with Philosophical Tradition
  • At end of Workshop 1, we suggested that you
    consider your own study , identify the research
    tradition(s) that you think you are drawing upon
    and then ask three questions
  • What kind of data do I wish to gather?
  • What do I wish to know about my respondents
    and/or the context?- What will the nature of my
    inquiry be?
  • What method seems appropriate for this?

3
Session Objectives
  • Briefly consider Choices linked to Interpretivist
    Research
  • Approach to Data
  • Nature of Enquiry
  • Typical Methods of Data Collection

4
Interpretive View of Knowledge
  • Understanding social process involves getting
    inside the world of those generating it
  • (Orlikowski and Baroudi 1991)

5
Choices in Research Design
  • Approach to Data ? Qualitative usually
  • Nature of Inquiry ? Exploratory Or Explanatory
  • Method of Data Collection ? Focus Group/ Action
    Research/Ethnography

6
Approach to Data Collection
Qualitative
Quantitative
7
Qualitative Main Characteristics
  • Interpretivist Paradigm
  • Subjective approach
  • Phenomena need to be explored in depth real
    meaning emerges from understanding the
    respondents experience in their own context
  • Not seeking to draw general conclusions about
    the population
  • Structured ?-----------------? Unstructured
  • Usually, relies on identification of key themes
    that characterize the experience of respondents
  • Key dimensions just emerge

8
Nature of data is arguably different
  • Qualitative Data - Conveys impressions and
    attitudes -explores motivations
  • Concentrates on words
  • Enables a holistic perspective
  • Associated with an emergent research design

9
Interpretive View of Data
What we call our data are really our own
constructions of other peoples constructions of
what they and their compatriots are up
to (Geertz 1973)
10
Choices in Research Design
  • Approach to Data ? Qualitative
  • Nature of Inquiry ? Exploratory Or Explanatory
  • Method of Data Collection ? Focus Group/
    Interview / Action Research/Ethnography

11
Qualitative Inquiry Is it Exploratory
  • Discovery of new insights
  • Familiarisation with area that is
    under-researched
  • Display nature of something
  • Describe meaning attached to experience

12
(No Transcript)
13
Qualitative Inquiry Is it Explanatory
  • Factors that underlie an attitude
  • Motivation to undertake something
  • Origin of an event, phenomena
  • Additional Probing

14
Nature of Exploratory Research
Objective Characteristics Findings
Outcome
To provide insight and understanding
Information needed defined loosely. Research
process flexible/unstructured. Sample is small
and nonrepresentative.
Analysis of primary data is qualitative.
Tentative. Conclusive research may follow
15
Choices in Research Design
  • Approach to Data ? Qualitative
  • Nature of Inquiry ? Exploratory Or Explanatory
  • Method of Data Collection ? Multiple - Can use
    depth interview, or qualitative single case study
  • Popular Focus Group/ /Action Research
    /Ethnography

16
Typical Interpretivist Methods for Data
Collection
  • Focus Group
  • Action Research
  • Ethnographic Research
  • There are others..

17
Research Method Focus Group
  • Recruit group of relevant respondents for
    open-ended discussion
  • Not always treated as representative data, can be
    exploratory (but also explanatory)
  • Groups demographic profile is important, but
    identities of the participants are not relevant
  • Discussion is 'focused' on a topic, but is
    allowed to range across many aspects of topic

18
Focus Group Suitability
  • Effective where the opinions of the target
    population are difficult to extract, e.g.
  • people in relevant category currently have
    limited information available to them about the
    topic
  • topic is multi-dimensional
  • the opinions are polarised, or fluid

19
Action Research
  • Study conducted from within a settinge.g. by an
    employee or consultant
  • The researcher not merely observes, but also
    participates, typically by acting as a change
    agent in relation to some intervention
  • Achieves depth, including appreciation of
    dialects, contexts, and tacit knowledge
  • Has to cope with lack of independence

20
Ethnographic Research
  • Originated in anthropological studies(typically
    by colonialists of natives)
  • Seeks detailed understanding of a focal topic
  • Comprises observation of, and conversation with,
    people in their own environment
  • Seeks to reflect relevant cultural factors
  • May be immersive (e.g. shadowing persons,
    spending a lot of time with respondents )

21
Research Method Participant Observation (can be
ethnographic)
Some communication in participant observation
Emerged in sociological studies - often
examining life in everyday context Participant
May also be an immersion into the respondent
world
22
Emic or etic
  • Emic insider view
  • Etic outsider view

The goal of some qualitative studies is to
portray the perspective of those experiencing the
phenomena under investigation taking an emic
view
23
How Interpretivism is manifest in other methods
  • Oral History, Biographical Method, Narrative
  • Polkinghorne, 1980s Elliott, 2000s
  • While the origins of these research approaches
    are distinct and different, the kind of analysis
    presented aligns with the interpretivist research
    tradition
  • Netnography (Kozinets, 2002)
  • Online ethnography now burgeoning

24
Social Media Analysis Researcher Reflexive
Narratives
Emerging Research in 2010s
24
24
25
Final Comments
  • In the two workshops, we have covered some brief
    ideas on the interpretive tradition
  • Taking an initial look at a complex area is , by
    default, schematic - there are many other nuance
    and complexities to consider
  • Speak to academics in your circle (supervisors,
    classmates, fellow Ph D candidates etc) who will
    have other views and, strangely enough, other
    interpretations.

26
Hope you enjoyed finding out about interpretive
research. Good Luck in your own research!
Interpretive Research Workshop 1 and 2
Dr . Anne BroderickDe Montfort University
27
Some Key Authors
  • Geertz, C.(1973), Thick Description Toward an
    Interpretive Theory of Culture. In The
    Interpretation of Cultures Selected Essays.
    Clifford Geertz. pp 330. New York Basic Books
  • Elliott, (2005), Using Narrative in Social
    Research Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches
    SAGE
  • Kozinets, R.(1998), On Netnography Initial
    Reflections on Consumer Research Investigations
    of Cyberculture, in Advances in Consumer
    Research, Volume 25, ed., Joseph Alba and Wesley
    Hutchinson, Provo, UT Association for Consumer
    Research, pp. 366-371

28
Some Key Authors
  • Orlikowski, W.J. and J.J. Baroudi. "Studying
    Information Technology in Organizations Research
    Approaches and Assumptions." Information Systems
    Research, 2, 1, 1991 1-28
  • Polkinghorne, Donald E. (1995). Narrative
    Configuration in Qualitative Analysis.
    Qualitative Studies in Education, Vol. 8, Issue
    2.
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