Political%20Parties,%20Interest%20Groups,%20and%20Mass%20Media - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Political%20Parties,%20Interest%20Groups,%20and%20Mass%20Media

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Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Mass Media ... Slander Malicious oral material is not protected Media Bias Coverage and reporting of issues and candidates ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Political%20Parties,%20Interest%20Groups,%20and%20Mass%20Media


1
Political Parties, Interest Groups, and Mass Media
  • Unit IIIC
  • Mass Media

2
Mass Media
  • Includes all forms and aspects of communication
    to the general public
  • Considered the fourth branch of government
    given the importance and influence on the
    electorate, policy-making, politics, and the
    government

3
Mass Media DevelopmentNewspapers
  • Colonial and Early Republic Times
  • Small circulations
  • Expensive
  • Financed by politicians and interest groups
  • Modern Times
  • Telegraph and printing developments increased
    circulations on national levels by late 19th
    century
  • Yellow journalism
  • Limited press due to television and internet

4
Mass Media DevelopmentMagazines
  • Developed in mid-19th century with smaller
    circulation and limited publishing
  • Gained influence with muckraking articles during
    Progressive Era
  • After 1920s, national circulation
  • Time, Newsweek, U.S. News and World Report

5
Mass Media DevelopmentRadio
  • Developed in early 20th century
  • Primary source of news and event broadcasts for
    early and mid-20th century
  • FDR used radio for fireside chats
  • Lost influence with television

6
Mass Media DevelopmentTelevision
  • After WWII, television became primary source for
    news and event broadcasts
  • Helped glorify journalists
  • Claims largest mass media audience
  • Broadcast of McCarthy hearings, Nixon-Kennedy
    debates, and Vietnam coverage solidified
    television in political spectrum
  • Narrowcasting, cable news, and 24/7 news cycle in
    late 20th century
  • Talking heads

7
Mass Media DevelopmentInternet
  • Development in late 20th century and early 21st
    century
  • World Wide Web becoming growing source of news
    and information
  • Blogs
  • Subject to immense bias and limited factual
    credibility

8
Function of Mass Media
  • Provide information to the public
  • Influence and shape public opinion
  • Link the government and the public
  • Act as a watchdog of the government
  • Influence agenda setting

9
Role of National Press
  • Gatekeeper
  • Influencing or determining which issues receive
    attention or degree of attention
  • Part of agenda setting
  • Scorekeeper
  • Tracking candidates or issues showing their
    importance or significance over time
  • Ex. Polls on leading Republican presidential
    candidates
  • Watchdog
  • Investigating and exposing candidates and
    institutions
  • Ex. Watergate

10
Media and the President
  • The President receives the most attention by the
    media
  • Media Events
  • Press Secretary
  • Sources of Information
  • News/press releases
  • News briefings
  • News conferences
  • Leaks

11
Media and Congress
  • Limited coverage in relation to President
  • Coverage of confirmation hearings, oversight
    investigations, scandals
  • C-SPAN

12
Mass Media Jargon
  • Media event
  • Sound byte
  • Loaded language
  • On the record
  • Off the record
  • On background
  • On deep background
  • Trial balloon
  • Kill a leak

13
Regulation of Media
  • Technical
  • Licensing, signal strength, digital conversion
  • Structural
  • Organization and ownership of broadcast media
    outlets
  • Content
  • Limitations on coverage of subjects

14
Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
  • Federal Communications Act of 1934 established
    FCC as independent regulatory agency on
    interstate communication
  • Enforces technical, structural, and content
    regulations

15
Technical Regulation
  • Public owns the airwaves
  • Anything transmitted over the airwaves is subject
    to regulation
  • Radio and television broadcasters must obtain a
    license renewable every 5 years
  • Subject to hearing if a group objects/complains
  • Digital conversion
  • Digital Transition and Public Safety Act of 2005
  • All over-the-air broadcasts must end analog
    transmissions and convert to digital

16
Structural Regulation
  • Media Consolidation
  • Before 1980s, media monopolies were strictly
    enforced and prohibited
  • A corporation could not monopolize an entire
    market
  • Telecommunications Act of 1996
  • Deregulated limitations on corporations
  • Led to fewer but larger media conglomerates

17
(No Transcript)
18
Content Regulation
  • Political Campaigns
  • Fairness Doctrine
  • Mandated broadcast of opposing views
  • Dismissed by FCC in 1987
  • Equal Time Rule
  • Media time must be equally granted, media costs
    must be equal, commercial ads must be the same
    during candidate air time
  • Right of Rebuttal
  • Candidates have the right to opportunity to
    respond to allegations made by an opposing
    candidate

19
Content Regulation
  • Public Decency
  • FCC imposes fines and may revoke licenses in
    violation of decency standards set by law
  • Obscenity prohibited
  • Profanity prohibited between 6AM and 10PM
  • Only enforced on over-the-air broadcasts cable
    not subject

2004 Super Bowl XXXVIII Halftime Show
20
First Amendment
  • Prior Restraint
  • Government prohibited from censoring or refusing
    publication/broadcast
  • Near v. Minnesota (1931)
  • New York Times v. United States (1971)
  • Pentagon Papers
  • Libel
  • Malicious printed material is not protected
  • Slander
  • Malicious oral material is not protected

21
Media Bias
  • Coverage and reporting of issues and candidates
    slanted by liberal reporters and/or
    conservative media owners
  • Sensationalism over objectivity
  • Actual News Headlines vs. Fox News Headlines

22
Media Bias
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