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Introduction to Engineering and Technology Concepts

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Introduction to Engineering and Technology Concepts Unit Three Chapter One The Six Simple Machines * Instructions for Success: Each chapter of every unit will ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Engineering and Technology Concepts


1
Introduction to Engineering and Technology
Concepts
  • Unit Three
  • Chapter One The Six Simple Machines

2
Instructions for Success
  • Each chapter of every unit will begin with a
    Mindjog. This is a warm up question that you
    should answer in your workbook in the proper
    chapter.
  • Please take notes as you move through the
    presentations in the notebook that has been
    provided.
  • Sections will come up in each presentation with
    an assignment notice. Turn to the section
    detailed on the slide in your workbook and
    complete the assignment before proceeding.
  • Good luck!

3
Objective
  • Students will define the six simple machines,
    including the science and math concepts
    associated.

4
Mindjog!
  • On your worksheet, please respond to the
    following question 
  • Think about the actual physical pieces that make
    a hammer. Now, compare that design to a pry
    barare there any similarities in regard to
    makeup? Why or why not?

5
Common Components
  • In the past unit, we have discovered how
    imagination and skill go into creating the plans
    for making technology.
  • When looking at engineer drawings, one can begin
    to understand that artifacts have common
    components.
  • These components can be labeled, simple machines
    (Wright, 2004).

6
Six Simple Machines
  • Machines are artifacts that transmit or change
    the application of power, force, or motion.
  • Simple Machines work on the two basic principles
    of the lever and the inclined plane.
  • The Six Simple Machines are
  • The Lever
  • The Wheel and Axle
  • The Pulley
  • The Inclined Plane
  • The Wedge
  • The Screw (Wright, 2004)

7
The Lever
  • A lever has a rod or bar (the lever arm) that
    rests and turns on a support called a fulcrum.
  • There are three categories of levers
  • First Class places the fulcrum between the load
    and the effort. An example would be the pry bar.
  • Second Class sees the load between the effort and
    the fulcrum. An example of this would be the
    wheelbarrow.
  • Third class finds the effort placed between the
    load and fulcrum. A person moving dirt on a
    shovel would apply for this example (Wright,
    2004).

8
Lever Classes, in detail
  • Here are some visuals to better understand the
    lever classes

Movement
First Class places the fulcrum between the load
and the effort.
Force/Effort
LOAD
LEVER
Fulcrum
Second Class sees the load between the effort
and the fulcrum.
Force/Effort
Third Class finds the effort placed between the
load and fulcrum (Wright, 2004).
Force/Effort
9
The Wheel and Axle
  • The Wheel and Axle is a shaft attached to a disk.
    Technically, this is another example of a second
    class lever, with the shaft or axle acting as the
    fulcrum and the circumference of the disk acting
    as the lever (Wright, 2004).

10
Pulleys
  • Pulleys are grooved wheels attached to an axle.
    They also act as second class levers.
  • Pulleys can serve three purposes
  • -To Change Direction
  • -To Multiply Force
  • -To Multiply Distance (Wright, 2004).

11
Inclined Plane
  • Inclined Planes are sloped surfaces used to make
    a job easier (Wright, 2004). A simple example
    of this would be a ramp that sits from the street
    to the back of a moving van.

12
Wedge
  • A wedge is another type of inclined plane that is
    used to spilt, separate materials, or grip parts
    (Wright, 2004). The blade of an axe is an
    example of a wedge.

13
Screw
  • The screw is another inclined plane, in that the
    inclined plane is wrapped around a shaft. It is
    considered a force multiplier (Wright, 2004).

14
Mechanical Advantage
  • Using any of the six simple machines results in
    mechanical advantage (MA).
  • Mechanical Advantage (MA) can be described as the
    benefit gained (in distance or force).
  • To find mechanical advantage (MA) involves math,
    specifically multiplication.
  • Remember that using technology is about making
    things easier.
  • How much harder would it be to lift a heavy
    weight without tying a rope and pulley around it
    (Wright, 2004)?

15
Assignment 1
  • Please turn to the section in your workbook
    entitled, Unit Three, Chapter One The Six
    Simple Machines.
  • Complete the extension questions under the
    Assignment 1 header before moving onto the
    next section of slides.

16
BEFORE MOVING ON
  • Did you complete the Assignment 1 Section
    under the Unit Three, Chapter One The Six
    Simple Machines section of your workbook?
  • If you have, please proceed to the next slide.

17
Science/Math Concepts
  • In this and other chapters, we have used terms
    such as force and energy.
  • But, what exactly is force?
  • What is energy?
  • What about motion?
  • Work?
  • Efficiency?
  • Before getting any further in this unit, we need
    to define these and other related terms.

18
Energy
  • For any technology to benefit humanity, it needs
    an input in the form of energy.
  • Energy is defined as the ability to do work.
  • Energy can neither be created or destroyed.
  • And if this is the case, then energy can only be
    what?
  • Energy can only be converted from one form to
    another (Wright, 2004).

19
Energy (continued)
  • Energy is in two forms kinetic and potential.
  • Kinetic energy is energy that being used.
  • Potential energy is energy that is being stored.
  • Think of a batteryalone the battery has the
    potential to be transformed and used. When
    placed in a device that runs on battery power,
    the energy becomes kinetic (Wright, 2004).

20
Work
  • For the definition of energy, we stated that it
    is the ability to do work. But what is work?
  • Work is applying a force that moves a mass a
    distance in the direction of the applied force.
  • Work is measured in FOOT-POUNDS (ft.-lbs.)
  • The math looks like this Work Force or Weight
    X Distance
  • Imagine carrying a 10 pound bag of rice 13 miles.
    10X13130 ft.-lbs. Therefore, you have
    accomplished 130 foot-pounds (Wright, 2004).

21
Force
  • So, work brought up the term force.
  • Force can be described as a push or a pull. As
    you push down on a lever, you begin to gain MA
    (Wright, 2004).

22
Power
  • Another term that is used incorrectly by
    interchanging with the term of energy is power.
  • Power is the rate at which work is done.
  • There are two common measurements horsepower and
    kilowatt hour. Do these terms sound familiar?
    Car engines are measured in horsepower and light
    bulbs are measured in kilowatts (Wright, 2004).

23
Motion and Efficiency
  • Motion can be described as movement in a
    direction.
  • Being efficient means using less resources while
    meeting, at least, the minimum requirements.
  • Efficiency will be something that we discuss
    heavily in the next chapter as well (Wright,
    2004).

24
Assignment 2
  • Please turn to the section in your workbook
    entitled, Unit Three, Chapter One The Six
    Simple Machines.
  • Complete the extension questions under the
    Assignment 2 header before moving onto the
    next section of slides.

25
BEFORE MOVING ON
  • Did you complete the Assignment 2 Section
    under the Unit Three, Chapter One The Six
    Simple Machines section of your workbook?
  • If you have, please proceed to the next slide.

26
Chapter One Completed!
  • Please close this presentation and launch the
    file entitled, Chapter 2 Energy.

27
References
  • Wright, R. (2004) Technology The
    Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
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