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MCAS REVIEW DAY 2

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Title: MCAS REVIEW DAY 2


1
MCAS REVIEW DAY 2
Final skim
  • STUFF AND SMELLS

2
FRIDAY, JUNE 1ST (NB PG 45)
  • Obj Answer MCAS questions related to Smells
  • Lang. Obj use correct terms for atoms and the PT
  • HW make up work!
  • Announcements
  • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th,
    200pm
  • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th
  • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!
  • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days
    next week!)

3
CHEMCATALYST (NB PG 44)
  • Answer day 2 MCAS questions on notebook page 44
  • note that there are hints for some problems

4
ANSWER KEY
  • 18. C
  • 19. B
  • 20. C
  • 21. D
  • 22. A
  • 26. B
  • 27. D
  • 28. A
  • 29. A
  • 30. D
  • 31. A
  • 32. C

5
WHAT CONTENT QUESTIONS DO YOU HAVE?
  1. How do you draw lewis dot structures?

6
BUT IM NOT TAKING THE CHEMISTRY MCAS, WHY DO I
HAVE TO REVIEW FOR IT?
  • Yes, but everyone is taking the City Test, and
  • The City Test, your final exam, is based on the
    MCAS
  • Some questions on the City Test are exactly the
    same as MCAS
  • They cover the same content

7
TODAYS AGENDA
  1. Answer Practice Questions 1-10 (10 min)
  2. Q A and Answer key (5 min)
  3. Smells Review (20 min)
  4. Selected MCAS Qs practice (10 min)
  5. Answer key, QA (5 min)

8
REVIEW
9
  • What is the molecular formula for the substance
    shown in the ball-and-stick model below?

10
COVALENTLY BONDED MOLECULES
  • Molecular formula The chemical formula that
    shows the types of atoms in each molecule and the
    ratios of those atoms to one another.
  • (ex H2O, C2H5OH)
  • Chemical Name a name that uses key words to tell
    the reader the properties of the molecule.
    Chemical names may also use numbers and can be
    one or two words
  • (ex water, ethanol)

11
  • The image below is the _S_____________
    _F_______________ of methane.

12
KEY TERMS FOR TODAY (HANDOUT 5)
  • Structural formula A drawing or diagram that a
    chemist uses to show how the atoms in a molecule
    are connected. Each line represents a covalent
    bond.
  • Isomers Molecules with the same molecular
    formula but different structural formulas.

13
  • Explain the HONC1234 Rule?

14
NOTES (NB PG 7)
  • The HONC 1234 rule is a way to remember the
    bonding tendencies of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen,
    and carbon atoms in molecules
  • Hydrogen ? one bond
  • Oxygen ? two bonds
  • Nitrogen ? three bonds
  • Carbon ? four bonds

15
  • How would you draw the Lewis Dot Structure for an
    atom of nitrogen?

16
  • Covalent Bonds
  • Smells Unit focuses on covalent bonds
  • Every line in a structural formula represents a
    covalent bond
  • Covalent bond
  • Two atoms SHARING two or more valence electrons
    between them.
  • Covalent bonds are formed from the non-metallic
    elements on the right side of the Periodic Table
  •  

17
  • Lewis Dot
  • When we draw an atom using dots to represent the
    valence electrons it is called a Lewis dot
    symbol.
  • When we draw a molecule using dots to represent
    the valence electrons it is called a Lewis dot
    structure.
  • Nitrogen, with five valence electrons, would be
    drawn as follows
  •  
  • Notice that the Lewis dot symbol of nitrogen has
    three single electrons (unpaired electrons) and
    one set that is paired (electron pair). This
    means that nitrogen has three electrons that can
    potentially be paired up with electrons from
    other atoms.

18
  • Bonded/Lone Pairs
  • Shared electrons are called bonded pairs
  • Pairs of electrons that are not involved in
    bonding are called lone pairs
  •  
  •  

19
  • What is the octet rule?

20
PRE-LESSON NOTES (SEE HDT 13)
  • Rule of Eights/Octet rule Nonmetal atoms combine
    so that each atom has a total of eight valence
    electrons by sharing electrons.
  • Each atom in the molecule has an octet of
    valence electrons.
  • Note that the hydrogen atoms do not follow the
    octet rule.
  • They have a total of two electrons, similar to
    the noble gas helium, He.

21
STEPS TO WRITING COMPLEX STRUCTURAL FORMULAS AND
LEWIS DOT STRUCTURES
  • 1.Draw the structural formula by adding elements
    in this order
  • a) Carbon first, in a chain
  • b) Add nitrogen (or other atoms that make 3
    bonds)
  • c) Add oxygen (or other atoms that make 2
    bonds)
  • d) Add hydrogen (or other atoms that make 1
    bond
  • 2. Add in the lone pairs on atoms other than
    carbon and hydrogen
  • 3. Check that all atoms have an octet of
    electrons (when adding, each bond line counts as
    2 electrons)
  • 4. Add double and/or triple bonds to atoms that
    dont have an octet until they do.
  • 5. Convert this to a Lewis dot structure, change
    each line to a bonding pair of electrons

22
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23
  • Name one functional group we studied in the
    Smells Unit (ex amine)

24
Discussion Notes (cont.)
25
Discussion
26
Discussion
27
Discussion
28
Discussion
There are other functional groups.
29
  • What do you call the starting ingredients in a
    chemical reaction?

30
Notes see back of handout 21!
  1. A chemical reaction (rxn) is defined as a
    chemical transformation where bonds are broken
    and new bonds are formedsubstances interact to
    produce new substances with new properties..
  2. A chemical reaction is the same as a chemical
    change.
  3. The starting ingredients in a chemical reaction
    are called the reactants.
  4. The ending compounds are called the products.

(cont.)
31
  • Name the shapes of the molecular models below

32
NOTES (SEE HANDOUT 27)
  • The following shapes can be used to describe most
    molecules or parts of molecules!
  • To predict shapes
  • Draw the Lewis dot symbol for each element
  • Put the element with the most unpaired electrons
    in the center and arrange the other elements
    around it
  • Count the number of bonded pairs and lone pairs
    and match to the right shape

Try H2Se SiH4 HBr
33
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34
  • What is the name of the molecular shape below?

35
PRE-LESSON NOTES HANDOUT PG 31
Double or triple bonding changes the number of
electron domains around an atom, affecting the
overall shape of a molecule. Trigonal planar
shape A flat triangular shape found in small
molecules with three electron domains surrounding
the central atom. Linear shape A geometric
shape found in small molecules with two electron
domains surrounding the central atom.
The number of electron domains is more important
in determining the structure of a molecule than
is the number of atoms.
36
  • What type of model appears below?

37
ChemCatalyst
  • What similarities and differences do you see
    between these two different types of models?

Space-filling model of citronellol
Ball-and-stick model of citronellol
38
  • How do smell receptors work?

39
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40
NOTES (COPY TO NB PG 41)
Receptor site theory The currently accepted model explaining how smells are detected in the nose. Molecules fit into receptor sites that correspond to the overall shape of the molecule. This stimulates a response in the body.
41
  • What is the difference between polar and
    non-polar molecules?

42
NOTES SEE HANDOUT (43, BACK)
  • Some molecules have a slight charge on opposite
    ends of the molecule. Molecules that have partial
    charges are called polar molecules. One end of
    the molecule has a partial negative charge and
    the other end of the molecule has a partial
    positive charge.

43
Notes
  • Hexane was not attracted to the charged wand. So
    it would seem reasonable to suggest that
    different ends of the molecule do not have
    opposite partial charges. Molecules such as this
    are called nonpolar molecules.

44
Notes
  • The attraction that happens between individual
    polar molecules is called an intermolecular
    interaction or an intermolecular attraction.

45
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46
  • What is electronegativity?

47
NOTES (BACK OF 47)
  • The tendency of an atom to attract shared
    electrons is called electronegativity.
  • Electronegativity The tendency of an atom to
    attract the electrons that are involved in
    bonding.

48
NOTES (47)
  • Dipole A polar molecule or a polar bond between
    atoms. A crossed arrow is used to show the
    direction of a dipole. The crossed end of the
    arrow indicates the partial positive () end of
    the polar bond, and the arrow points in the
    direction of the partial negative () end.

49
Notes (47)
  1. Nonpolar covalent bonds are the only bonds in
    which the electrons are truly shared equally.
  2. If the electronegativities between two atoms are
    even slightly different, they form what is
    called a polar covalent bond.
  3. When the electronegativities between two atoms
    are greatly different, the bond is called an
    ionic bond. In the case of an ionic bond the
    electron of one atom is completely given up to
    the other atom.

50
(No Transcript)
51
NOTES (BACK OF 49)
  1. By determining the numerical difference between
    electronegativities in a bond, you can compare
    the polarities of bonds.
  2. Numerical differences in electronegativity can
    also help predict the type of bond that will be
    found.

Electronegativity difference
Bonding between atoms is on a continuum.
52
NOTES (BACK OF 49)
Try Na-N, O-C, K-Se
  • The dividing line between polar covalent bonding
    and ionic bonding is not clear-cut.
  • Ionic bonds difference of 2 or greater
  • Polar covalent difference of 0.5 to 2
  • Nonpolar covalent difference less than 0.5

Electronegativity difference
Bonding between atoms is on a continuum.
53
(No Transcript)
54
  • How is a polar MOLECULE different from a
    non-polar MOLECULE?

55
NOTES (SEE HANDOUT 51)
  1. The polarity of diatomic (two-atom) molecules is
    fairly easy to determine. The atom with the
    higher electronegativity has a partial negative
    charge while the atom with the lower
    electronegativity has a partial positive charge.

56
Polar molecules
  1. Polar molecules have polar bonds AND are
    asymmetrical

57
Non-polar Molecules
  1. Non-polar molecules have EITHER non-polar bonds
    OR have polar bonds but are perfectly symmetrical

Tetrafluoromethane is symmetrical and nonpolar.
58
MORE PRACTICE!!!
59
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60
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61
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62
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63
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64
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65
FOR DAY 3 TOPICS
  • Entropy
  • Exo/endo
  • leChatelier
  • Redox
  • Buffers
  • Percent yield

66
FRIDAY, JUNE 1ST (NB PG 44)
  • Obj Answer MCAS questions related to Smells
  • Lang. Obj use correct terms for atoms and the PT
  • HW make up work!
  • Announcements
  • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th,
    200pm
  • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th
  • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!
  • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days
    next week!)

67
FRIDAY, JUNE 1ST (NB PG 44)
  • Obj Answer MCAS questions related to Smells
  • Lang. Obj use correct terms for atoms and the PT
  • HW make up work!
  • Announcements
  • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th,
    200pm
  • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th
  • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!
  • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days
    next week!)

68
FRIDAY, JUNE 1ST (NB PG 44)
  • Obj Answer MCAS questions related to Smells
  • Lang. Obj use correct terms for atoms and the PT
  • HW make up work!
  • Announcements
  • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th,
    200pm
  • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th
  • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!
  • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days
    next week!)

69
FRIDAY, JUNE 1ST (NB PG 44)
  • Obj Answer MCAS questions related to Smells
  • Lang. Obj use correct terms for atoms and the PT
  • HW make up work!
  • Announcements
  • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th,
    200pm
  • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th
  • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!
  • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days
    next week!)

70
FRIDAY, JUNE 1ST (NB PG 44)
  • Obj Answer MCAS questions related to Smells
  • Lang. Obj use correct terms for atoms and the PT
  • HW make up work!
  • Announcements
  • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th,
    200pm
  • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th
  • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!
  • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days
    next week!)

71
FRIDAY, JUNE 1ST (NB PG 44)
  • Obj Answer MCAS questions related to Smells
  • Lang. Obj use correct terms for atoms and the PT
  • HW make up work!
  • Announcements
  • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th,
    200pm
  • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th
  • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!
  • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days
    next week!)

72
FRIDAY, JUNE 1ST (NB PG 44)
  • Obj Answer MCAS questions related to Smells
  • Lang. Obj use correct terms for atoms and the PT
  • HW make up work!
  • Announcements
  • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th,
    200pm
  • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th
  • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!
  • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days
    next week!)

73
FRIDAY, JUNE 1ST (NB PG 44)
  • Obj Answer MCAS questions related to Smells
  • Lang. Obj use correct terms for atoms and the PT
  • HW make up work!
  • Announcements
  • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th,
    200pm
  • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th
  • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!
  • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days
    next week!)

74
FRIDAY, JUNE 1ST (NB PG 44)
  • Obj Answer MCAS questions related to Smells
  • Lang. Obj use correct terms for atoms and the PT
  • HW make up work!
  • Announcements
  • Make-up work deadline is Wednesday, June 13th,
    200pm
  • Chemistry MCAS is June 5th and 6th
  • AP Chemistry forms back ASAP!
  • Mr. Banks is afterschool Monday (no other days
    next week!)
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