Chapter 21: Changes in American Life Section 3: Segregation and Discrimination Section 4: Society and Mass Culture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 21: Changes in American Life Section 3: Segregation and Discrimination Section 4: Society and Mass Culture

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Chapter 21: Changes in American Life Section 3: Segregation and Discrimination Section 4: Society and Mass Culture At the turn of the Century (1900), there was still ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 21: Changes in American Life Section 3: Segregation and Discrimination Section 4: Society and Mass Culture


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Chapter 21 Changes in American LifeSection 3
Segregation and DiscriminationSection 4
Society and Mass Culture
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At the turn of the Century (1900), there was
still a lot of racism and discrimination across
the whole country.
  • Against African Americans, Asians, Native
    Americans, Mexicans, and many of the European
    immigrant groups.
  • Even the scientists said that whites were
    superior to every other race.
  • The South had some of the worst of these problems

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Finding ways to put restrictions on voting was
one of many forms of discrimination.
  • Laws were passed that set up reading tests as
    voter qualifications sometimes they were even
    written in Latin.
  • Voters were sometimes charged poll taxes.
  • One law said you couldnt vote if your ancestors
    before 1867 couldnt vote.

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There were also Jim Crow laws (12)
  • These were laws which involved separating whites
    and blacks in public places (schools, trolleys,
    public restrooms, drinking fountains,
    restaurants, etc)

Click here to see some Jim Crow Laws
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There was even an important court case which
backed these ideas (Plessy vs. Furgeson)
  • The supreme court said it was okay that this
    segregation was legal (that separate, but equal
    was okay).
  • Of course, equal ends up being the key word.

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African Americans continued to make advances
  • Booker T. Washington (16) (an ex-slave) started
    the Tuskegee Institute to help African Americans
    learn trades and gain economic strength. But to
    gain support for his institute, Washington didnt
    really challenge ideas of segregation.

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  • Washington was the dominant figure in the African
    American community in the United States from 1890
    to 1915, especially after he achieved prominence
    for his Atlanta Address of 1895.
  • To many politicians and the public in general, he
    was seen as a popular spokesperson for African
    American citizens. Representing the last
    generation of black leaders born into slavery, he
    was generally perceived as a credible proponent
    of educational improvements for those freedmen
    who had remained in the post-Reconstruction, Jim
    Crow South.
  • Throughout the final 20 years of his life, he
    maintained this standing through a nationwide
    network of core supporters in many communities,
    including black educators, ministers, editors and
    businessmen, especially those who were
    liberal-thinking on social and educational
    issues.
  • He gained access to top national leaders in
    politics, philanthropy and education, and was
    awarded honorary degrees. Critics called his
    network of supporters the "Tuskegee Machine."

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In June 1941, the Tuskegee program officially
began with formation of the 99th Fighter Squadron
at the Tuskegee Institute, a highly regarded
university founded by Booker T. Washington in
Tuskegee, Alabama.
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One person who did challenge segregation was
W.F.B. DuBois (19)
  • He encouraged African Americans to reject
    segregation.
  • He, and other reformers founded the N.A.A.C.P.
    (20)
  • (the National Association for the Advancement
    of Colored People)

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And the KKK was still around
  • More than 2500 African Americans were lynched
    between 1885 and 1900.
  • Ida B. Wells (21) is a southern women who tried
    to stop the lynchings.
  • She feared for her safety and ended up moving to
    Chicago.
  • Many other Blacks moved North to escape the
    violence, but the North had some of the same
    issues.
  • For example, in 1908, two blacks were lynched
    just a few blocks from Lincolns home.

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Cartoon by Thomas Nast. As the Jim Crow system
emerged, African Americans sought better
opportunities in the West. Simultaneously,
Chinese escaping from the Anti-Chinese violence
in the West migrated to the East, establishing
Chinatowns in Chicago and New York among others.
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When all the immigrants came, people felt there
was a great need to educate them.
  • Public schools as we know them began about this
    time.
  • As more people became educated, they began to
    read more so books and newspapers became more
    popular.
  • Two of these early newspaper pioneers were
    Joseph Pulitzer (29) and William Randolph Hearst
    (30)

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When newspapers started growing in popularity, so
did the idea of advertising in them.
  • These helped people learn about new inventions
    and where people could get them.
  • Department stores began to open one man who
    opened one in Chicago was Marshall Field.

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People who didnt live near a department store
could order things through the mail
  • Companies like Montgomery Ward, and Sears Roebuck
    sent out mail-order catalogues, where you could
    get just about anything.
  • And, the post office was now even going to
    deliver mail out to the country

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Since more people were now living in the cities
  • With all kinds of new inventions and
    technologies
  • They didnt have to work the long, hard hours
    farmers had to
  • And labor unions were getting better working
    conditions (less hours) for workers
  • These city people had a lot more free time on
    their hands.

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10 largest U.S. cities in 1900according to the
census
  1. New York (3,437,000)
  2. Chicago (1,100,000)
  3. Philadelphia
  4. Boston
  5. St. Louis
  6. Baltimore
  7. Cleveland
  8. Buffalo
  9. San Francisco (343,000)
  10. Cincinnati

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In 1900 more leisure time
  • Sports were starting to grow (baseball was the
    only professional sport)
  • No radio or TV though (big stadiums were built)

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  • Womens clothes were still conservative
  • Bicycles (one of most common forms of recreation
    for common people)

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Commercial Entertainment started to become popular
  • Vaudeville (40)
  • Soap Operas
  • Burlesque

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Trolley Parks / Amusement Parks
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Public Pools / Swimming
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In about 10 years Automobile (only for the rich)
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Kinetoscope (early moving pictures)
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Nickelodeons 5 cent movies(1st movie
theaters)
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Zoos
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