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The SOLS before 1995

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Title: The SOLS before 1995


1
The SOLS before 1995
  • Alisa, Beth, Bruce, Jack and Marty

2
Problem 1
  • Review the History of Virginias SOLS up to the
    1995 version. Review back to the introduction of
    the term. Provide an overview including the
    revision, reform and accountability processes.
    Remember standards other that 4 core classes.
    Include reference to your text in terms of your
    belief of the model or theory found in the
    development of the Virginia SOLs.

3
Why do we have standards?
  • Americans expect standards in everything that we
    do.
  • We expect standards in the way buildings are
    constructed and roads are build. It makes life
    safer.
  • We expect standards in the food we eat and the
    air we breathe.
  • Standards are created because they improve the
    quality of life.
  • Why should we not expect standards in education
    to improve the quality of life as well?
  • (Former Assistant Secretary of Education, Diane
    Ravitch)

4
The Reform of Schools, 1939
  • Effective standards in public education are
    deplorably and inexcusably low
  • The subjects are being taught but they are not
    being learned
  • Values come from learning and in standards which
    operate, not just going to school. Young people
    accumulate credits, pass courses and come out
    knowing little or nothing, it is intolerable
  • Research demonstrates that the average pupil in
    school fails to learn but succeeds in passing
  • (The Reform of Schools by James L. Mursell)

5
The Committee of Ten
  • 1894
  • Called for an established academic curriculum for
    all high school students
  • Considered methods of instruction and
    assessment among other things

6
Interview 1 Science Teacher
  • How did you know what to teach?
  • Did you feel pressure?
  • Assessment?
  • You followed the book
  • The English Department choose a book and we did a
    unit around the book
  • Myths taught stars
  • A Day No Pigs Would Die taught soil
  • Forget the SOLS. Do fun stuff. Do feel good
    activities
  • 1996 The pressure began
  • LPT

7
Interview 2 Math Teacher
  • How did you know what to teach?
  • Did you feel pressure?
  • Assessment?
  • It was based on Units, the novels the English
    department read.
  • Covered what they thought was important (but not
    necessarily what they liked)
  • List of skills to teach and followed the list for
    Algebra
  • Hands on activities
  • 1998 The real pressure began
  • LPT
  • Liked SRA tests and the Stanford 9 because they
    liked knowing how we compared to others.

8
Interview 3 Science Teacher - Administrator
  • How did you know what to teach?
  • Assessment
  • Taught the SOLS. I was the only one and the
    principal wanted to know what I was teaching
  • 1987 Taught units but still followed SOLS
  • Teacher made tests
  • LPT (Math/Science Blocks around LPT time double
    up on math)
  • SRA and Stanford 9 were worthless

9
Opinions of then and now
  • SOLS are much better.
  • We know what to teach.
  • Kids are learning more
  • Teachers are teaching more.
  • Hate the pressure but like the results.

10
LPT Literacy Passport Test
  • Criterion based
  • 1989-90 The LPT was developed to determine if
    every student in Virginia was prepared for high
    school in the basic areas.
  • Test was given to 6th graders
  • Covered reading, math, and a writing sample
  • Skills and knowledge assessed were based on
    Virginias 1988 SOLS

11
LPT cont
  • Developed as a requirement for students to be
    classified as 9th graders.
  • All students, no exceptions, were required to
    pass to earn a Standard of Advanced Diploma
  • Students (except Special Education students) must
    have passed by the 9th grade to participate
    according to VHSL rules and cannot hold class
    office because they are not considered 9th
    graders.

12
Stanford 9
  • Norm referenced test
  • Designed to provide information on academic
    achievement of Virginia Students as compared with
    those in other states
  • Reading vocabulary and comprehension
  • Math problem solving and procedures
  • Language prewriting, composing and editing
  • You didnt teach to the test as with SOLS but you
    didnt want your students looking bad compared to
    other schools around the nation.

13
Iowa Testing
  • Measures the skills and achievement of students
    from kindergarten through grade 8
  • Tests include reading, language arts, math,
    social studies, and science
  • Provides information about development of
    students skills and their critical thinking
    skills.

14
National Assessment of Educational Progress
  • Assesses what student should know about
    geography, reading, writing, math, science,
    history, the arts, and civics
  • 1969 surveyed achievement at ages 9, 13 and 17
  • 1980s grades 4, 8, 12
  • Not given to every school but to random schools
    nationwide
  • 1994 Virginias NAEP reading scores are the
    lowest in the nation.
  • 1995 Virginia first adopts the SOLS in response
    to NAEP test scores

15
SOLS other than 4 core content areas
  • Pe/Health 2000
  • Music 1983, 1987, 2000
  • Art 1989, 2000
  • Correlated Dance and Theater to the 1995 SOLs

16
The Remainder of the presentation..
  • A Nation at Risk and the early SOLS
  • Charlottesville Summit and NCTM standards
  • SCANS Report
  • Goals 2000 Act and the Allen Administration

17
A NATION AT RISK
  • Published in 1983 by the National Commission on
    Excellence in Education

18
I. Goals
  • Asses the quality of teaching and learning
  • Compare American education with other
    industrialized nations
  • Study the relationship between high school
    achievement and college admissions
  • Identify programs which result in student success
    in college
  • Assess how reforms have influenced student
    achievement

19
II. Findings
  • Regarding Content
  • - No central purpose in curriculum
  • - Cafeteria style curriculum
  • - Too much student choice
  • - Too many electives in non - core areas
  • Expectations
  • - measured through graduation requirements,
  • exams and college admissions

20
  • Deficiencies
  • - not enough homework
  • - not enough time in class
  • - no foreign language requirements
  • - too many electives
  • - minimums becoming maximums
  • - weak textbooks

21
  • Regarding Teaching
  • - mismanaged time in classrooms
  • - unqualified teachers
  • - subject content not being taught
  • - shortage of teachers in significant areas
  • - study skills not being developed

22
III. Recommendations
  • Teach the Core Curriculum
  • Use outside resources to aid education
  • Introduce foreign language sooner
  • Elementary education should involve fundamentals
    and a love of learning
  • Vocational and fine art courses should be
    included in high school

23
  • - More homework
  • - Instruction in study skills
  • - Longer school year and school day
  • - Removal of students who have no interest
  • in learning
  • - Ability grouping
  • - Teachers should teach

24
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
  • NTCM, 1986

25
What did NCTM do?
  • They took the first step toward preparing todays
    students for tomorrows challenges.
  • It charged the Commission on Standards for School
    Mathematics to create
  • A coherent definition of what it means to be
    mathematically literate, and
  • A set of standards that would guide efforts to
    revise and improve school mathematics curricula
    and to evaluate the success of mathematics
    reform.

26
NCTM developed its Standards in response to a
recognized need for change in the teaching and
learning of mathematics.
27
The NCTM Standards
  • Learn to value mathematics.
  • Learn to reason mathematically.
  • Learn to communicate mathematically.
  • Become confident of their mathematical abilities.
  • Become mathematical problem solvers.

28
The Charlottesville Education Summit, September
1989
  • President George Bush
  • The Education President
  • And
  • The Nations 50 Governors

29
Why?
  • There were growing concerns about the educational
    preparation of our youth.

30
What else contributed?
  • A Nation at Risk
  • Insignificant improvement of student achievement
    scores
  • The need of better educated labor to remain
    competitive globally
  • A need to stimulate public support for state and
    local schooling
  • Highly controversial wall charts

31
Six Goals
  • Annually increasing the number of children served
    by preschool programs with the goal of serving
    all at-risk 4-year-olds by 1995.
  • Raising the basic skills achievement of all
    students to at least their grade level, and
    reducing the gap between the test scores of
    minority and white children by 1993.
  • Improving the high school graduation rate every
    year and reducing the number of illiterate
    Americans.

32
Six Goals, continued
  • Improving the performance of American students in
    mathematics, science, and foreign languages until
    it exceeds that of students from other
    industrialized nations.
  • Increasing college participation, particularly by
    minorities, and specifically by reducing the
    current imbalance between grants and loans.
  • Recruiting more new teachers, particularly
    minority teachers, to ease the impending teacher
    shortage, and taking other steps to upgrade the
    status of the profession.

33
The President and the Nations Governors Agreed
to
  • Establish a process for setting national
    education goals.
  • Seek greater flexibility and enhanced
    accountability in the use of Federal resources to
    meet goals through legislative and regulation
    changes.
  • Undertake a major state-by-state effort to
    restructure our education system.
  • Report annually the progress in achieving our
    goals.

34
SCANS
  • Secretarys Commission on Achieving Necessary
    Skills (June 1991)
  • Report prepared as part of America 2000
  • Asked to examine demands of the workplace and
    evaluate young peoples ability to meet the demand

35
Findings Were Disturbing!
  • More than 1/2 of all students were leaving school
    without the foundation or knowledge required to
    find hold a good job!
  • Echoes of A Nation at Risk?

36
Workplace Know-How
  • Part of the World Class Standards
  • Three Part Foundation
  • Five Essential Competencies

37
Resources allocating time, money, materials,
space, and staffInterpersonal Skills working
on teams, teaching others, serving customers,
leading, negotiating, and working well with
people from culturally diverse backgroundsInfor
mation acquiring and evaluating data, organizing
and maintaining files, interpreting and
communicating, and using computers to process
informationSystems understanding social,
organizational, and technological systems,
monitoring and correcting performance, and
designing or improving systemsTechnology
selecting equipment and tools, applying
technology to specific tasks, and maintaining and
troubleshooting technologies.
5 Essential Competencies
38
THREE FOUNDATIONAL AREAS
Basic Skills reading, writing, arithmetic and
mathematics, speaking, and listening Thinking
Skills thinking creatively, making decisions,
solving problems, seeing things in the mind's
eye, knowing how to learn, and reasoning Personal
Qualities individual responsibility,
self-esteem, sociability, self-management, and
integrity.
39
SCANS Action Items
  • Examine creation of an assessment system for
    teaching students to understand what they need to
    know and CERTIFY that they have MASTERED
    COMPETENCIES so that their performance in high
    school may be honored by employers and colleges

40
SCANS Action Items
  • Consider the implications of the findings for
    curriculum development, school organization,
    teacher training, and instructional materials
    technology AND
  • Help the administration establish the
    partnerships called for in America 2000

41
EXCERPTS FROM AMERICA 2000'sFOUR-PART STRATEGY
  • Part 1
  • For Todays Students Better and More
    Accountable Schools World Class Standards
  • Part 2
  • For Tomorrows Students help communities
    create schools that will reach the national
    education goals, including World Class Standards

42
GOALS 2000 EDUCATE AMERICA ACT passed in
1994under President Clinton
43
Goals 2000
  • To improve learning and teaching by providing a
    national framework for education reform to
    promote the research, consensus building, and
    systemic changes needed to ensure equitable
    educational opportunities and high levels of
    educational achievement for all students to
    provide a framework for reauthorization of all
    Federal education programs to promote the
    development and adoption of a voluntary national
    system of skill standards and certifications and
    for other purposes.

44
The 8 Goals
  • GOAL 1 All children in America will start school
    ready to learn.
  • GOAL 2 The high school graduation rate will
    increase to at least 90.

45
  • GOAL 3 All students will leave grades 4, 8, and
    12 having demonstrated competency over
    challenging subject matter including English,
    mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics
    and government, economics, arts, history, and
    geography, and every school in America will
    ensure that all students learn to use their minds
    well, so they may be prepared for responsible
    citizenship, further learning, and productive
    employment in our nation's modern economy.

46
  • GOAL 4 The nation's teaching force will have
    access to programs for the continued improvement
    of their professional skills and the opportunity
    to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to
    instruct and prepare all American students for
    the next century.

47
  • GOAL 5 United States students will be first in
    the world in mathematics and science achievement.
  • GOAL 6 Every adult American will be literate and
    will possess the knowledge and skills necessary
    to compete in a global economy and exercise the
    rights and responsibilities of citizenship.

48
  • GOAL 7 Every school in the United States will be
    free of drugs, violence, and the unauthorized
    presence of firearms and alcohol and will offer a
    disciplined environment conducive to learning.
  • GOAL 8 Every school will promote partnerships
    that will increase parental involvement and
    participation in promoting the social, emotional,
    and academic growth of children.

49
To have access to funding under Goals 2000,
states had to
  • submit grant proposals
  • submit "improvement plans" for the U.S. Secretary
    of Education's approval
  • receive penalties for failure to comply with
    their own improvement plans
  • form "partnerships" between local schools,
    businesses, and institutions of higher education
    and
  • coordinate their Goals 2000 efforts with
    School-to-Work and other social reform programs.

50
Goals 2000 also established aNATIONAL EDUCATION
STANDARDS AND IMPROVEMENT COUNCIL to certify and
periodically review voluntary national content
standards and voluntary national student
performance standards that define what all
students should know and be able to do, etc.
  • No one was ever appointed to this council

51
Goals 2000 was amended in 1996
  • The amendment, among other things, refocused the
    accountability provisions of the legislation, but
    did not change the framework for the
    standards-based reform plans States were to
    develop and implement.

52
With the final language of the No Child Left
Behind Act came the withdrawal of all
authorization for Goals 2000. Just before leaving
town on December 21, 2001, Congress passed the
Fiscal Year 2002 Education Appropriations
Conference Committee report which eliminated
spending on Goals 2000. Goals 2000 no longer
authorized and now no longer funded, was dead.
http//www.hslda.org/docs/nche/000010/200209010.
asp
53
Meanwhile, in Virginia
54
Virginia was one of two states to refuse Goals
2000 funding. Governor George Allen rejected the
funding because the federal dollars came with
too many strings attached.
55
Allen reversed his position for FY 96 and 97 and
accepted funding, because, according to a
spokesman, the strings to federal oversight have
disappeared. Cavalier Daily, 1/17/97
56
Governor Allen
  • In 1993, appointed a gubernatorial transition
    team for educational policy
  • In 1994, charged the state legislators to do four
    things establish rigorous Standards of Learning
    (SOLs) for students, establish new Standards of
    Accreditation (SOAs) for schools and school
    systems, develop a plan of action for meeting new
    standards, hold school systems accountable for
    the performance of their students

57
New VA Standards of Learning
  • In 1994, 4 lead school divisions were selected to
    head the process of developing new SOLs

58
Lead School Divisions
  • FAIRFAX COUNTY MATHEMATICS
  • PRINCE WILLIAM COUNTYSCIENCE
  • VIRGINIA BEACHENGLISH
  • NEWPORT NEWSHISTORY/ SOCIAL STUDIES

59
In September 1994, an initial draft for each core
academic area was presented to the Superintendent
of Public Instruction. The standards were then
presented initially to the Standards Subcommittee
of the Governors Champion Schools Commission
and, finally, to the full commission. Following
the revisions, the draft standards were ready to
be presented to the Board of Education for final
adoption. In all, more than 5000 Virginians were
involved in this process of evaluation and
development.VA DOE
60
June 1995New SOLs approved by the state Board of
EducationJuly 1995SOLs distributed to local
school divisions
61
References
  • www.pen.k12.va.us
  •  http//www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/suptsmemos/1997/inf
    152.html
  • http//www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/VA_Board/bd-mtd-updt
    /mtg1-898.html
  • http//www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Parents/ptasolna.pdf
  • www.riverpub.com
  • www.edaction.org
  • www.has.vcu.edu
  • www.sjraiders.org
  • What Should Children Learn by Paul Gagnon (1995)
  • The Reform of Schools by James L. Mursell (1939)
  • A Comprehensive Guided to Designing
    Standard-Based Districts, Schools and Classrooms
    by Robert J. Marzano and John S. Kendall
  • Informal interview of teachers, staff and testing
    coordinator
  • http//www.ed.gov/G2K/GoalsRpt/append-e.html
  • http//www.policyreview.org/fall95/thhim.html
  • http//www.cblpolicyinstitute.org/goodleaders.htm
  • http//www.cavalierdaily.com2001/.Archives/1996/A
    pril/26/nsgoals.asp
  • http//www.edweek.org/ew/vol-15/28summit.h15
  • http//www.ncpa.org/press/allenfedpr.html
  • http//www.cblpolicyinstitute.org/lil.htm

62
References
  • http//www.pdkintl.org/kappan/koha0002.htm
  • http//www.hslda.org/docs/nche/000010/200209010.as
    p
  • National Commission on Excellence in Education. A
    Nation AtRisk, 1981.
  • Dr. Robert Grimesey, Jr.  Superintendent,
    Alleghany CountyPublic Schools. interview.
  • Mrs. Mary Jane Mutispaugh. Supervisor of
    Instruction, AlleghanyCounty Public Schools. 
    interview.
  • Commonwealth of Virginia Board of Education,
    CurriculumFramework United States History. 
    Richmond, VA.  2001.
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