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China in the 20th Century

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Title: China in the 20th Century


1
China in the 20th Century
2
China is dominated by foreign powers in the 19th
Century
  • The Opium War (1839-1842) allows the British to
    force themselves into China. Soon all powers
    develop Spheres of Influence and the weakened
    Chinese government can do nothing to stop it.
  • Extraterritoriality Foreigners living in China
    were not subject to Chinese laws.

3
  • The turn of the century, thanks to the United
    States supporting an Open-Door Policy, allowed
    China to remain in control of their lands by
    keeping the Western powers satisfied that they
    would not have to conquer Chinese territory to
    have a beneficial economic status there.

4
China did not have political stability!
  • The Chinese Manchu dynasty come to an end in
    1911. The Era of Civil War
  • Many different groups and forces within China
    tried to gain control of the country. The
    Nationalists were led by Sun Yat-sen (died in
    1925) and, later military hero, Chiang Kai-shek
    (sometimes called Jiang Jieshi) and these men
    worked to unify the country.

5
  • Chiang Kai-shek focused his reforms on the rising
    Urban Middle Class and sought to make his
    improvements with their support. Chiang Kai-shek
    said, The Japanese are a disease of the skin,
    but Communists are a disease of the heart.
  • Chiang led an attack against the Communists in
    Shanghai (South China) in 1927, killed thousands,
    and forced the Communist leaders into hiding.

6
The Long March
  • The Communist fled and tried to establish control
    there. They were again attacked by Chiang
    Kai-sheks Nationalist forces and surrounded.
    Mao and the Communists broke through the lines
    and began the Long March to a base in Northwest
    China.

7
The Long March
  • The Long March took the communist Peoples
    Liberation Army (PLA) on a 6000 mile journey and
    of the 90,000 that started only 9,000 reached the
    safety of the base. With these 9,000, Mao begins
    to rebuild the Communist movement in China. Mao
    believes that a revolution in China must come
    from the peasants that represent 80 of the
    Chinese population.

8
Sino-Japanese War and WWII
  • In the 1930s the Japanese attacked China and both
    the Nationalists and Communists fought against
    them. But by the end of the war, two separate
    governments existed in China the Nationalist
    under Chiang Kai-shek (and supported by the USA)
    in South and Central China, and the Communist
    government led by Mao in the North and West and
    supported by the Soviet Union.

9
Chang and the Nationalists Flee to
Taiwan
  • After the war, the Communists and Nationalists
    fought for control of China and in 1949 Chiang
    and the remainder of the Nationalists fled to
    Taiwan and the Communists take over the
    government!
  • Taiwan continues to call themselves the Republic
    of China, but has been recognized by few
    governments who do not wish to offend 1/5 of the
    worlds population.

10
The Great Leap Forward
  • The Great Leap Forward took place in 1958. The
    Great Leap Forward was Maos attempt to modernize
    Chinas economy so that by 1988 China would have
    an economy that rivaled America.

11
The Red Guard
  • During the Cultural Revolution, the Red Guards
    traveled throughout China, going to schools,
    universities, and institutions, spreading the
    teachings of Mao. Some were criticized for using
    violence against people who were believed to be
    taking things back to capitalism.
  • The role of Red Guard was mainly to attack the
    "Four Olds" of society, that is what is believed
    to be old ideas, cultures, manners, and customs
    of China at the time.

12
Cultural Revolution
  • The Cultural Revolution was launched by Chinese
    Communist Party chairman Mao Zedong during his
    last decade in power (1966-76) to renew the
    spirit of the Chinese revolution.
  • He feared that China would develop along the
    lines of the Soviet model and was concerned about
    his own place in history.
  • Mao threw China's cities into turmoil in a
    monumental effort to reverse the historic
    processes underway.

13
Four Goals for the Cultural Revolution
  • To replace his designated successors with leaders
    more faithful to his current thinking
  • To rectify the Chinese Communist Party
  • To provide China's youth with a revolutionary
    experience
  • To achieve some specific policy changes so as to
    make the educational, health care, and cultural
    systems less elitist

14
The Four Modernizations under Deng Xiaoping
  • The Four Modernizations were designed to make
    China a great economic power by the early 21st
    century. These reforms essentially stressed
    economic self-reliance.
  • The People's Republic of China decided to
    accelerate the modernization process by stepping
    up the volume of foreign trade by opening up its
    markets, especially the purchase of machinery
    from Japan and the West.

15
Results of the Four Modernizations
  • By participating in such export-led growth, China
    was able to speed up its economic development
    through foreign investment, a more open market,
    access to advanced technologies, and management
    experience.

16
Tiananmen Square Protest
  • A series of demonstrations led by labor
    activists, students, and intellectuals in the
    People's Republic of China (PRC) between April 15
    and June 4, 1989. While the protests lacked a
    unified cause or leadership, participants were
    generally against the authoritarianism and
    economic policies of the ruling Chinese Communist
    Party and voiced calls for democratic reform
    within the structure of the government.
  • In Beijing, the resulting military crackdown on
    the protesters by the PRC government left many
    civilians dead or injured.

17
China US Trade Relations
Year Exports Imports Balance
2007 Totals 65,238.3 321,507.8 -256,269.5
2002 Totals 22,127.7 125,192.6 -103,064.9
1997 Totals 12,862.2 62,557.7 -49,695.5
1992 Totals 7,418.5 25,727.5 -18,309.0
1987 Totals 3,497.3 6,293.6 -2,796.3
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