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The Rise and Rule of Mao Zedong

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Title: The Rise and Rule of Mao Zedong


1
The Rise and Rule of Mao Zedong
  • IB 20th Century Topics

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  • Referred to as Chairman Mao
  • Chinese communist revolutionary
  • guerrilla warfare strategist
  • author
  • political theorist
  • and leader of the Chinese Revolution.
  • He was the architect of the People's Republic of
    China (PRC) from its establishment in 1949, and
    held authoritarian control over the nation until
    his death in 1976.
  • His theoretical contribution to Marxism-Leninism,
    along with his military strategies and brand of
    political policies, are now collectively known as
    Maoism.

5
Early Life
  • Born in 1893
  • His father was a poor peasant who was able to
    become a landowner and businessman
  • Received a basic education and learned a lot
    about political and economic problems in China
    (e.g. widespread famines)

6
DISCUSS Based on these sources, what is one
problem the Chinese were facing when Mao was
growing up?
7
China As Mao Was Growing Up Problems With the
Manchu Dynasty
  • The emperors were not strong leaders, which
    trickled down to other government officials, who
    were incompetent
  • Heavy taxes were put on the people
  • Large disparity between the rich and poor
  • Widespread poverty
  • Govt officials accepted money and gifts for
    political appointments
  • Foreign countries had spheres of influence where
    they dominated

8
Communism
  • Moved to City 1918 Quickly became a strong
    believer in Communism and edited radical
    magazines, organized trade unions, and started
    schools of his own.
  • Became one of the 50 founding members of the
    Chinese Communist Party
  • Failed in his early attempts to be a leader in
    the Party and his role in Party activities was
    decreased dramatically
  • Inspired by Communist revolution in Russia

9
Focus on the Peasants
  • Mao went back to Rural China
  • He learned peasants financial situation and the
    ways they were being abused by the landowning
    class
  • Rose again as a leader in the Party, where he
    advocated that peasants should lead the revolution

10
Based on this map, what struggles is China having
in the 1930s?
11
  • Mao Zedong forms Communist Party
  • New Nationalist leader Jiang Kai-Shek
  • 1927 Northern Expedition eliminate Communist
  • This essentially starts the war

12
The Long March 1934-1935
  • Was a military retreat of Mao and his Red army to
    avoid Nationalist
  • Retreat to rural Northern Areas
  • In these territories they gain peasant support
    and rebuild red Army
  • Long March helped place Mao in a position of
    Power
  • After he would become leader of Communist

13
  • Mao Zedong- becomes leader of Chinese Communists
    during the
  • Long March
  • -advocated land reform tax reform gained
    peasant support
  • Result - peasants joined
    Communists
  • - many join Red Army (Communist Army)
  • - could resist Nationalists

14
Based on the following quotes, what is one of
Maos ideas about society?
  • A great many so-called intellectuals are
    actually exceedingly unlearned . . . The
    knowledge of workers and peasants is sometimes
    greater than theirs.
  • Books cannot walk, and you can open and close a
    book at will this is the easiest thing in the
    world to do, a great deal easier than it is for
    the cook to prepare a meal . . . or for him to
    slaughter a pig.

15
The Chinese Civil War
  • Chinese Civil War
  • Kuomintang or Guomintang Nationalist vs CCP
    Communist
  • 1927-1937 Initial Civil War
  • 1937-1945 Stop to fight the Japanese
  • 1946-1949 Communist Victory

16
Chinese Civil War continues after WWII 1945-1949
  • Communist
  • Mao Zedong- Red Army
  • Rural areas Northern China
  • -USSR SUPPORT-spread com
  • -Rural and poor supported
  • Promise land for all
  • Nationalist
  • Jiang Kai Shek-
  • Control Cities in southern China
  • -USA SUPPORT- capitalism
  • Wealthy supported

17
Stronger Red Army won Civil War -2 Chinas
  • 1.Republic of China (Nationalist)- moves to
    Island of Taiwan
  • -US support
  • 2.Peoples Republic of China (communist) -1949
    lead by Mao Zedong
  • Create alliance with USSR
  • China expands-1950s China takes Tibet,
    Mongolia, parts of India

18
Relationship Between Leadership and the Masses
  • Mao developed a program of contact with the
    masses that became known as the mass line.
  • Investigating the conditions of people
  • Learning about and participating in their
    struggles
  • Gathering ideas from them
  • Creating a plan of action based on these ideas
    and concerns
  • It was a powerful tool of propaganda. By 1945,
    the communists had reached 100 million people and
    the mass line was carried to the people by 1
    million members

19
The Cult of Mao
  • Mao became the chairman of the Communist Central
    Committee
  • All the leaders in the party praised him and
    encouraged people to listen to his wisdom
  • In 1943, several leaders in the Party began to
    rewrite Chinese Party history so that Mao would
    be seen as responsible for all the advances of
    the Party

20
What does the following excerpt suggest about
Maos Power?
  • The Chinese Communist Party takes Mao Zedongs
    thought the thought that unites
    Marxist-Leninist theory and the practice of the
    Chinese revolution as the guide for all its
    work, and opposes all dogmatic or empiricist
    deviations. Preamble to the Constitution of the
    Communist Party

21
Peoples Republic of China - 1949
  • Communist have full control by1949
  • Maos ideas formed the basis for all Party
    activities and government decisions
  • They took control of the media and the education
    system and began taking land away from the
    wealthy and distributing it among all people

22
Maos Domestic Policy
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Collectivization
  • 1950s- gave land to peasants live and work on
    together
  • Wealthy had land taken
  • Private companies were nationalized.
  • Those who refused to give land were executed or
    sent to work camps
  • Communes were created where entire community
    would work land together

24
2. Great Leap Forward
  • In January of 1958, five-year plan
  • Planned to develop agriculture and industry

25
Great Leap Forward - 1958
  • Attempt to modernize China
  • People were forced to grow grain and melt metals
    down to produce steel
  • Given quotas to reach or they would get punished
  • Lied about quotes and actually under produced
    food
  • Led to widespread famine and death
  • Damaged Maos reputation

26
Great Leap?
  • Hoped to catch up to England and surpass America
  • Unproven and unscientific new agricultural
    techniques were implemented
  • Under this plan the economy nearly collapsed

27
Great Leap Backward
  • The entire country were forced to recycle steel,
    and food reserves were depleted
  • Millions of people died, mainly due to famine

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3. Cultural Revolution
  • Mao needed a comeback
  • He organized students and mobilized them
    throughout the country to spread his ideas and
    wipe out anyone who tried to contradict him
  • He created an extremely effective propaganda
    campaign that again brought him back to power.

29
The Cultural Revolution
  • 1966-1976
  • Maos tactic to secure his power against reforms
  • Red Guards were formed in 1966

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The Red Guards
  • Red Guards were a mass movement of civilians,
    mostly students and other young people in China
    were mobilized by Mao Zedong in 1966 and 1967,
    during the Cultural Revolution

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The Cultural Revolution
  • Red Guards to attack the 'Four Olds' of Chinese
    society (old customs, old culture, old habits and
    old ideas).
  • Old books and art were destroyed,
  • museums were ransacked,
  • streets were renamed with new revolutionary names
  • Many famous temples, shrines, and other heritage
    sites in Beijing were attacked

32
Cultural Rev Cont
  • Forced bureaucrats, professors, technicians,
    intellectuals, and other non-peasants into rural
    work
  • It is estimated that seven million were killed
    during the decade
  • Chinas economy suffered

33
  • DISCUSS
  • WHY DID THE CHINESE GOV AND ECONOMY FAIL DURING
    THIS PERIOD?

34
Maos Foreign Policy
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Support of Foreign Revolutions
  • Supported and funded Communist Revolutions
  • Funded N. Korea in their attack on the south
  • Sent 300,000 troops to fight for N Korea
  • Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia

36
US and USSR Relations
  • 1950 Signed Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and
    Alliance
  • Mao trusted respected Stalin
  • 1953 Stalin Dies USSR under Khrushchev starts
    De-Stalinization
  • China Losses Respect of USSR
  • Conflict over what form of communism to spread
  • China Denounce USSR for Cuba
  • USSR denounce China for attacking India
  • 1968-69 Border Crisis
  • Bad Relations Between USSR China
  • Shanghai Communiqué 1972 US and China begin
    Communications

37
Maos Opposition
  • Mao never really succeeded in destroying entire
    opposition
  • Mao set up a Chinese Gulag - an empire of slave
    labor camps filled with poorly fed
    "counter-revolutionaries."

38
Maos Death Counts
  • Under Mao Murdered 40 million or more
  • The majority of Maos killings were because of
    man-made famine
  • Mao executed nearly 10 million educated
    professionals, and others

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Maos End
  • At the age of 82, Mao died September 9, 1976
  • After his death there was a power struggle in
    China, but eventually moderates came to power and
    Maos regime came to an end
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