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Title: AUSTRALIAN FOREIGN POLICY


1
Unit 4 AOS 2
  • AUSTRALIAN FOREIGN POLICY

2
Some Key Areas
  • Change in
  • Orientations
  • and Goals
  • of AFP

Historical Background
Security Alliance
Regional Relationships
Economic Dimension
Debate About National Interest
Recent Changes in AFP
The Role of Internationalism
3
  • The historical background to
  • Australian foreign
  • policy

4
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5
Underlying Themes in AFP
  • Protection of its own physical security and
    ultimately its own survival as a white
    Anglo-Saxon society - based on large land mass
    huge coast line and small population fear.
    Examples White Australian Policy. We are the
    frightened country.-David Hunter Deakin
    University.
  • Distrust in our nearest neighbours. -Yellow
    Peril, not like us
  • Threat mentality we are at danger of being
    invaded because of our land, resources, wealth
    etc..
  • A need for a Great Powerful Friend - to defend
    us as we could not defend ourselves need help and
    help from who we trust the most.

6
FOREIGN POLICY 1900 - 1945
  • Well into the 20th century Australian FP was a
    matter decided by the national interests of the
    British Commonwealth. Grey (1990) has referred to
    this policy of securing our defence through
    contributions to the British empires defence as
    an expeditionary force mentality.
  • Strong desire to show are capability to help and
    support the British Empire. Fought in Boer War,
    WW I and WW II. Note language used
  • see Firth pp 8-9
  • WW I Australian casualties
  • 215,585 casualties of the 331,781 total troops
    who fought at a very high rate of 64.98
  • In fact Australia did not have its own Department
    of Foreign Affairs until 1936! No separate
    source of information, opinion or voice was
    deemed to be necessary.
  • But Australia did take control of Papua in 1906,
    1911 saw the establishment of the Australian
    Navy, the Australian Imperial Forces (1914)
  • In 1941 Prime Minister Curtin declared that
    Australia looks to America, free of any pangs as
    to our traditional links or kinship with the UK.
  • UK however, could do little to help us once
    Singapore fell in 1942. Therefore we shifted our
    focus to gaining support from the USA. Still
    needed a GPF.

7
THE COLD WAR
  • Establishment of ANZUS alliance in 1951. Navel
    communication base in WA in 1963. Finally
    abolished the White Australia Policy in 1972
    under Whitlam.
  • SEATO South East Asia Treaty Organisation
    (1954) was established in order to oppose further
    communist gains in Asia. Never really effective
    and was dissolved in 1975.
  • Rearming and rebuilding of Japan to counter the
    spread of communism in North Asia.
  • Adoption of Forward Defence principle
  • Vietnam (1962-72) 46,000 troops but much
    criticism over Australias willingness to fight
    other peoples wars. It did provide excellent
    opportunities to exchange share military
    defence technology.
  • Fear of red peril the domino theory in the
    Australian mindset. Supported the US policy of
    containment.

8
The whitlam government 1972-1975
  • The ALP had been in opposition since 1949 until
    the election of Gough Whitlam as PM ushered in
    one of he most transformative periods of AFP
    ever. In just three years the Whitlam government
  • Recognised East Germany and the PRC
  • Abolished conscription and withdrew troops from
    South Vietnam
  • Raised Australias criticism of colonial powers
    in Africa
  • Took France to the ICJ over its nuclear bomb
    testing in the South Pacific
  • Abolished the last remnants of the WAP
  • Condemned US bombing missions into North Vietnam
  • Accepted the Indonesian invasion of East Timor in
    1975
  • Chose to accept the existence of US bases on
    Australian soil
  • Asserted a more independent stance for AFP than
    all previous Australian governments.making
    enemies along the way.

9
The Fraser Government 1975-1983
  • Like Whitlam, Malcolm Fraser took a very active
    approach to the formulation of AFP, but with a
    more traditional pro-US focus
  • He distrusted the USSR but chose to not respond
    to the invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and
    accepted Australias participation in the 1980
    Moscow Olympics
  • Developed stronger relations with many African
    developing states to diminish racism and boost
    fairness in global trade
  • Supported the embargo on South Africa because of
    its apartheid policies
  • Encouraged a shift towards Asian immigration into
    Australia.
  • Actively encouraged Australians to look toward
    Asia without the bias and prejudices of the past.

10
Hawke Keating governments 1983-1996
  • This was an era of dramatic changes in the focus
    and purpose of AFP. In this period there were
    not only significant events to deal with but also
    a wide range of initiatives taken up by F.M.s
    Hayden and later on Evans.
  • Globalisation of Australian financial markets
  • Created DFAT in 1987
  • Established the Cairns Group to campaign for
    global trade reform
  • Signed the CER with NZ
  • Helped create the Asia- Pacific Economic
    Cooperation (APEC)
  • Encouraged a more Asian focus on trade and
    regional relationships
  • Reiterated the importance of the US alliance
    especially after NZ left ANZUS in 1985..Together
    forever (Hawke). Creation of AUSMIN
  • Enthusiastically sent two frigates to the
    blockade of Iraq in Gulf War
  • Maintained strong ties with Indonesia despite the
    issue of East Timor

Take Brief Notes pp 42-48
11
  • Security
  • and
  • alliance
  • relationships

12
ALLIANCES
  • An alliance is a form of marriage or liaison for
    certain purposes, with all problems of
    compatibility, pride, shared interest varying
    expectations that relationships bring.
  • Alliances offer participants many things,
    depending on the nature of the alliance itself
    its particular provisions.
  • For Australia, the ANZUS alliance is the basic
    document underlying a range of bilateral
    agreements and treaties which support an intense
    military, scientific and intelligence
    collaboration.
  • K. Beazley Australias ambassador to the US
    February 2011

13
For More than sixty years
  • The key focus or essence of Australias foreign
    policy has been its very special relationship
    with the USA. The relationship forged in World
    War 2, has been remarkably strong and resilient
    and survived every issue and crisis to date
  • Namely the Vietnam War, when Australia continued
    to support the US when other allies did not and
    the recent War on Terror and the invasion of
    Iraq, as an enthusiastic member of the Coalition
    of the Willing.

14
  • Australias expectations of the alliance have
    always been the same, are part of its overall
    priority of military and economic security. The
    USA expected Australia to part of the general
    western alliance providing economic and military
    security for the USA. With changes in government
    there have been different expectations and
    relations with the USA. e.g. Menzies, Whitlam,
    Fraser, Hawke, Keating, Howard, Rudd and now
    Gillard.
  • The Australian-US relationship covers far more
    than the formal military agreements that have
    been entered into. The relationship covers a
    whole range of areas, trade, cultural exchange,
    intelligence sharing, information, (about other
    states).

15
THE ANZUS TREATY
  • A mere 800 words.

16
ANZUS
  • We have developed relations with the US due to
    the following FP priorities
  • WW2 ANZUS Alliance
  • Vietnam War all the way with LBJ
  • Gulf War
  • Iraq War coalition of the willing /deputy
    sheriff
  • Many Australians support the US alliance
    because
  • We have similar political systems
  • A belief in individualism
  • The common aspects of our cultures
  • The diversity pluralism in our societies
  • Shared interests in the Asia-pacific region
  • US helped Australia to defeat the Japanese in WW2
  • Underlying belief that USA would save us if
    invaded
  • Defence spending can be lowered assuming USA will
    help us.

17
KEY SECURITY ISSUES AGREEMENTS
  • Today Australias security depends largely on
    developing stronger security ties with our near
    neighbours. Political instability, global
    terrorism fundamentalism are all on the rise in
    the Asia-Pacific region are the main influences!
  • Today Australias security relies on maintaining
    key strategic partnerships for example
  • APEC Asia Pacific Economic Corporation
  • ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations
  • ANZUS - Alliance (w/o New Zealand)
  • AUSMIN Bilateral consultations with the USA
  • FPDA Five Power Defence Arrangements
  • ARF ASEAN Regional Forum
  • EAS East Asia Summit
  • PIF Pacific Islands Forum
  • Arms Controls Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty,
    Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), Convention on
    the Banning of Cluster Bombs the Ottawa Treaty
    (Land Mine Ban)

18
US MILITARY BASES
  • Pine Gap, Geraldton North West Cape
  • The arguments for the bases
  • Commitment to ANZUS so increase
  • the likelihood of the US assisting Aust in
    any military/security crisis
  • Loyalty future bargaining power
  • Australia contributes to the global balance of
    power
  • Share military intelligence
  • Arguments against the bases
  • Australia a target for security threats
  • Sovereignty is compromised
  • Contribute to instability in the region

19
Attitudes to the Alliance
  • Essentially bipartisan- main elements are agreed
    upon by both of the major parties.
  • But differences do exist. Generally speaking the
    ALP is more critical of aspects loss of
    sovereignty too locked into the US global
    security position denies internationalist
    positions. On the other hand the Coalition tend
    to believe in the totality of the whole alliance
    have to accept it all cant pick and choose
    one or two aims and ignore the rest.

20
3. The difference is mainly one of priority
with the ALP US alliance for direct defence,
and a greater reliance on independence and
different regional positions 4. Lib/National
more inclined to threat perceptions and hence to
support the alliance in total 5. US alliance is
a delicate balance of cost benefits 6. Note
the Howard Doctrine was new form of
Australias alignment with the US.
21
HOWARD DOCTRINE 1996( but really 2001) to 2007
  • National interest equation countries in the
    region that are most able to provide Australia
    with security economic growth potential
  • National security strengthening and refocusing
    on ANZUS, war on terrorism, (Howard in USA on
    9/11) Iraq conflict, East Timor forward
    defence. Tension with Indonesia
  • Trade and economic interests. Increase
    commodity-based export markets. Advance
    globalisation China, US Free Trade Agreement,
    Korea, Indonesia. Cairns group. Malaysia sees
    Australia as a bully.
  • Role as a global citizen peacekeeping in East
    Timor Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea,
    Cambodia, aid to Pakistan, Vietnam, Mongolia,
    Mozambique Tsunami-torn countries. But
    reputation in jeopardy as we refused UN agreement
    on women, asylum seekers anti-terror legislation
  • Global environment no Australian ratification
    of the Kyoto protocol but signed Valdivia group

22
HOWARDS COMMITMENT
  • 1996 Joint Security Declaration with the USA
  • ANZUS being evoked for the first time, by Aust
    following the 9/11 bombings. Howard was in US at
    the time
  • Sending of troops to aid the war on terrorism in
    Afghanistan
  • Australia being the only state in the region to
    sign up military for the invasion of Iraq
  • Support for the USs pre-emptive strikes even
    suggested Australia would use them as well.
  • Howard taking five days to deny that he said
    Australia was Americas deputy in the
    Asia-Pacific

23
Rudd Gillard post 2007
  • As has been the case in Australian politics since
    the early 1950s there is broad bi-partisan
    support for ANZUS and the broader US alliance.
  • Very much steady as always but clearly without
    the effusive rhetoric that PM Howard was famous
    for.
  • Rudd withdrew Australian combat troops from Iraq
    and increasing our commitment in Afghanistan,
    which sat better with many in Australia as
    Afghanistan is a UN/NATO mission which Iraq is
    not and never was.
  • Casualties however, are on the rise 28 service
    personnel have been killed as at 8/8/2011. Seven
    in 2011 alone.

24
USA Alliance Always Popular
  • The Lowy Institute's 2009 survey of the nation's
    views on a range of foreign policy issues has
    revealed that 83 of Australians trust the USA to
    act responsibly in the world - up from 60 in
    2006.
  • President Obama has revived Australians'
    optimism about their relationship with the USA,
    with 85 now saying it was important for
    Australia's security.

25
Alliance Questions
  • Define security as it related to the study of
    international relations.
  • Explain one specific way the Australian
    Government has tried to achieve security since
    1999.
  • What is the ANZUS agreement?
  • The ANZUS treaty was signed nearly 60 years ago.
    Why is it still a relevant factor in Australian
    foreign policy decision making?
  • Describe two arguments for and argument against
    the ANZUS agreement from Australia's point of
    view.
  • What does ANZUS require any of the parties to do
    in the event that one of them is attacked?
  • What was the 'Howard Doctrine'?
  • Why do you think the alliance with America is
    viewed favourably by the majority of the
    Australian population?

26
  • The
  • role of
  • Internationalism

27
GOOD GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP
  • Success in this area is measured by Australias
    willingness to tackle particular issues such as
    human rights, terrorism, third world debt, drug
    problems, environmental issues
  • How we tried to achieve these objectives?
  • Membership of the UN trying to get elected to the
    SC in 2013-14
  • Foreign Aid aims are political stability,
    pro-Western stance, national economic interest
    size of the aid. Examples Vietnam, Pakistan,
    natural disaster devastated states.
  • Formal Agreements WTO APEC WHO
  • Peacekeeping Solomon Islands, East Timor,
    Middle East Afghanistan
  • But problems do exist
  • Human Rights Aboriginal rights
  • Refugee Issues mandatory detention, Tampa,
    Malaysian solution
  • Environmental Issues Took a lot of years to
    sign Kyoto Protocol
  • Conduct as the South-Pacific Superpower

28
OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE (ODA)
  • Australias aid to the Asia-Pacific region
    included
  • Promoted improved governance
  • Assisting countries to access maximise benefits
    from trade new information technologies
  • Supporting improved delivery of basic services,
  • Strengthening regional security
  • Promoting sustainable resource management.
  • Specific examples in recent years include
  • 1b to Australia-Indonesia Partnership for
    Reconstruction Development
  • Funding to the Pacific 463 million
  • 600 million to HIV/AIDS strategy
  • 170 million to humanitarian, emergency refugee
    funding
  • 6.5 million to tackle chronic food shortages in
    Indonesia
  • 55 million to help Burma in the aftermath of
    Cyclone Nargis
  • 2 million to aid Chinas earthquake victims in
    2008
  • 5 million aid to assist Pakistan in coping with
    devastating floods in August 2010

29
Who Receives AusAid?
30
The Foreign Aid Budget
  • In the 2008-09 Federal Budget the government
    increased foreign aid to 3.7b or 0.31 of GNI.
  • In the 2011-12 Federal Budget the government
    plans to increase aid to 4.8b or 0.35 of GNI
  • The Gillard governments longer term aim was to
    raise ODA to 8 billion (0.5 of GDP) by 2015-16
    however this has been revised downwards to just
    0.4 by 2013-14 well short of previous Rudd
    governments target and the Millennium
    Development Goal (MDG) standard of 0.7 of GNI.

31
Source OECD
32
Source 2009/10 Budget Papers
33
Features of ausaid
  • Australias aid program is traditionally focused
    on the Asia-Pacific region. AusAid itself says
    that
  • Two-thirds of the worlds poor live in
    Australias region- out of our twenty nearest
    neighbours, eighteen are developing countries.
    Many of these countries are also important
    trading partners. We export almost 90b in goods
    and services to the major countries where
    Australian aid is delivered.

34
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35
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36
AUSTRALIA THE UN
  • UN website
  • Australia is firmly committed to the UN system.
    As a middle-sized nation, our interests are
    served by functioning, effective mechanisms for
    multilateral cooperation that compliment our
    bilateral regional relationships. The UNs
    importance to Australia can be seen in core
    areas, such as international peace security
    (including arms control disarmament) the
    development of international legal instruments
    norms. It is also found in the work of the UNs
    programs technical agencies which deal with
    issues such as women and children, protection
    of the environment sustainable development.

37
A Seat On The UNSC
  • In March 2008, then PM Rudd announced that
    Australia would stand for election for a two-year
    term as a non-permanent member of the United
    Nations Security Council (UNSC) in 2013-14. 
  • Not having served on the Security Council since
    1986, Rudd was especially keen to have Australia
    have a term on the worlds pre-eminent security
    body. 
  • Ideally Australia sees itself being able to play
    a role as an independent, constructive member of
    the SC. 
  • Anticipated cost of project, 40 million.
  • Critics has said the government is simply wasting
    money and has no chance of succeeding

38
Current Global operations
39
Australian Peacekeepers as at May 2011
Operation Location Numbers Purpose
Astute Tower Timor Leste 404 Restore Peace
Mazurka Egypt 25 Support UN
Azure Sudan 25 Restore Peace
Kruger Iraq 35 Restore Peace Combat
Paladin West Bank 12 Restore Peace
Slipper Afghanistan 2352 Restore Peace, Training Combat
Anode Solomon Is 80 Restore Peace
Resolute EEZ 400 Protect
40
Internationalism since 2007
  • Historically Labor governments have been strong
    supporters of the UN. Since 2007 they have
  • Signed the Kyoto Protocol
  • Campaigned for a comprehensive treaty at
    Copenhagen in 2010
  • Abandoned a promised ETS in 2010
  • Promised a Carbon Tax to commence on July 2012
  • Increased its commitment to the ISAF mission in
    Afghanistan
  • Campaigned heavily for a seat on the UNSC
  • Strongly supported the rise of the G20 as a body
    best suited to coordinate responses to global
    economic instability since 2008
  • Signed treaties such as the one banning cluster
    bombs
  • Established an off shore asylum detention centre
    in Malaysia and PNG
  • Increased ODA commitments but will not achieve
    MDG standard in 2015

41
Internationalism Questions
  1. What is foreign aid?
  2. Name two countries that receive the bulk of
    Australian foreign aid. Give a reason why
    Australia provides this aid.
  3. What is meant by "enlightened self-interest" in
    relation to foreign aid?
  4. State 3 ways Australia fulfils its
    responsibilities as a global citizen.
  5. What is the United Nations?
  6. Explain three involvements Australia has with the
    United Nations
  7. What is a treaty?
  8. Name two economic treaties and one military
    treaty to which Australia is a party.
  9. Analyse the argument that Australia should attach
    specific conditions to the foreign aid it
    provides to other countries.
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