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OGT Benchmark: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and contemporary conflicts.

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Title: OGT Benchmark: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War, and contemporary conflicts.


1
OGT Benchmark Analyze connections between World
War II, the Cold War, and contemporary conflicts.
  • Post World War II
  • President Harry S Truman
  • United Nations
  • Beginning of the Cold War with the Soviet Union
  • Containment/Truman Doctrine
  • The Marshall Plan
  • The Problem With Germany
  • The Berlin Blockade
  • NATO
  • The 2nd Red Scare
  • Joseph McCarthy
  • Arms Race
  • Korean War
  • Space Race
  • JFK Election/Background, Bay of Pigs, Berlin
    Wall, arms race, Man on the Moon, Cuban Missile
    Crisis, assassination
  • Vietnam War

2
I. Postwar
  • United States
  • Lost thousands during the war
  • stronger than ever after the war
  • capitalism
  • believed the rest of the world should model us
  • want free elections, free trade, and business
    expansion all around the world
  • B. Soviet Union
  • 1. Lost over 7 million during the war
  • 2. torn apart after the war. Wanted to build a
    strong country
  • 3. communism
  • 4. believed the rest of the world should be
    communist

Old world order gone. U.S. could no longer be
isolated. U.S. now relied on world trade to
prosper!
3
Life in Post-WWII America (643)
4
II. President Harry S Truman
  • A. Took over after FDR died
  • B. Important decisions
  • 1. Drop atomic bombs
  • 2. United Nations

5
Harry S Truman
6
III. The United Nations
  • A. April 12, 1944
  • 1. San Francisco, California
  • 2. 50 nations
  • 3. United Nations formed
  • a. Not a peace conference (war still being
    fought)
  • 4. U.S. and S.U. disagreed on many things
  • 5. U.S. Congress ratified on July 28, 1945
  • a. vote was 82-2

7
United Nations, continued
  • B. General Assembly
  • 1. All nations represented-each had one vote
  • 2. Made recommendations to Security Council
  • 3. Fixed budget and admitted new members
  • C. Security Council
  • 1. 11 members
  • a. 5 permanent(US, GB, SU, France, China)
  • --had right to veto
  • b. 6 rotating countries
  • --could not veto
  • 2. Could act against any nation that
    threatened peace

8
United Nations, cont.
  • D. Secretary-General
  • 1. ran the UN
  • 2. 1st was Trygve Lie of Norway
  • E. International Court of Justice
  • 1. Court of the UN
  • OVERALL GOAL TO CREATE AN INTERNATIONAL
    ORGANIZATION TO PRESERVE PEACE

9
http//images.google.com/imgres?imgurlhttp//www.
newint.org/issue375/pics/un-map-big.gifimgrefurl
http//www.newint.org/issue375/un-system.htmh142
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  • Click on the link below to get a great detailed
    chart of the United Nations.

10
UN Headquarters in New York
11
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The international
    organization created to preserve the peace after
    World War II was the
  • A. United Nations
  • B. League of Nations
  • C. Organization of American States
  • D. North Atlantic Treaty Organization

12
OGT Multiple Choice
  • Which is true about the involvement of the United
    States in the League of Nations (after World War
    I) and the United Nations (after World War II)?
  • A. The United States joined the United Nations,
    but not the League of Nations
  • B. The United States joined the League of
    Nations, but not the United Nations
  • C. The United States joined both organizations
  • D. The United States did NOT join either
    organization

13
OGT Multiple Choice
  • The first meeting to build the United Nations
    occurred on April 12, 1944 in
  • A. Berlin, Germany
  • B. Paris, France
  • C. London, England
  • D. San Francisco, California

14
IV. Beginning of the Cold War
  • 1. Cold War War with no fighting. Instead,
    used military threats, espionage, propaganda, and
    politics.
  • 2. NUCLEAR WEAPONS DEVELOPED!!!
  • 3. The period right after World War II will
    begin 50 years of Cold War between the US/SU.
  • 4. U.S. and G.B. allies with S.U. for one
    reason--to beat Adolf Hitler
  • 5. We did not trust Stalin. Did not tell him of
    the atomic bomb
  • 6. Stalin expected entire world to become
    communist
  • 7. U.S. and S.U. had very different views of the
    future

15
Beginning of Cold War, cont.
  • 8. Problems with the Soviet Union
  • a. Stalin makes Poland Communist
  • b. Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Hungary,
    Bulgaria, and Romania also under Soviet control
  • Stalin wants communist buffer
  • Communism now threatened all of Europe

16
Joseph Stalin
17
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The period after
    World War II is referred o as the Cold War. It
    is called this because the two superpowers, the
    United States and the Soviet Union
  • A. had several conflicts that never escalated
    into a full-scale war
  • B. used nuclear weapons that lowered the
    temperature as they exploded
  • C. has chilly but friendly relations during the
    is time period
  • D. fought a war in Siberia to determine control
    of East Asia

18
OGT Multiple Choice
  • During World War II, the United States was an
    ally of this country. After World War II, the
    United States became enemies with this country.
  • A. France
  • B. Great Britain
  • C. Soviet Union
  • D. Spain

19
OGT Multiple Choice
  • The term Cold War refers to
  • A. A war with a lot of battles.
  • B. Another name for the Korean War
  • C. A war with no fighting.
  • D. Another name given to World War II.

20
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) As World War II was
    nearing an end and it was clear that the Allies
    would be victorious, relations between the United
    States and the Soviet Union could be described as
  • A. becoming increasingly suspicious of each
    others motives
  • B. good as both Harry Truman and Joseph Stalin
    trusted each other
  • C. never better as the two nations agreed on
    postwar issues
  • D. on the brink of going to war against each
    other

21
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (2005 Practice Test) Which factor helped lead to
    the Cold War between the United States and the
    Soviet Union?
  • A. the lack of U.S. aid to the Soviet Union
    under the Lend-Lease Program during World War II
  • B. differing intentions between the two nations
    for the political and economic rebuilding of
    Eastern Europe after World War II
  • C. both nations being members of the United
    Nations Security Council after World War II
  • D. uneven prosperity between the two nations
    after the Great Depression

22
V. Containment and the Truman Doctrine
  • It must be the policy of the United States, to
    support free peoples who are resisting attempted
    subjugation by armed minorities or by outside
    pressure. We must assist free people to work out
    their own destinies in their own way.
  • In other words--U.S. must help free states
    fight communism.

23
Containment, cont.
  • Containment U.S. wanted to contain
    communism--dont let it spread
  • We would be willing to fight

24
VI. Marshall Plan
  • A. Europe is in shambles
  • B. We did NOT want Communism to spread
  • Q How could we stop it from spreading?
  • A Improve conditions in Europe!

25
Marshall Plan, cont.
  • A. The plan give aid to European countries
  • 1. passed April 3, 1948
  • 2. Gave 5.3 billion to Europe for recovery
  • 3. U.S. wants to save West Europe
  • 4. This plan worked
  • a. mostly helped GB, France, and W. Ger.
  • b. 25 more output

26
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27
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The United States
    Marshall Plan following World War II was an
    effort to provide
  • A. military aid to its former enemies
  • B. military aid to its allies
  • C. economic aid to starving people in Africa
  • D. economic aid to war-torn Europe

28
OGT Short Answer
  • The Marshall Plan was a plan for European
    recovery after World War II. How did the
    Marshall Plan prove that the foreign policy of
    the United States was changing? (2 points)

29
VII. The Problem of Germany
  • A. Germany--split into 4 (US, GB, France, SU)
  • B. Berlin also split into 4 (surrounded by SU)
  • C. Soviet Union
  • 1. Eventually, they took control of East Germany
    and East Berlin
  • 2. Forced their regime and communism on their
    new territories, even though Stalin promised free
    and democratic elections in these places.
  • a. Eastern European nations
  • b. East Germany

30
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31
The Problem of Germany, cont.
  • A. Distrust between US and SU grew
  • B. Collision course freedom vs. communism
  • C. SU stop trading with West and start to
    develop atomic weapons
  • D. This leads to CONTAINMENT which leads to
    COLD WAR
  • E. Churchill famous speech on Eastern Europe
  • an iron curtain has descended across the
    continent

32
Iron Curtain
33
OGT Multiple Choice
  • After World War II, Germany was split into 4
    zones of influence. Which country DID NOT
    control a part of Germany?
  • A. Spain
  • B. Soviet Union
  • C. Great Britain
  • D. the United States

34
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Base Test March 2005) At the end of World War
    II, Soviet armies liberated the countries of
    Eastern Europe from Nazi Germany. The occupation
    of these countries by the Soviet Union
    contributed to the development of the Cold War by
  • A. contributing to conflict in the Middle East
  • B. strengthening the authority of the United
    Nations
  • C. bringing about the reunification of Germany
  • D. dividing Europe into communist and
    non-communist spheres

35
VIII. The Berlin Blockade
  • As Marshall Plan helped, US/SU relations got
    worse
  • US, France, and GB want strong Germany
  • SU felt threatened
  • SU put a blockade around W. Berlin
  • allowed nothing in people were trapped

36
Berlin Blockade, cont.
  • A. Berlin Airlift
  • 1. US dropped supplies into Berlin
  • 2. lasted 324 days
  • 3. 277,000 total flights
  • 4. 2 million tons of supplies
  • 5. May 1949, Stalin cancels blockade
  • B. Germany divided shortly after blockade
    concelled
  • 1. May 12, 1949
  • a. German Federated Republic
  • 2. Oct., 1949
  • a. German Democratic Republic

37
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38
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (2005 Practice Test) After World War II, Germany
    was divided into two nations, East Germany and
    West Germany. Though they remained politically
    divided for over forty years, the people of these
    two nations shared a common cultural heritage.
    Which action was influenced by this cultural
    influence?
  • A. West Germany joined NATO in 1955
  • B. East Germany joined the Warsaw Pact in 1955
  • C. The people of East Germany supported
    reunification with West Germany
  • D. The people of West Germany supported
    withdrawing from the United Nations

39
OGT Extended Response
  • The Berlin Blockade was an event that helped to
    start the Cold War between the United States and
    the Soviet Union. (4 points)
  • What is a Cold War? (1 point)
  • Why did the Soviet Union want to deny freedom to
    Berlin? (1 point)
  • What were the results of the Berlin Blockade (2
    points)

40
IX. NATO and Warsaw Pact
  • Throughout 40s and 50s Cold War intensified
  • 1. Aug. 1949 SU detonates atomic bomb
  • 2. End of 1949 China becomes Communist
  • Communist leader is Mao Zedong.

41
NATO/Warsaw Pact, cont.
  • B. The creation of NATO (MAP page 718)
  • 1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • a. U.S. Canada join with 12 W. Eur.
    countries
  • 2. Later Greece, Turkey, and W. Germany
  • 3. Signed April 4, 1949
  • C. Alliance
  • 1. Attack on one attack on all
  • 2. Senate passes (82-13) 1st Peacetime
    alliance
  • 3. DDE commander of NATO

42
NATO/Warsaw Pact, cont.
  • D. Warsaw Pact
  • 1. 1955
  • 2. Alliance formed by SU
  • 3. Countered NATO
  • 4. This increased fears during the Cold War

43
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44
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45
OGT Multiple Choice
  • The United States joined with Canada and 12
    Western European countries to form our first
    peacetime alliance. This organization was
    called
  • A. League of Nations
  • B. United Nations
  • C. OPEC
  • D. NATO

46
OGT Multiple Choice
  • When China became a Communist country in 1949,
    who was their leader?
  • A. Syngman Rhee
  • B. Mao Zedong
  • C. Joseph Stalin
  • D. Chang Kai-shek

47
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) In the years
    following World War II there emerged the North
    Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Warsaw Pact
    nations. These are examples of
  • A. regional economic cooperative efforts
  • B. environmental impact studies
  • C. military alliance systems
  • D. international tribunals

48
X. 2nd Red Scare
  • A. The second red scare
  • 1. Russians detonate atomic bomb (1949) and
    China becomes Communist (1949)
  • 2. Possible Communist spies in Canada
  • 3. Truman
  • a. millions of federal employees questioned
  • b. organizations investigated and 200 fired
  • 4. Reputations destroyed
  • a. black lists

49
2nd Red Scare, cont.
  • B. Protecting the United States
  • 1. McCarran Internal Security Act
  • a. Communist groups had to register with AG
  • b. Truman vetoes
  • c. Congress overrides
  • 2. McCarran-Walter Act
  • a. immigration quotas
  • b. favor N and E Europe
  • c. Truman vetoes
  • d. Congress overrides
  • 3. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
  • a. suspected in passing atomic secrets to SU
  • b. Executed--no proof
  • (Like Sacco and Vanzetti in the 1920s)

50
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
51
OGT Multiple Choice
  • The fear of communism in the United States during
    the 1950s was know as the
  • A. 2nd Red Scare
  • B. 2nd Yellow Scare
  • C. 2nd Green Scare
  • D. 2nd Blue Scare

52
XI. Joseph McCarthy
  • A. Joseph McCarthy--R-Wisconsin
  • 1. Accused many in US gov. of bei ng
    Communist
  • 2. BIG LIST--Feb. 1950
  • 3. many feared him

53
Joseph McCarthy, cont.
  • The fall of McCarthy (Picture on page 737)
  • A. McCarthy goes too far
  • 1. takes books out of libraries
  • 2. accuses Secretary of Army of espionage
  • 3. accuses army officer of protecting coms.
  • B. Televison
  • 1. hearings were televised--20 million watched
  • 2. McCarthy was rude
  • 3. Looked like a bully
  • 4. people began to dislike him
  • 5. his influence declined
  • 6. Soon, his reign of terror ended

54
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55
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56
OGT Multiple Choice
  • A Senator from Wisconsin who started accusing
    many people of being Communist and then put those
    names on a Black List was
  • A. Harry S Truman
  • B. Julius Rosenberg
  • C. Joseph McCarthy
  • D. Alger Hiss

57
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) McCarthyism during
    the early
  • 1950s was a result of American
  • A. reaction to the reforms of the New Deal
  • B. response to helping win World War II
  • C. fear of African-Americans gaining civil
    rights
  • D. fear of communism during the Cold War

58
OGT Multiple Choice
  • Which of the following events helped cause
    McCarthys fall from power?
  • A. Eisenhowers farewell address
  • B. the Army-McCarthy hearings that were televised
    to 20 million people
  • C. Life magazines Crisis In America issue
  • D. the Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board
    of Education

59
XII. Arms Race
  • A. Arms race between US/SU
  • 1. occurred throughout Cold War
  • 2. each side increased weapons
  • 3. guarantee security
  • 4. nuclear weapons

60
Korean WarPart of Containment Theory
  • I. War in Korea
  • A. After WWII, Korea was split up into 2
  • 1. North--controlled by Soviet Union
  • a. communist
  • b. had no free elections
  • 2. South--controlled by the U.S.
  • a. could elect own government
  • B. U.S. and Soviets left Korea in 1949
  • C. North Korea invade South Korea in 1950
  • 1. UN said this was wrong
  • 2. Truman sent American troops to help
  • South Korea

61
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62
Korean War, cont.
  • II. The Korean War Lasted Three Years
  • A. The U.S. was the main country that helped SK.
  • B. Truman called it a police action instead of
    war
  • C. Goal--drive North Koreans back out of S.
    Korea

63
Korean War, cont.
  • III. MacArthurs Counterattack
  • A. MacArthur was in charge of our troops
  • B. N. Korea had driven us almost out of Korea
  • C. MacArthur then counterattacks the rear of the
  • N. Korean army
  • D. We begin to win, and N. Korea was near defeat

64
General Douglas MacArthur
65
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66
Korean War, cont.
  • IV. China Enters the War
  • A. China said that if the U.S. invaded N. Korea,
    they would join the war on the side of N. Korea
  • B. MacArthur did not believe they would
  • C. We invaded N. Korea
  • D. MacArthur was wrong--China entered the war
  • 1. 300,000 Chinese attacked the U.S. in 1950
  • E. The U.S. were pushed back into S. Korea

67
Korean War, cont.
  • V. Truman Fires MacArthur
  • A. General MacArthur asks Truman for permission
    to bomb China
  • B. Truman feared this would bring the Soviet
    Union into the war--he said no
  • C. MacArthur then asks Congress for permission
  • D. This angers Truman, so he fires MacArthur in
    51

68
Korean War, cont.
  • VI. End of the war
  • A. Peace talks began in July of 1951
  • B. Disagreement
  • 1. The UN wanted prisoners to be able to
    choose which Korea they wanted to live in
  • 2. The Communists wanted all prisoners to
  • return to their homeland
  • C. Negotiations lasted two years
  • D. Agreement reached July of 1953.
  • 1. Prisoners could go where they choose
  • 2. Two different countries formed
  • a. North Korea
  • b. South Korea

69
Korean War, cont.
  • VII. Aftermath of the Korean War
  • A. A 2 1/2 mile neutral zone formed between N.
    and S. Korea
  • B. U.S. troops stayed in S. Korea to protect
  • C. U.S. gave money to S. Korea

70
Korean War, cont.
  • D. Ike promised to end Korea police action
  • E. Panmunjom--peace negotiations
  • 1. neither side gained much
  • 2. border put back near 38th parallel
  • 3. 35,000 U.S. killed
  • 4. threat of nuclear war ends

71
OGT Multiple Choice
  • The result of the Korean War was
  • A. The North Koreans took control of South Korea
    and made it communist
  • B. The South Koreans took control of North Korea
    and made it free
  • C. China took control of both Koreas
  • D. basically a tie, with neither side gaining
    much land

72
OGT Multiple Choice
  • The armistice that ended the Korean War resulted
    in
  • A. all of Korea becoming Communist
  • B. Korea being divided near the 38th parallel
  • C. all of Korea becoming free and democratic
  • D. the Chinese gaining control of Korea

73
OGT Multiple Choice
  • After World War II, Korea was divided into two.
    Which of the following is true about Korea after
    World War II?
  • A. North Korea was communist and controlled by
    the Soviet Union and South Korea was free and
    controlled by the United States.
  • B. South Korea was communist and controlled by
    the Soviet Union and North Korea was free and
    controlled by the United States.
  • C. North Korea was communist and controlled by
    the United States and South Korea was free and
    controlled by the Soviet Union.
  • D. South Korea was communist and controlled by
    the United States and North Korea was free and
    controlled by the Soviet Union.

74
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) From 1950 to 1953,
    the United States fought a police action in
    Asia to prevent communism from spreading to
  • A. South Korea
  • B. South Vietnam
  • C. Japan
  • D. China

75
OGT Multiple Choice
  • Who was the man in charge of our troops during
    the Korean War?
  • A. Dwight Eisenhower
  • B. George Patton
  • C. Douglas MacArthur
  • D. Norman Schwartzkopf

76
OGT Short Answer
  • The Korean War was undeclared war between the
    United States and North Korea. How did this war
    prove that the foreign policy of the United
    States was changing? (2 points)

77
XIV. Space Race
  • A. US/SU have space race
  • B. Another part of Cold War
  • C. Sputnik launched by SU
  • 1. 1st man-made satellite
  • 2. Oct. 4, 1957
  • 3. 3 months in orbit
  • D. Sputnik II
  • 1. carried dog to outer space
  • 2. Nov. 1957

78
Sputnik and Sputnik II
79
Space Race, cont.
  • E. US reaction
  • 1. Vanguard rocket
  • a. Dec 6, 1957
  • b. disaster
  • c. millions watched on TV
  • 2. Explorer II
  • a. Feb. 1958
  • b. first American satellite
  • c. succeeded

80
Space Race, cont.
  • 3 US afraid
  • 4. We feel our schools are no good
  • 4. National Defense Education Act of 1958
  • a. 1 billion for more scientists
  • 5. NASA formed
  • a. National Aeronautics and Space Adm.
  • --. 4 billion to start

81
Space Race, cont.
  • F. Putting men into space
  • 1. 1st done by SU
  • a. April 12, 1961
  • b. Yari Gagarin
  • c. circled globe 1 time
  • 2. US
  • a. 1st done May 5, 1961
  • b. Alan Shepard
  • c. lasted 15 minutes
  • d. Feb. 20, 1962, John Glenn orbits Earth

82
Space Race, cont.
  • G. U.S. Moon Landing
  • 1. JFK challenges nation in 1961
  • a. put man on moon by 1970
  • 2. Apollo
  • a. space flight to the moon
  • b. July 1969
  • c. Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael
    Collins
  • d. Armstrong Thats one small step for man,
    one giant leap for mankind.

83
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84
OGT Multiple Choice
  • _____ In 1961, this President made it a goal of
    the U.S. to land on the moon by 1970.
  • A. Dwight Eisenhower
  • B. John F. Kennedy
  • C. Lyndon B. Johnson
  • D. Richard Nixon

85
OGT Multiple Choice
  • Apollo 11 was the lunar landing that fulfilled
    JFKs promise. Who were the astronauts who were
    involved in Apollo 11?
  • A. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin
  • B. John Glenn and Ed White
  • C. Neil Armstrong and John Glenn
  • D. Virgil Grissom and Robert Chaffee

86
OGT Multiple Choice
  • The first man in space was
  • A. Yuri Gagarin
  • B. Neil Armstrong
  • C. John Glenn
  • D. Alan Shephard

87
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (Practice Test Booklet 2005) The first country
    to put a man in space was
  • A. China
  • B. France
  • C. Soviet Union
  • D. United States

88
OGT Multiple Choice
  • As a result of the Soviet launching of Sputnik
    the federal government
  • A. passed the National Defense Education Act to
    produce more scientists and science teachers
  • B. appointed Robert Goddard to head the United
    States space program
  • C. created NASA to coordinate United States
    space efforts
  • D. both a and c

89
OGT Extended Response
  • Explain the major domestic developments that
    occurred in the United States because of the
    space race.
  • A. Which two countries were involved in the
    space race? (2 pts)
  • B. What was the name of the Russians first
    man-made satellite? (1 pts)
  • C. What was the Unites States reaction to
    launch of that satellite? (1 pts)

90
XV. JFK
  • I. Election of 1960
  • A. 1st time campaign a lot on TV
  • B. Candidates
  • 1. Democrats
  • a. Richard Nixon--Sen. from Cal and
  • Henry Cabot Lodge--Sen. from Mass.
  • 2. Republicans
  • a. JFK--Sen. from Mass and
  • LBJ--Sen. from Texas
  • C. Great Debates (Pic. on page 776)
  • 1. 4 televised debates
  • 2. Answer report questions--2 1/2 min.
  • 3. 70 million watched
  • 4. JFK--younger, poised, clever answers
  • D. The winner..........
  • 1. JFK wins in a close race 303-219
  • 2. Many states were very close

91
JFK, cont.
  • II. Background
  • 1. Youngest elected president--43 years old
  • (TR was younger, but not elected)
  • 2. First Catholic
  • 3. Naval officer during WWII
  • 4. Senator for Massachusetts
  • 5. New Frontier
  • a. make America better
  • b. energetic and young
  • c. athletic--sailed and played football
  • Quote from inaugural address Ask not what your
    country can do for you--ask what you can do for
    your country.

92
JFK, cont.
  • III. Bay of Pigs
  • A. Cuba
  • 1. Leader was Fidel Castro
  • a. At first, we supported him for
    overthrowing previous dictator
  • b. He then announced he was a communist
  • 2. Eisenhower stopped all trade with Cuba
  • 3. Bay of Pigs invasion
  • a. Anti-Castro Cubans wanted to overthrow
    Castro
  • b. JFK approved of this, but said the U.S.
  • would not help

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JFK, cont.
  • c. April 1961--American supported Cubans
  • invaded the Bay of Pigs in Cuba
  • d. They thought the Cuban people would
  • support them
  • e. They were wrong
  • f. The invasion was a disaster
  • g. Many were taken prisoner or killed
  • h. JFK took full responsibility for it
  • i. Prisoners released for 50 million in food
  • and drugs and 3 million cash

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JFK, cont.
  • IV. The Berlin Wall
  • A. Khrushchev and Kennedy met in June 1961
  • 1. Khrushchev felt JFK was to inexperienced
  • and weak
  • 2. Khrushchev told JFK to get out of West
  • Berlin
  • 3. JFK refused
  • 4. Khrushchev threatened war
  • 5. JFK got the army ready
  • B. The S.U. responded by building the Berlin
    Wall
  • 1. Separated East and West Berlin
  • 2. To keep people from crossing

96
Nikita Khrushchev
97
Berlin Wall
98
JFK, cont.
  • V. Arms race
  • A. continues during JFK
  • B. JFK builds more and more nukes
  • 1. mutual assured destruction
  • 2. US is now far ahead of SU

99
JFK, cont.
  • VI. Space Race
  • A. JFKs promise of putting man on moon
  • 1. comes true
  • 2. 1969
  • 3. Hes not alive to se it

100
JFK, cont.
  • VII. Cuban Missile Crisis
  • A. October 1962--one of the most serious
    incidents
  • of the Cold War--the Cuban Missile Crisis
  • B. Almost led to a nuclear war between the U.S.
  • and the S.U.
  • C. We found out Cuba had missile bases
  • 1. This threatened U.S. security
  • 2. Kennedy told American people of the sit.
  • 3. He ordered the navy to stop Soviet ships
  • from carrying missiles to Cuba
  • 4. Next day Soviet ships close to Cuba
  • a. Radio and TV kept Americans informed
  • b. War looked inevitable
  • 5. October 24, 1962
  • a. Soviet ships suddenly turn around
  • b. They returned to S.U.

101
JFK, cont.
  • D. October 26, 1962-Agreement between U.S. and
    S.U.
  • 1. Missile bases removed if U.S. agreed not to
  • attack Cuba
  • 2. Kennedy called Khrushchev a peacemaker
  • to make him save face
  • 3. Soviets saw Khrushchev as weak
  • 4. Khrushchev was removed one year later
  • 5. Kennedy praised for being tough vs.
  • the communists and Khrushchev

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JFK, cont.
  • IX. Assassination
  • A. Kennedy wanted to be re-elected
  • B. He went to campaign in Texas to get support
  • from the Democratic Party there
  • C. Nov. 22, 1963
  • 1. JFK rode through Dallas
  • 2. 3 people with him
  • a. his wife--Jackie Onassis Kennedy
  • b. governor of Texas--John Connally
  • c. Connallys wife
  • 3. VP Lyndon Johnson was in another car
  • 4. Gov. Connally and JFK were both shot
  • 5. No one knew where the shots came from
  • 6. The car sped away to a hospital
  • D. Connally was seriously injured
  • E. JFK was dead
  • 1. Johnson took over as President immediately

105
JFK, cont.
  • F. Lee Harvey Oswald
  • 1. He was arrested and accused of killing JFK
  • 2. He denied the charge
  • 3. Two days later, on live TV, Jack Ruby shot
  • and killed Oswald
  • 4. Questions
  • a. Why did Oswald kill Kennedy?
  • b. Did he act alone?
  • c. Why did Ruby kill Oswald?
  • Warren Commission One year later, they
    concluded Oswald acted alone. This group was led
    by Chief Justice Earl Warren. Many still
    question the conclusion of the Warren Commission.

106
Lee Harvey Oswald and Jack Ruby
107
OGT Multiple Choice
  • In dealing with the Cuban missile crisis, Kennedy
    ordered
  • A. an invasion of Cuba to seize the missiles
  • B. a naval blockade on all military equipment
    being shipped to Cuba
  • C. an embargo on grain to the USSR
  • D. a general air strike on targets in Cuba

108
OGT Multiple Choice
  • Who was the leader of Cuba during the time of the
    Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis?
  • A. Nikita Khrushchev
  • B. Joseph Stalin
  • C. Fidel Castro
  • D. Ho Chi Minh

109
OGT Multiple Choice
  • Kennedys assassination was investigated by the
  • A. Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  • B. Warren Commission
  • C. RAND Corporation
  • D. Joint Chiefs of Staff

110
OGT Multiple Choice
  • The Bay of Pigs invasion was defeated mainly
    because
  • A. Castro hid and no one could find him
  • B. the Soviet Union threatened nuclear
    retaliation
  • C. Kennedy refused to support the invasion
  • D. the Cuban people did not join in on the
    revolt as was expected

111
OGT Multiple Choice
  • The biggest question mark in Kennedys chances
    for election in 1960 was
  • A. his religion
  • B. his performance in the great debates.
  • C. his choice of a running mate
  • D. his competition from Hubert Humphrey

112
OGT Extended Response
  • You have just learned about the events of the
    Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • How did this event show that the U.S. was taking
    a strong stance against Communism?
  • What do you feel would have been the result if
    the Soviet ships did not turn around?
  • (2 pts for each)

113
XVI. Vietnam War
  • The Vietnam War is another part of the
    Containment--DO NOT ALLOW COMMUNISM TO SPREAD!
  • This War stretches across the 40s, 50s, 60s,
    and 70s--only part of which the United States is
    a participant.

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119
UH-1D helicopters airlift members of the 2nd
Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment from the Filhol
Rubber Plantation area to a new staging area,
during Operation "Wahiawa," a search and destroy
mission conducted by the 25th Infantry Division,
northeast of Cu Chi, Vietnam.
120
  • I. 1940s Background War in Indochina
  • A. Indochina
  • 1. Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia
  • B. Vietnam liberated from Japan in 1945
  • 1. Ho Chi Minh--Communist
  • 2. Democratic Republic of Vietnam
  • C. French
  • 1. sent 15,000 troops to Vietnam
  • 2. wanted to control Vietnam
  • D. United States
  • 1. containment
  • 2. gave millions to French
  • 3. fight war on communism

121
Ho Chi Minh
122
  • E. China
  • 1. helped Ho Chi Minh
  • F. Dienbienphu
  • 1. Vietnmamese surround French
  • 2. large French defeat
  • G. May 8, 1954
  • 1. Meeting in Geneva, Switzerland
  • 2. France, GB, SU, China, and US
  • 3. Vietnam split into two
  • a. North--Communist (Ho Chi Minh)
  • b. South--free (Bao-Dai)

123
  • II. 1950s Problems in Vietnam
  • A. Deal from Geneva, 1954
  • 1. Vietnam united and free elections by July
    56
  • B. South Vietnam--Ngo Dinh Diem
  • 1. did not want this
  • 2. U.S. agreed with him
  • 3. South Vietnam refuses elections
  • 4. Viet Minh Communists attack S. Vietnam
  • C. U.S.
  • 1. gave South Vietnam millions
  • 2. now sent advisors to help

124
Geneva Conference
125
  • D. National Liberation Front (NLF)
  • 1. want to overthrow Diem
  • 2. reunite Vietnam
  • 3. Diem calls them the Viet Cong
  • a. means Vietnamese Communists
  • E. JFK
  • 1. sends more advisors--16,000 of them
  • F. Diem overthrown
  • 1. Nov. 2, 1963
  • 2. Diem murdered
  • 3. Things look bad for South Vietnam
  • JFK does not live to make next move.

126
  • G. Viet Cong--another pro communist group.
  • 1. They began to invade South Vietnam
  • 2. U.S gives support weapons to S. Vietnam
  • H. South Vietnam could not handle the Viet
    Cong,so the U.S. changed from ADVISOR to
  • PARTICIPANT

127
  • III. 1960s The Vietnam War
  • A. History
  • 1. Eisenhower military weapons and
    economic help to South Vietnam
  • 2. Kennedy sent military advisors to SV
  • 3. Johnson Sent only non-combat troops
  • B. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • 1. August 1964--two U.S. ships attacked off
  • coast of North Vietnam
  • 2. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution--the right to
    take all necessary steps to protect American
    forces in Vietnam
  • 3. Johnson used it to increase troops
  • 4. By 1966, there were 400,000 troops there
  • 5. U.S. starts aerial bombs
  • 6. Congress never declared war

128
  • C. Viet Cong reeked havoc in south
  • 1. they were easily defeated
  • 2. however, they were replenished by North
  • Vietnamese
  • D. 1968--Obvious the war would last long and we
  • might not win
  • 1. Johnson stops bombing North Vietnam
  • 2. Sets up meeting
  • a. North Vietnam
  • b. South Vietnam
  • c. the United States
  • 3. Meeting held in Paris, France in 1968
  • 4. Meeting did little to end the war

129
  • IV. The Tet Offensive
  • A. Tet is the Vietnamese New Year
  • 1. They launched surprise attack
  • 2. they did not win the battle militarily
  • 3. this surprise attack made Americans
    further question why we were in Vietnam

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  • V. 1970s The Politics of Protest
  • A. People wondered why we were in Vietnam
  • 1. reports of large U.S. victory
  • 2. same day, reports of U.S. loss
  • 3. T.V. brought home the horrors of war
  • 4. people didnt know who to believe
  • 5. anti-war movement became more vocal

132
Award winning PhotographOfficer shoots man (An
execution of a Vietcong prisoner) February 1, 1968
133
  • VI. Leaving Vietnam
  • A. Jan. 27, 1973--cease-fire between N. Vietnam
    and United States.
  • 1. U.S. agreed to take all troops out of SV
  • 2. NV agreed to release all POWs
  • B. Vietnamization did not work
  • 1. South Vietnam was too weak
  • 2. they could not stand alone
  • 3. army fell apart
  • 4. Communist NV took over SV in April of 1975

134
  • VII. Summary of the Vietnam War
  • A. longest war in U.S. history
  • B. 58,000 Americans killed 365,000 were wounded
  • C. Total cost was 150 billion
  • D. The war lessened U.S citizens respect for
    their government
  • E. The war caused confusion about the nations
    role in world affairs
  • F. War Powers Act passed--requires the President
  • to explain to Congress within 48 hours
  • whenever American troops were to be sent
  • into a foreign country

135
OGT Multiple Choice
  • As a result of the 1954 Geneva conference,
    Vietnam
  • A. was returned to French control.
  • B. was turned over to the control of Ho Chi
    Minh.
  • C. was divided into a northern Communist section
    and a southern free section.
  • D. was occupied by a United Nations peacekeeping
    force

136
OGT Multiple Choice
  • These 2 countries were west of Vietnam and were a
    part of Indochina.
  • A. China and Hong Kong
  • B. Japan and Korea
  • C. Laos and Cambodia
  • D. Manchuria and Singapore

137
OGT Multiple Choice
  • As a result of their defeat in the battle of
    Dienbienphu, the
  • A. Russians withdrew from Austria
  • B. United States withdrew from Egypt
  • C. Japanese withdrew from Taiwan
  • D. French withdrew from Vietnam

138
OGT Multiple Choice
  • Which is true about the Tet Offensive?
  • A. The battle was not a surprise to the United
    States.
  • B. The attack was a military victory by the
    Vietnamese.
  • C. The attack made Americans further question
    why we were in Vietnam.
  • D. The attack was not made on a Vietnamese
    holiday

139
OGT Multiple Choice
  • He was a Vietnamese Communist who led the Viet
    Minh troops to victory. He was
  • A. Bao-Dai
  • B. Ho Chi Minh
  • C. Mao Zedong
  • D. Mossadegh

140
OGT Multiple Choice
  • The leader of South Vietnam who was overthrown in
    1963 was
  • A. Ngo Dinh Diem
  • B. Mao Tse-tung
  • C. Viet Minh
  • D. Ho Chi Minh

141
OGT Multiple Choice
  • There was a major shift in American public
    opinion against the Vietnam War as a result of
  • A. the Tonkin Gulf Resolution
  • B. sending U.S. advisors to help the South
    Vietnamese army
  • C. the 1968 Tet Offensive
  • D. the 1965 peace offensive

142
OGT Multiple Choice
  • Kennedys response to the civil war in Vietnam
    was to
  • A. call for elections throughout Vietnam
  • B. Send in American combat troops to help the
    South Vietnamese
  • C. support the Viet Cong
  • D. send in advisors to train the South
    Vietnamese army

143
OGT Multiple Choice
  • (The incident that prompted Congress to pass the
    Tonkin Gulf Resolution was
  • A. the first American bombing raids against
    North Vietnam
  • B. the assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem
  • C. the invasion of South Vietnam by the North
  • D. an attack by North Vietnamese gunboats on two
    U.S. destroyers

144
OGT Multiple Choice
  • In regard to Vietnam in the 1950s, the United
    States
  • A. supported the existing government
  • B. declared its neutrality
  • C. sent American forces to put down guerrilla
    fighting
  • D. sent millions of dollars to aid France

145
OGT Short Answer
  • (2005 Practice Test) During times of war or
    perceived danger to the United States, groups of
    Americans have been singled out as potentially
    disloyal to the country. For example, during
    World War I, patriotic support for the war led to
    a distrust and persecution of German-Americans.
    In some places, German language instruction was
    forbidden, and German culture and heritage were
    subject to discrimination.
  • Identify a group of Americans that was targeted
    as potentially disloyal in the years between 1940
    and 1985. (1 point)
  • Explain why this group was targeted. (1 point)
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